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1.
Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry ; 26(2):29-32, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1826101

ABSTRACT

The link and association between COVID‐19 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether COVID‐19 was associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness (eg intubation and death) in people with AD in this study cohort.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718362

ABSTRACT

We investigated the frequency of brain fog in a large cohort of patients with documented coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who have survived the illness. We also scrutinized the potential risk factors associated with the development of brain fog. Adult patients (18-55 years of age), who were referred to the healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province from February 19, 2020 to November 20, 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In a phone call, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current information. A questionnaire was specifically designed for data collection. In total, 2696 patients had the inclusion criteria; 1680 (62.3%) people reported long COVID syndrome (LCS). LCS-associated brain fog was reported by 194 (7.2%) patients. Female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4), respiratory problems at the onset (OR: 1.9), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR: 1.7) were significantly associated with reporting chronic post-COVID "brain fog" by the patients. In this large population-based study, we report that chronic post-COVID "brain fog" has significant associations with sex (female), respiratory symptoms at the onset, and the severity of the illness (ICU admission).

3.
Epilepsy Behav ; 127: 108530, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the clinical characteristics of patients with functional seizure (FS) (at the time of diagnosis) in a large multicenter international study. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. We investigated all patients with FS, who were admitted at the epilepsy monitoring units at six centers in the world: 1. Shiraz, Iran; 2. Salzburg, Austria; 3. Nancy, France; 4. Atlanta, USA; 5. Kuwait City, Kuwait; and 6. Cairo, Egypt. Patients were studied during two time periods: admitted in 2018-2019 (pre-COVID era) and 2020-2021 (COVID era). RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty-six patients were studied. Two hundred and twenty-four (68.7%) patients were diagnosed before and 102 (31.3%) persons during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only, a history of family dysfunction was significantly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic era (Odds Ratio: 1.925, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.099-3.371; p = 0.022). A low level of education might also be associated with FS during the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in some cultures (e.g., the Middle-East). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has not affected the clinical characteristics of patients with FS (at the time of diagnosis). However, a history of family dysfunction was significantly more frequently associated with FS during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiagency integration of law enforcement responses, social services, and social awareness is recommended to address family dysfunction and domestic violence and support the victims during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of different groups of people in Iran on their willingness to receive a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed a sample (based on consecutive referrals) of 5 groups of people in late 2020: a group of the general population from Shiraz (without a history of any chronic medical or psychiatric problems), patients with epilepsy, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), patients with cardiac problems, and patients with psychiatric problems. The survey included 4 general questions and 3 COVID-19-specific questions. RESULTS: A total of 582 people participated. In total, 66 (11.3%) people expressed that they were not willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]: 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-7.60; P = 0.006) and male sex (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.23-3.58; P = 0.010) were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: Vaccine hesitancy is a global issue. Patients with psychiatric disorders had the highest rate of vaccine hesitancy. Previous studies have shown that depression and anxiety are associated with a reduced adherence to the recommended medical advice. Why male sex is associated with vaccine hesitancy is not clear. Researchers should investigate the rates and the factors affecting the vaccine hesitancy in their corresponding communities.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 17(5): 495-499, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence and also the full spectrum of symptoms/complaints of children and adolescents who are suffering from long COVID. Furthermore, we investigated the risk factors of long COVID in children and adolescents. METHODS: All consecutive children and adolescents who were referred to the hospitals anywhere in Fars province, Iran, from 19 February 2020 until 20 November 2020 were included. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a phone call to patients/parents, at least 3 months after their discharge from the hospital, we obtained their current status and information if their parents agreed to participate. RESULTS: In total, 58 children and adolescents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six (44·8%) children/adolescents reported symptoms/complaints of long COVID. These symptoms included fatigue in 12 (21%), shortness of breath in 7 (12%), exercise intolerance in 7 (12%), weakness in 6 (10%), and walking intolerance in 5 (9%) individuals. Older age, muscle pain on admission, and intensive care unit admission were significantly associated with long COVID. CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID is a frequent condition in children and adolescents. The scientific community should investigate and explore the pathophysiology of long COVID to ensure that these patients receive appropriate treatments for their condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
7.
Infection ; 49(6): 1163-1186, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To find out what is known from literature about Long COVID until January 30, 2021. METHODS: We undertook a four-step search with no language restriction. A preliminary search was made to identify the keywords. A search strategy of all electronic databases resulted in 66 eligible studies. A forward and backward search of the references and citations resulted in additional 54 publications. Non-English language articles were translated using Google Translate. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. RESULTS: Of 120 papers, we found only one randomized clinical trial. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort, and 28 were cross-sectional studies. Of the total 120 publications, 49.1% focused on signs and symptoms, 23.3% on management, and 10.8% on pathophysiology. Ten publications focused on imaging studies. The results are also presented extensively in a narrative synthesis in separated sections (nomenclature, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs/symptoms, management). CONCLUSIONS: The controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management. The predominant symptoms were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108207, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We performed a follow-up study of patients with COVID-19 presenting with seizures. METHODS: All consecutive patients with seizures, who were referred to Namazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, with a diagnosis of COVID-19, from 10 August 2020 until 20 October 2020 were included in this longitudinal study. The clinical data were collected by the admitting physician. In a follow-up phone call to the discharged patients (after eight weeks or more), we inquired their seizure outcome. RESULTS: In total, 32 patients were studied; 28 patients were followed. Twelve patients (37.5%) presented with a single tonic-clonic seizure and nine (28.1%) had convulsive status epilepticus; one patient had functional (psychogenic) seizures. Ten patients (31.3%) had pre-existing epilepsy, eight others (25%) had pre-existing CNS problems (without epilepsy), one person (3.1%) had pre-existing functional seizures, and 13 individuals (40.1%) neither had epilepsy nor had other CNS problems. Eight patients (28.6%) reported experiencing seizure(s) after being discharged from the hospital; six of these had pre-existing epilepsy and one had pre-existing functional seizures. One patient, who had a newly developed ischemic brain infarction, reported experiencing recurrent seizures. CONCLUSION: Seizures in patients with COVID-19 are either acute symptomatic (in about two-thirds) or an exacerbation of a pre-existing epilepsy/functional seizures (in about one-third). A thorough investigation of the underlying etiology of seizures in patients with COVID-19 is necessary. Seizure outcome in patients, who are hospitalized with COVID-19 and seizures, is generally good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/drug therapy
9.
Epileptic Disord ; 23(3): 485-489, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247708

