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1.
Front Oncol ; 10: 572329, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264350

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, which spread to the rest of the world, led the World Health Organization to classify it as a global pandemic. COVID-19 belongs to the Bettacoronavirus genus of the Coronaviridae family, and it mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Studies have now confirmed a human-to-human transmission as the primary pathway of spread. COVID-19 patients with a history of diseases such as respiratory system diseases, immune deficiency, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are prone to adverse events (admission to the intensive care unit requiring invasive ventilation or even death). The current focus has been on the development of novel therapeutics, including antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines. However, although there is undoubtedly an urgent need to identify effective treatment options against infection with COVID-19, it is equally important to clarify management protocols for the other significant diseases from which these patients may suffer, including cancer. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of patients with COVID-19. It also aims to provide the reader with insights into COVID-19 in pregnant patients and those with cancer, outlining necessary precautions relevant to cancer patients. Finally, we provide the available evidence on the latest potent antiviral drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 and the ongoing drug trials.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic. It is well-established that SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to dysregulated immune responses. Arginase-1 (Arg1), which has a pivotal role in immune cells, can be expressed in most of the myeloid cells, e.g., neutrophils and macrophages. Arg1 has been associated with the suppression of antiviral immune responses. METHODS: Whole blood was taken from 21 COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy individuals, and after RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, gene expression of Arg1 was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The qPCR results showed that the expression of Arg1 was significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.01). The relative expression analysis demonstrated there were approximately 2.3 times increased Arg1 expression in the whole blood of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a considerable diagnostic value for Arg1 expression in COVID-19 (p = 0.0002 and AUC = 0.8401). CONCLUSION: Arg1 might be a promising marker in the pathogenesis of the disease, and it could be a valuable diagnostic tool.

3.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 675-696, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064514

ABSTRACT

The number of descriptions of emerging viruses has grown at an unprecedented rate since the beginning of the 21st century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that has introduced itself into the human population in the current era, after SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Molecular and cellular studies of the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research; however, based on similarities of SARS-CoV-2 to other coronaviruses, it can be hypothesized that the NF-κB, cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the likely causes of inflammation at the onset of COVID-19. Several drugs have been prescribed and used to alleviate the adverse effects of these inflammatory cellular signaling pathways, and these might be beneficial for developing novel therapeutic modalities against COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarize alterations of cellular signaling pathways that are associated with coronavirus infection, particularly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and tabulate the therapeutic agents that are currently approved for treating other human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Immunol Invest ; 51(2): 246-265, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799529

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to public health. There is an urgent need for discovery methods for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Understanding immunogenicity together with immune responses are expected to provide further information about this virus. We hope that this narrative review article may create new insights for researchers to take great strides toward designing vaccines and novel therapies in the near future. The functional properties of the immune system in COVID-19 infection is not exactly clarified yet. This is compounded by the many gaps in our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity properties. Possible immune responses according to current literature are discussed as the first line of defense and acquired immunity. Here, we focus on proposed modern preventive immunotherapy methods in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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