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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 392, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is an emerging complication of COVID-19 which lacks a definitive diagnostic test and evidence-based guidelines for workup. We sought to assess practitioners' preferences when initiating a workup for pediatric patients presenting with symptoms concerning for MIS-C. METHODS: In a cross-sectional vignette-based survey, providers were presented with clinical vignettes of a patient presenting with 24 h of fever from a community with high rates of COVID-19. Respondents were asked about their general practices in pursuing a workup for potential MIS-C including testing obtained, criteria for diagnosis, and timing to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. RESULTS: Most of the 174 respondents were physicians from the United States at academic medical centers. The majority of providers would not initiate MIS-C workup for fever and non-specific symptoms unless the fever lasted more than 72 h. Skin rash, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath were symptoms that raised greatest concern for MIS-C. Most providers would obtain COVID-19 PCR or antigen testing, plus blood work, in the initial workup. The list of laboratory studies providers would obtain is extensive. Providers primarily rely on cardiac involvement to confirm a MIS-C diagnosis, and establishing a diagnosis takes 24-48 h. CONCLUSIONS: Significant heterogeneity exists amongst providers as to when to initiate the MIS-C workup, the order and content of the workup, and how to definitively diagnose MIS-C. A diagnostic test with high sensitivity and specificity for MIS-C and refined evidence-based guidelines are needed to expedite diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 563, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening complication that can develop weeks to months after an initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. A complex, time-consuming laboratory evaluation is currently required to distinguish MIS-C from other illnesses. New assays are urgently needed early in the evaluation process to expedite MIS-C workup and initiate treatment when appropriate. This study aimed to measure the performance of a monocyte anisocytosis index, obtained on routine complete blood count (CBC), to rapidly identify subjects with MIS-C at risk for cardiac complications. METHODS: We measured monocyte anisocytosis, quantified by monocyte distribution width (MDW), in blood samples collected from children who sought medical care in a single medical center from April 2020 to October 2020 (discovery cohort). After identifying an effective MDW threshold associated with MIS-C, we tested the utility of MDW as a tier 1 assay for MIS-C at multiple institutions from October 2020 to October 2021 (validation cohort). The main outcome was the early screening of MIS-C, with a focus on children with MIS-C who displayed cardiac complications. The screening accuracy of MDW was compared to tier 1 routine laboratory tests recommended for evaluating a child for MIS-C. RESULTS: We enrolled 765 children and collected 846 blood samples for analysis. In the discovery cohort, monocyte anisocytosis, quantified as an MDW threshold of 24.0, had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 78-100%) and 80% specificity (95% CI 69-88%) for identifying MIS-C. In the validation cohort, an initial MDW greater than 24.0 maintained a 100% sensitivity (95% CI 80-100%) and monocyte anisocytosis displayed a diagnostic accuracy greater that other clinically available hematologic parameters. Monocyte anisocytosis decreased with disease resolution to values equivalent to those of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Monocyte anisocytosis detected by CBC early in the clinical workup improves the identification of children with MIS-C with cardiac complications, thereby creating opportunities for improving current practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
4.
N Engl J Med ; 386(23): 2222-2231, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890344
5.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 993-995, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401703

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe, life-threatening, post-COVID-19 hyperinflammatory illness that is not yet fully understood. In this issue of Med, de Cevins et al. used a multi-parametric approach to define COVID-19-related disease, specifically identifying a molecular signature of the most severe form of COVID-19-related illness: MIS-C with myocarditis.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Monocytes , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the socioeconomic and racial and/or ethnic disparities impacting the diagnosis and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This multicenter retrospective case-control study was conducted at 3 academic centers from January 1 to September 1, 2020. Children with MIS-C were compared with 5 control groups: children with coronavirus disease 2019, children evaluated for MIS-C who did not meet case patient criteria, children hospitalized with febrile illness, children with Kawasaki disease, and children in Massachusetts based on US census data. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and social vulnerability index (SVI) were measured via a census-based scoring system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between SES, SVI, race and ethnicity, and MIS-C diagnosis and clinical severity as outcomes. RESULTS: Among 43 patients with MIS-C, 19 (44%) were Hispanic, 11 (26%) were Black, and 12 (28%) were white; 22 (51%) were in the lowest quartile SES, and 23 (53%) were in the highest quartile SVI. SES and SVI were similar between patients with MIS-C and coronavirus disease 2019. In multivariable analysis, lowest SES quartile (odds ratio 2.2 [95% confidence interval 1.1-4.4]), highest SVI quartile (odds ratio 2.8 [95% confidence interval 1.5-5.1]), and racial and/or ethnic minority background were associated with MIS-C diagnosis. Neither SES, SVI, race, nor ethnicity were associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES or higher SVI, Hispanic ethnicity, and Black race independently increased risk for MIS-C. Additional studies are required to target interventions to improve health equity for children.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Determinants of Health , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
9.
J Pediatr ; 227: 45-52.e5, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As schools plan for re-opening, understanding the potential role children play in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the factors that drive severe illness in children is critical. STUDY DESIGN: Children ages 0-22 years with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection presenting to urgent care clinics or being hospitalized for confirmed/suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) at Massachusetts General Hospital were offered enrollment in the Massachusetts General Hospital Pediatric COVID-19 Biorepository. Enrolled children provided nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and/or blood specimens. SARS-CoV-2 viral load, ACE2 RNA levels, and serology for SARS-CoV-2 were quantified. RESULTS: A total of 192 children (mean age, 10.2 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled. Forty-nine children (26%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; an additional 18 children (9%) met the criteria for MIS-C. Only 25 children (51%) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with fever; symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, if present, were nonspecific. Nasopharyngeal viral load was highest in children in the first 2 days of symptoms, significantly higher than hospitalized adults with severe disease (P = .002). Age did not impact viral load, but younger children had lower angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression (P = .004). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were increased in severe MIS-C (P < .001), with dysregulated humoral responses observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that children may be a potential source of contagion in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic despite having milder disease or a lack of symptoms; immune dysregulation is implicated in severe postinfectious MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(10): 2556-2564, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670342

ABSTRACT

The difference in morbidity and mortality between adult and pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 infections is dramatic. Understanding pediatric-specific acute and delayed immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for the development of vaccination strategies, immune-targeted therapies, and treatment and prevention of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The goal of this review is to highlight research developments in the understanding of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a specific focus on age-related immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
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