ABSTRACT

The aim of the current study was to investigate the opinions of neurologists and psychiatrists in Iran on the necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with epilepsy (PWE). These data can help policy makers understand the concerns of these healthcare professionals. This was a survey study. On September 1st, 2020 we sent a questionnaire (using Google-forms) to all neurologists and psychiatrists in Iran via WhatsApp. The survey included three general questions (age, sex, and discipline) and six COVID-specific questions. In total, 202 physicians participated in this study (116 neurologists and 86 psychiatrists). Of the participants, 27% believed that PWE are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19. The majority (74%) of the participants would confidently recommend COVID-19 vaccine to their patients. However, only 49% of the physicians would recommend such a vaccine to all patients; others would consider it in special populations only. The overwhelming majority (91%) of the participants would recommend COVID-19 vaccine only when a reliable vaccine becomes available. Many physicians would trust a vaccine that is approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) (46%) or a vaccine that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-USA) (34%). Physicians have concerns on the issue of the necessity of (a future) COVID-19 vaccine in PWE. The most important concern is the reliability of a vaccine and in this regard, two health agencies, the WHO and the FDA, are the most trusted organizations to approve a vaccine against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Neurologists , Psychiatry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Psychosom Res ; 147: 110514, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the clinical characteristics of patients with functional seizure (FS) (at the time of diagnosis). METHODS: In a retrospective study of a prospectively developed and maintained database, all patients diagnosed with FS before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were studied at the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from December 2008 until February 2021. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight patients were studied. Three hundred and sixty-four patients (94%) were diagnosed before and 24 persons (6%) during the pandemic. Patients diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic less frequently had generalized motor seizures [odds ratio (OR): 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.77; p = 0.012] and had higher seizure frequencies (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; p = 0.044). Functional seizures were inversely associated with the education level as a trend during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13-1.01; p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the characteristics of patients with FS (at the time of diagnosis). Larger and multi-center studies are needed to investigate the links and associations between the COVID-19 pandemic and characteristics of FS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seizures/complications , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Educational Status , Electroencephalography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/psychology , Young Adult
11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with a past history of chemical war injury. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study in Fars Province, Iran, from August 22 to October 4, 2020. People with a past history of chemical war injury and COVID-19 were studied. Two age- and sex-matched control groups, double the size of the patient group each, from the same database of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at the same time (ie, healthy controls and pseudocontrols). RESULTS: A total of 46 people with a past history of chemical war injury, 92 healthy controls, and 92 pseudocontrols were studied. People with COVID-19 and a past history of chemical war injury had a significantly higher rate of chest pain compared with others. There were no other clinical differences between the groups. Mortality rate was 17.39%, 15.21%, and 27.17% in people with a past history of chemical war injury, the control group, and the pseudocontrol group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A past history of a chemical war injury does not add to the risk of COVID-19 and does not significantly modify its clinical picture either.

