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1.
Stroke ; : 101161STR0000000000000411, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695016

ABSTRACT

There are many unknowns when it comes to the role of sex in the pathophysiology and management of acute ischemic stroke. This is particularly true for endovascular treatment (EVT). It has only recently been established as standard of care; therefore, data are even more scarce and conflicting compared with other areas of acute stroke. Assessing the role of sex and gender as isolated variables is challenging because they are closely intertwined with each other, as well as with patients' cultural, ethnic, and social backgrounds. Nevertheless, a better understanding of sex- and gender-related differences in EVT is important to develop strategies that can ultimately improve individualized outcome for both men and women. Disregarding patient sex and gender and pursuing a one-size-fits-all strategy may lead to suboptimal or even harmful treatment practices. This scientific statement is meant to outline knowledge gaps and unmet needs for future research on the role of sex and gender in EVT for acute ischemic stroke. It also provides a pragmatic road map for researchers who aim to investigate sex- and gender-related differences in EVT and for clinicians who wish to improve clinical care of their patients undergoing EVT by accounting for sex- and gender-specific factors. Although most EVT studies, including those that form the basis of this scientific statement, report patient sex rather than gender, open questions on gender-specific EVT differences are also discussed.

2.
Stroke ; 53(5): e204-e217, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343235

ABSTRACT

Patients with premorbid disability or dementia have generally been excluded from randomized controlled trials of reperfusion therapies such as thrombolysis and endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Consequently, stroke physicians face treatment dilemmas in caring for such patients. In this scientific statement, we review the literature on acute ischemic stroke in patients with premorbid disability or dementia and propose principles to guide clinicians, clinician-scientists, and policymakers on the use of acute stroke therapies in these populations. Recent clinical-epidemiological studies have demonstrated challenges in our concept and measurement of premorbid disability or dementia while highlighting the significant proportion of the general stroke population that falls under this umbrella, risking exclusion from therapies. Such studies have also helped clarify the adverse long-term clinical and health economic consequences with each increment of additional poststroke disability in these patients, underscoring the importance of finding strategies to mitigate such additional disability. Several observational studies, both case series and registry-based studies, have helped demonstrate the comparable safety of endovascular therapy in patients with premorbid disability or dementia and in those without, complementing similar data on thrombolysis. These data also suggest that such patients have a substantial potential to retain their prestroke level of disability when treated, despite their generally worse prognosis overall, although this remains to be validated in higher-quality registries and clinical trials. By pairing pragmatic and transparent decision-making in clinical practice with an active pursuit of high-quality research, we can work toward a more inclusive paradigm of patient-centered care for this often-neglected patient population.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , American Heart Association , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy , United States
3.
Neurology ; 98(14): e1470-e1478, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early consciousness disorder (ECD) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is understudied. ECD may influence outcomes and the decision to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment. METHODS: We studied patients with AIS from 2010 to 2019 across 122 hospitals participating in the Florida Stroke Registry. We studied the effect of ECD on in-hospital mortality, withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (WLST), ambulation status on discharge, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of 238,989 patients with AIS, 32,861 (14%) had ECD at stroke presentation. Overall, average age was 72 years (Q1 61, Q3 82), 49% were women, 63% were White, 18% were Black, and 14% were Hispanic. Compared to patients without ECD, patients with ECD were older (77 vs 72 years), were more often female (54% vs 48%), had more comorbidities, had greater stroke severity as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (score ≥5 49% vs 27%), had higher WLST rates (21% vs 6%), and had greater in-hospital mortality (9% vs 3%). Using adjusted models accounting for basic characteristics, patients with ECD had greater in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, 95% CI 1.98-2.51), had longer hospitalization (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33-1.44), were less likely to be discharged home or to rehabilitation (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.52-0.57), and were less likely to ambulate independently (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.64). WLST significantly mediated the effect of ECD on mortality (mediation effect 265; 95% CI 217-314). In temporal trend analysis, we found a significant decrease in early WLST (<2 days) (R2 0.7, p = 0.002) and an increase in late WLST (≥2 days) (R2 0.7, p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: In this large prospective multicenter stroke registry, patients with AIS presenting with ECD had greater mortality and worse discharge outcomes. Mortality was largely influenced by the WLST decision.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Consciousness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prospective Studies , Stroke/therapy