12.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-3, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139652

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of face mask wearing among different groups of people in south Iran. We also investigated the associations between mask wearing hesitancy and various factors. METHODS: We surveyed a sample (convenience sampling) of 5 groups of people: general population, people with epilepsy, people with diabetes mellitus (DM), people with cardiac problems, and people with psychiatric problems. The survey included 4 general questions (age, sex, education, and medical/psychiatric problem) and 4 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-specific questions (contracting COVID-19, relatives with COVID-19, wearing a face mask while in crowded places, and the frequency of daily hand washings). RESULTS: A total of 582 people (153 people with epilepsy, 127 patients with DM, 98 people with cardiac problems, 96 patients with psychiatric disorders, and 108 healthy individuals) participated. Twenty-eight (4.8%) people expressed that they do not wear a face mask when at crowded places. A lower education and less frequent daily hand washings had associations with mask wearing hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: Mask wearing hesitancy is a concern during a respiratory viral disease pandemic. Paying attention to personal variables, especially if they are modifiable (eg, education and hygiene), is probably productive and practical in promoting mask wearing culture.

13.
Neurol Sci ; 42(5): 1649-1652, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056021

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a different presenting clinical picture or a more severe course of illness in people with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: All consecutive patients who were admitted at healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in the south of Iran with a population of 4,851,000 people) from 19 February 2020 to 20 November 2020 were included. For every patient with DS, three age- and sex-matched patients with COVID-19 and without any underlying medical conditions were selected as controls. RESULTS: During the study period, 37,968 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Eighteen patients had DS. Patients with DS were significantly more likely to be intubated [7 patients (39%)] compared with those without DS [3 patients (6%)]; p = 0.002. Patients with DS significantly more often died of COVID-19 compared with the controls [8 (44.4%) vs. 1 (1.9%); odds ratio: 24.37; 95% confidence interval 2.39-247.94; p = 0.007]. CONCLUSION: Patients with DS are among the high-risk populations with respect to severe COVID-19 and should receive the vaccine as soon as possible. Furthermore, they should receive more intensive care if they get hospitalized with the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Down Syndrome , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Seizure ; 86: 16-18, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether seizure is among the presenting manifestations of COVID-19. METHODS: All patients referred to emergency rooms anywhere in Iran between 12 and 25 April 2020 and who were sufficiently ill to require hospital admission with COVID-19, confirmed by a positive COVID-19 test, were studied. Data on the presenting manifestations were collected. RESULTS: Of 5872 people, who were admitted to hospitals in Iran with COVID-19 during the study period, 45 came to the emergency room with seizures. This makes seizure as the presenting manifestation of COVID-19 in 0.8 % of all patients with a severe illness. 93 % of the patients were 15 years of age and older. Four of the individuals presenting with seizures (9%) had a past history of epilepsy. Fifteen of these individuals (33 %) had other chronic medical conditions (e.g., cancer, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, etc.). CONCLUSION: This case series provides evidence that seizures are among the presenting manifestations of COVID-19 in 0.8 % of the patients who are admitted to hospital due to a severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy , Young Adult
15.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107734, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the rates of contracting COVID-19 in various populations to provide evidence on the susceptibility of patients with epilepsy (PWE) to contracting symptomatic COVID-19. METHODS: We surveyed a random sample of three groups of people: patients with epilepsy, people with psychiatric problems, and a group of the general population. The survey included four general questions (age, sex, education, and medical/psychiatric problem) and four COVID-19 specific questions (contracting COVID-19, relatives with COVID-19, wearing a face mask, and frequent hand washings). RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty -eight people were surveyed (108 healthy individuals, 154 patients with epilepsy, and 96 patients with psychiatric problems). Thirty-eight (11%) people had a history of COVID-19 contraction. The only factor that had a significant association with COVID-19 contraction was a relative with COVID-19 (Odds Ratio: 5.82; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.85-11.86; p = 0.0001). Having epilepsy did not increase the risk of COVID-19 contraction. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic COVID-19 does not seem to be more likely in PWE. The single most important factor associated with contracting COVID-19 is a close relative with this infection. Isolation of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection and observation of their close contacts may reduce the risk of secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 415-431, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We discuss the evidence on the occurrence of de novo seizures in patients with COVID-19, the consequences of this catastrophic disease in people with epilepsy (PWE), and the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This systematic review was prepared according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase from inception to August 15, 2020 were systematically searched. These key words were used: "COVID" AND "seizure" OR "epilepsy" OR "EEG" OR "status epilepticus" OR "electroencephalography". RESULTS: We could identify 62 related manuscripts. Many studies were case reports or case series of patients with COVID-19 and seizures. PWE showed more psychological distress than healthy controls. Many cases with new-onset focal seizures, serial seizures, and status epilepticus have been reported in the literature. EEG studies have been significantly ignored and underused globally. CONCLUSION: Many PWE perceived significant disruption in the quality of care to them, and some people reported increase in their seizure frequency since the onset of the pandemic. Telemedicine is a helpful technology that may improve access to the needed care for PWE in these difficult times. De novo seizures may occur in people with COVID-19 and they may happen in a variety of forms. In addition to prolonged EEG monitoring, performing a through metabolic investigation, electrocardiogram, brain imaging, and a careful review of all medications are necessary steps. The susceptibility of PWE to contracting COVID-19 should be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Seizures , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Humans , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology
17.
Neurol Sci ; 41(11): 3057-3061, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to collect the data on the occurrence of seizures in patients with COVID-19 and to clarify the circumstances of the occurrence of seizures in these patients. METHODS: All consecutive patients who referred to healthcare facilities anywhere in Fars province (located in South Iran with a population of 4.851 million people) from February 19 until June 2, 2020, and had confirmed COVID-19 by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing and seizure were included. RESULTS: During the study period, 6,147 people had confirmed COVID-19 in Fars province, Iran; 110 people died from the illness (case fatality rate 1.79%). During this time period, five people had seizures (seizure rate 0.08%). In four patients, seizure was one of the presenting manifestations, and in one person, it happened during the course of hospital admission. Two patients had status epilepticus. All patients experienced hypoxemia and four of them needed respirator. Two patients had related metabolic derangements and one had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain imaging was abnormal in three patients. Four patients died. CONCLUSION: New-onset seizures in critically ill patients with COVID-19 should be considered as acute symptomatic seizures and the treating physician should try to determine the etiology of the seizure and manage the cause immediately and appropriately. Detailed clinical, neurological, imaging, and electrophysiological investigations and attempts to isolate SARS-CoV-2 from CSF may clarify the role played by this virus in causing seizures in these patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Seizures/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology
18.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 142(4): 314-316, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639507