4.
Stroke ; 53(3): 913-920, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early neurological deterioration occurs in one-third of mild strokes primarily due to the presence of a relevant intracranial occlusion. We studied vascular occlusive patterns, thrombus characteristics, and recanalization rates in these patients. METHODS: Among patients enrolled in INTERRSeCT (Identifying New Approaches to Optimize Thrombus Characterization for Predicting Early Recanalization and Reperfusion With IV Alteplase and Other Treatments Using Serial CT Angiography), a multicenter prospective study of acute ischemic strokes with a visible intracranial occlusion, we compared characteristics of mild (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≤5) to moderate/severe strokes. RESULTS: Among 575 patients, 12.9% had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤5 (median age, 70.5 [63-79]; 58% male; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [2-4]). Demographics and vascular risk factors were similar between the two groups. As compared with those with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >5, mild patients had longer symptom onset to assessment times (onset to computed tomography [240 versus 167 minutes] and computed tomography angiography [246 versus 172 minutes]), more distal occlusions (M3, anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery; 22% versus 6%), higher clot burden score (median, 9 [6-9] versus 6 [4-9]), similar favorable thrombus permeability (residual flow grades I-II, 21% versus 19%), higher collateral flow (9.1 versus 7.6), and lower intravenous alteplase treatment rates (55% versus 85%). Mild patients were more likely to recanalize (revised arterial occlusion scale score 2b/3, 45%; 49% with alteplase) compared with moderate/severe strokes (26%; 29% with alteplase). In an adjusted model for sex, alteplase, residual flow, and time between the two vessel imagings, intravenous alteplase use (odds ratio, 3.80 [95% CI, 1.11-13.00]) and residual flow grade (odds ratio, 8.70 [95% CI, 1.26-60.13]) were associated with successful recanalization among mild patients. CONCLUSIONS: Mild strokes with visible intracranial occlusions have different vascular occlusive patterns but similar thrombus permeability compared with moderate/severe strokes. Higher thrombus permeability and alteplase use were associated with successful recanalization, although the majority do not recanalize. Randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy of new thrombolytics and endovascular therapy in this population.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Stroke ; 52(12): 3891-3898, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impaired level of consciousness (LOC) on presentation at hospital admission in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may affect outcomes and the decision to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (WOLST). METHODS: Patients with ICH were included across 121 Florida hospitals participating in the Florida Stroke Registry from 2010 to 2019. We studied the effect of LOC on presentation on in-hospital mortality (primary outcome), WOLST, ambulation status on discharge, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Among 37 613 cases with ICH (mean age 71, 46% women, 61% White, 20% Black, 15% Hispanic), 12 272 (33%) had impaired LOC at onset. Compared with cases with preserved LOC, patients with impaired LOC were older (72 versus 70 years), more women (49% versus 45%), more likely to have aphasia (38% versus 16%), had greater ICH score (3 versus 1), greater risk of WOLST (41% versus 18%), and had an increased in-hospital mortality (32% versus 12%). In the multivariable-logistic regression with generalized estimating equations accounting for basic demographics, comorbidities, ICH severity, hospital size and teaching status, impaired LOC was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio, 3.7 [95% CI, 3.1-4.3], P<0.0001) and less likely discharged home or to rehab (odds ratio, 0.3 [95% CI, 0.3-0.4], P<0.0001). WOLST significantly mediated the effect of impaired LOC on mortality (mediation effect, 190 [95% CI, 152-229], P<0.0001). Early WOLST (<2 days) occurred among 51% of patients. A reduction in early WOLST was observed in patients with impaired LOC after the 2015 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association ICH guidelines recommending aggressive treatment and against early do-not-resuscitate. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter stroke registry, a third of ICH cases presented with impaired LOC. Impaired LOC was associated with greater in-hospital mortality and worse disposition at discharge, largely influenced by early decision to withhold or WOLST.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Recovery of Function , Withholding Treatment , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Registries , Resuscitation Orders , Withholding Treatment/trends
6.
Stroke ; 52(10): e586-e589, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496619

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: Mild ischemic stroke patients enrolled in randomized controlled trials of thrombolysis may have a different symptom severity distribution than those treated in routine clinical practice. Methods: We compared the distribution of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, neurological symptoms/severity among patients enrolled in the PRISMS (Potential of r-tPA for Ischemic Strokes With Mild Symptoms) randomized controlled trial to those with NIHSS score ≤5 enrolled in the prospective MaRISS (Mild and Rapidly Improving Stroke Study) registry using global P values from χ2 analyses. Results: Among 1736 participants in MaRISS, 972 (56%) were treated with alteplase and 764 (44%) were not. These participants were compared with 313 patients randomized in PRISMS. The median NIHSS scores were 3 (2­4) in MaRISS alteplase-treated, 1 (1­3) in MaRISS non­alteplase-treated, and 2 (1­3) in PRISMS. The percentage with an NIHSS score of 0 to 2 was 36.3%, 73.3%, and 65.2% in the 3 groups, respectively (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with a dominant neurological syndrome (≥1 NIHSS item score of ≥2) was higher in MaRISS alteplase-treated (32%) compared with MaRISS nonalteplase-treated (13.8%) and PRISMS (8.6%; P<0.0001). Conclusions: Patients randomized in PRISMS had comparable deficit and syndromic severity to patients not treated with alteplase in the MaRISS registry and lesser severity than patients treated with alteplase in MaRISS. The PRISMS trial cohort is representative of mild patients who do not receive alteplase in current broad clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Registries , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e017543, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787282

ABSTRACT

Background Less than 40% of acute stroke patients have computed tomography (CT) imaging performed within 25 minutes of hospital arrival. We aimed to examine the race-ethnic and sex differences in door-to-CT (DTCT) ≤25 minutes in the FSR (Florida Stroke Registry). Methods and Results Data were collected from 2010 to 2018 for 63 265 patients with acute ischemic stroke from the FSR and secondary analysis was performed on 15 877 patients with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator-treated ischemic stroke. Generalized estimating equation models were used to determine predictors of DTCT ≤25. DTCT ≤25 was achieved in 56% of cases of suspected acute stroke, improving from 36% in 2010 to 72% in 2018. Women (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.93) and Black (OR, 0.88; CI, 0.84-0.94) patients who had strokes were less likely, and Hispanic patients more likely (OR, 1.07; CI, 1.01-1.14), to achieve DTCT ≤25. In a secondary analysis among intravenous tissue plasminogen activator-treated patients, 81% of patients achieved DTCT ≤25. In this subgroup, women were less likely to receive DTCT ≤25 (0.85, 0.77-0.94) whereas no significant differences were observed by race or ethnicity. Conclusions In the FSR, there was considerable improvement in acute stroke care metric DTCT ≤25 in 2018 in comparison to 2010. However, sex and race-ethnic disparities persist and require further efforts to improve performance and reduce these disparities.