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been experiencing a catastrophic pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2. This virus primarily targets the human respiratory system. Available information suggests that people with epilepsy (PWE) are not at higher risk of being infected by the virus, nor of more severe COVID-19 manifestations, as a result of the epilepsy alone. However, COVID-19 is a serious disease that currently has no effective treatment or vaccine. A face mask is probably effective in preventing the spread of a respiratory pathogen, at least to some extent. So, should we recommend wearing a face mask to all during a pandemic of respiratory infectious disease (eg, COVID-19) without any precautions or exemptions? While concrete evidence is lacking, if we consider that wearing a face mask may simulate hyperventilation, at least to some extent, we would probably avoid recommending this practice indiscriminately to all PWE. On the other hand, in the absence of any proven treatment or vaccine to combat COVID-19, prevention is the best available strategy and it is probably not reasonable to suggest avoid wearing face masks in PWE under any circumstances. Logically, PWE do not need to wear a face mask most of the time, as long as there is no close contact with others, especially during intense physical activities such as exercise. To the contrary, it is probably more advantageous to wear a face mask in crowded locations, with intermittent breaks in safe locations, away from others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Epilepsy , Masks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 142(4): 392-395, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on patients' perceptions of hardship in obtaining their drugs and if this pandemic and the social restrictions in response to that has resulted in any changes in their seizure control status. We also investigated factors potentially associated with the perceptions of difficulty in obtaining their drugs (eg, polytherapy vs monotherapy, taking imported drugs, and seizure status worsening). METHODS: We surveyed a random sample of patients with epilepsy, who were registered in our database at Shiraz Epilepsy Center, Iran, on their perceptions on two issues: (a) What has been your experience on obtaining your antiseizure medications in the past 4 weeks (compared to before)? (b) Have you experienced any changes in your seizure control status in the past 4 weeks? RESULTS: We included 100 patients (53 male and 47 female patients). In response to the question "Have you had any difficulties in the past 4 weeks to obtain your drugs?," 31 people (31%) expressed hardship obtaining their drugs. In response to the question "How has been your seizure control status compared with before?," six people (6%) expressed worsening of their seizure control status in the past 4 weeks. None of the patients reported symptoms of coronavirus infection. CONCLUSION: About one-third of patients with epilepsy expressed significant hardship obtaining their drugs after the intensification of the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran. The current COVID-19 pandemic could be considered as a major shock to a nation that has already been under significant pressure (ie, Iran).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Neurol Sci ; 41(8): 2005-2011, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617332

ABSTRACT

People with epilepsy (PWE) are neither more likely to be infected by the coronavirus nor are they more likely to have severe COVID-19 manifestations because they suffer from epilepsy. However, management of COVID-19 in PWE may be more complicated than that in other individuals. Drug-drug interactions could pose significant challenges and cardiac, hepatic, or renal problems, which may happen in patients with severe COVID-19, may require adjustment to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In this review, we first summarize the potential drug-drug interactions between AEDs and drugs currently used in the management of COVID-19. We then summarize other challenging issues that may happen in PWE, who have COVID-19 and are receiving treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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