Subject(s)
Delayed Diagnosis , Healthcare Disparities , Ischemic Stroke , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Florida/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105586, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: How race/ethnic disparities in acute stroke care contribute to disparities in outcomes is not well-understood. We examined the relationship between acute stroke care measures with mortality within the first year and 30-day hospital readmission by race/ethnicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age ≥65 with ischemic stroke in 2010-2013 treated at 66 hospitals in the Florida Stroke Registry. Stroke care metrics included intravenous Alteplase treatment, in-hospital antithrombotic therapy, DVT prophylaxis, discharge antithrombotic therapy, anticoagulation therapy, statin use, and smoking cessation counseling. We used mixed logistic models to assess the associations between stroke care and mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, 6-month, 1-year post-stroke) and hospital readmission by race/ethnicity, adjusting for demographics, stroke severity, and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among 14,100 ischemic stroke patients in the full study population (73% white, 11% Black, 15% Hispanic), mortality was 3% in-hospital, 12% at 30d, 21% at 6m, 26% at 1y, and 15% had a hospital readmission within 30 days. Patients who received antithrombotics early and at discharge had lower mortality at all time points, and the protective association for early antithrombotic use was strongest among whites. Eligible patients who received statin therapy at discharge had decreased 6m and 1y mortality, but specifically among minority groups. Statin therapy was associated with lower 30-day hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stroke care measures, particularly antithrombotic use and statin therapy, were associated with reduced odds of long-term mortality. The benefits of these acute care measures were less likely among Hispanic patients. Results underscore the importance of optimizing acute stroke care for all patients.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Florida/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Medicare , Patient Readmission , Quality Improvement , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , Smoking Cessation , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
9.
Stroke ; 52(1): 203-212, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is interest in what happens over time to the thrombus after intravenous alteplase. We study the effect of alteplase on thrombus structure and its impact on clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke. METHODS: Intravenous alteplase treated stroke patients with intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion identified on baseline computed tomography angiography and with follow-up vascular imaging (computed tomography angiography or first run of angiography before endovascular therapy) were enrolled from INTERRSeCT study (Identifying New Approaches to Optimize Thrombus Characterization for Predicting Early Recanalization and Reperfusion With IV Alteplase and Other Treatments Using Serial CT Angiography). Thrombus movement after intravenous alteplase was classified into complete recanalization, thrombus migration, thrombus fragmentation, and no change. Thrombus migration was diagnosed when occlusion site moved distally and graded according to degrees of thrombus movement (grade 0-3). Thrombus fragmentation was diagnosed when a new distal occlusion in addition to the primary occlusion was identified on follow-up imaging. The association between thrombus movement and clinical outcome was also evaluated. RESULTS: Among 427 patients in this study, thrombus movement was seen in 54% with a median time of 123 minutes from alteplase administration to follow-up imaging, and sub-classified as marked (thrombus migration grade 2-3 + complete recanalization; 27%) and mild to moderate thrombus movement (thrombus fragmentation + thrombus migration grade 0-1; 27%). In patients with proximal M1/internal carotid artery occlusion, marked thrombus movement was associated with a higher rate of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale, 0-2) compared with mild to moderate movement (52% versus 27%; adjusted odds ratio, 5.64 [95% CI, 1.72-20.10]). No difference was seen in outcomes between mild to moderate thrombus movement and no change. In M1 distal/M2 occlusion, marked thrombus movement was associated with improved 90-day good outcome compared with no change (70% versus 56%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.21-5.51]). CONCLUSIONS: Early thrombus movement is common after intravenous alteplase. Marked thrombus migration leads to good clinical outcomes. Thrombus dynamics over time should be further evaluated in clinical trials of acute reperfusion therapy.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/drug therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Reperfusion , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
10.
Neurology ; 96(5): e732-e739, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe sex differences in the presentation, diagnosis, and revision of diagnosis after early brain MRI in patients who present with acute transient or minor neurologic events. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients referred to neurology between 2010 and 2016 with a possible cerebrovascular event and evaluated with brain MRI within 8 days of symptom onset. Investigators documented the characteristics of the event, initial diagnosis, and final diagnosis. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association between sex and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1,028 patients (51% women, median age 63 years), more women than men reported headaches and fewer reported chest pain, but there were no sex differences in other accompanying symptoms. Women were more likely than men to be initially diagnosed with stroke mimic (54% of women vs 42% of men, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-2.07), and women were overall less likely to have ischemia on MRI (10% vs 17%, OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.76). Among 496 patients initially diagnosed with mimic, women were less likely than men to have their diagnosis revised to minor stroke or TIA (13% vs 20%, OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88) but were equally likely to have acute ischemia on MRI (5% vs 8%, OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.26-1.21). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke mimic was more frequently diagnosed in women than men, but diagnostic revisions were common in both. Early brain MRI is a useful addition to clinical evaluation in diagnosing transient or minor neurologic events.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Vestibular Diseases/diagnosis , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Seizures/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Somatoform Disorders/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105234, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endovascular therapy (EVT) for patients with mild ischemic stroke (NIHSS ≤5) and visible intracranial occlusion remains controversial, including within 6 hours of symptom onset. We conducted a survey to evaluate global practice patterns of EVT in this population. METHODS: Vascular stroke clinicians and neurointerventionalists were invited to participate through professional stroke listservs. The survey consisted of six clinical vignettes of mild stroke patients with intracranial occlusion. Cases varied by NIHSS, neurological symptoms and occlusion site. All had the same risk factors, time from symptom onset (5h) and unremarkable head CT. Advanced imaging data was available upon request. We explored independent case and responder specific factors associated with advanced imaging request and EVT decision. RESULTS: A total of 482/492 responders had analyzable data ([median age 44 (IQR 11.25)], 22.7% women, 77% attending, 22% interventionalist). Participants were from USA (45%), Europe (32%), Australia (12%), Canada (6%), and Latin America (5%). EVT was offered in 48% (84% M1, 29% M2 and 19% A2) and decision was made without advanced imaging in 66% of cases. In multivariable analysis, proximal occlusion (M1 vs. M2 or A2, p<0.001), higher NIHSS (p<0.001) and fellow level training (vs. attending; p=0.001) were positive predictors of EVT. Distal occlusions (M2 and A2) and higher age of responders were independently associated with increased advanced imaging requests. Compared to US and Australian responders, Canadians were less likely to offer EVT, while those in Europe and Latin America were more likely (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment patterns of EVT in mild stroke vary globally. Our data suggest wide equipoise exists in current treatment of this important subset of mild stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making , Disability Evaluation , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perfusion Imaging/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Young Adult
12.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3147-3155, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933417

ABSTRACT

Endovascular treatment is a highly effective therapy for acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion and has recently revolutionized stroke care. Oftentimes, ischemic core extent on baseline imaging is used to determine endovascular treatment-eligibility. There are, however, 3 fundamental issues with the core concept: First, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are mostly used in the acute stroke setting, are not able to precisely determine whether and to what extent brain tissue is infarcted (core) or still viable, due to variability in tissue vulnerability, the phenomenon of selective neuronal loss and lack of a reliable gold standard. Second, treatment decision-making in acute stroke is multifactorial, and as such, the relative importance of single variables, including imaging factors, is reduced. Third, there are often discrepancies between core volume and clinical outcome. This review will address the uncertainty in terminology and proposes a direction towards more clarity. This theoretical exercise needs empirical data that clarify the definitions further and prove its value.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(5): 973-980, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Carotid plaque ulcers confer an increased risk for stroke/ transient ischemic attacks in both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Little is known about the healing rates of ulcers or the development of new ulcers. Carotid Duplex studies are noninvasive and easily repeatable tests to monitor progression of carotid stenosis and plaque morphology. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and healing rates of ultrasound-detected carotid plaque ulcers. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 5837 carotid Duplex studies performed in an outpatient ultrasound laboratory affiliated with the neurological department of an academic center. A total of 3215 patients underwent a first carotid ultrasound Duplex study, and 2622 follow-up studies were done. Carotid ulcer was defined as a 2 mm deep surface indentation in a carotid plaque with a well-defined back wall, as determined by multimodal ultrasound imaging techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid plaque ulcers among the 3215 patients with a first ultrasound study was 3% (82/3215). The mean follow-up was 42 ± 30 months, and the median number of follow-up studies was 6. Among patients with ulcers, follow-up studies were available in 65/82 patients. During the follow-up period, 28/65 (43%) ulcers healed. Among all 2622 follow-up studies, 45 patients developed a new ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: Duplex-detected carotid plaque ulcer prevalence is low. The carotid ulcers healed in approximately half of patients during follow-up. Factors associated with ulcer healing and development remain poorly understood.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ulcer/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104938, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center. CONCLUSION: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(3): 349-357, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that nitroglycerin (NTG) increases cerebral perfusion focally and globally in acute ischemic stroke patients, using serial perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) magnetic resonance imaging measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients underwent PWI immediately before and 72 h after administration of a transdermal NTG patch or no treatment. Patients with baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) > 100 mmHg (NTG group, n = 20) were treated with transdermal NTG (0.2 mg/h) for 72 h, without a nitrate-free interval. Patients with MAP ≤ 100 mmHg (untreated group, n = 15) were not treated. The primary outcome measure was absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hypoperfused region at 72 h. RESULTS: The mean baseline absolute CBF in the hypoperfused region was similar in the NTG group (33.3 ± 10.2 ml/100 g/min) and untreated (32.7 ± 8.4 ml/100 g/min, p = 0.4) groups. The median (IQR) baseline infarct volume was 10.4 (2.5-49.3) ml in the NTG group and 32.6 (8.6-96.7) ml in the untreated group (p = 0.09). MAP change in the NTG group was 1.2 ± 12.6 and 8 ± 20.7 mmHg at 2 h and 72 h, respectively. Mean absolute CBF in the hypoperfused region at 72 h was similar in the NTG (29.9 ± 12 ml/100 g/min) and untreated groups (24.1 ± 10 ml/100 g/min, p = 0.8). The median infarct volume increased in untreated (11.8 (5.7-44.2) ml) than the NTG group (3.2 (0.5-16.5) ml; p = 0.033) on univariate analysis, however, there was no difference on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: NTG was not associated with improvement in cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Nitroglycerin , Perfusion , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy
16.
Int J Stroke ; 15(5): 528-534, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a systematic method of assessing the extent of early ischemic change on non-contrast computed tomography in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our objective was to validate an automated ASPECTS scoring method we recently developed on a large data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected 602 acute ischemic stroke patients' non-contrast computed tomography scans. Expert ASPECTS readings on non-contrast computed tomography were compared to automated ASPECTS. Statistical analyses on the total ASPECTS, region level ASPECTS, and dichotomized ASPECTS (≤4 vs. >4) score were conducted. RESULTS: In total, 602 scans were evaluated and 6020 (602 × 10) ASPECTS regions were scored. Median time from stroke onset to computed tomography was 114 min (interquartile range: 73-183 min). Total ASPECTS for the 602 patients generated by the automated method agreed well with expert readings (intraclass correlation coefficient): 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.69). Region level analysis showed that the automated method yielded accuracy of 81.25%, sensitivity of 61.13% (95% CI: 58.4%-63.8%), specificity of 86.56% (95% CI: 85.6%-87.5%), and area under curve of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.73-0.75). For dichotomized ASPECTS (≤4 vs. >4), the automated method demonstrated sensitivity 97.21% (95% CI: 95.4%-98.4%), specificity 57.81% (95% CI: 44.8%-70.1%), accuracy 93.02%, and area under the curve of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.74-0.81). For each individual region (M1-6, lentiform, insula, and caudate), the automated method demonstrated acceptable performance. CONCLUSION: The automated system we developed approached the stroke expert in performance when scoring ASPECTS on non-contrast computed tomography scans of acute ischemic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Alberta , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; 43(6): 229-236, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736417

ABSTRACT

Susac syndrome is a rare, immune-mediated disease characterized by encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and hearing loss. Herein, we describe the electron microscopic findings of three brain biopsies and two brain autopsies performed on five patients whose working clinical diagnosis was Susac syndrome. In all five cases, the key findings were basement membrane thickening and collagen deposition in the perivascular space involving small vessels and leading to thickening of vessel walls, narrowing, and vascular occlusion. These findings indicate that Susac syndrome is a microvascular disease. Mononuclear cells were present in the perivascular space, underlining the inflammatory nature of the pathology. Though nonspecific, the changes can be distinguished from genetic and acquired small vessel diseases. The encephalopathy of Susac syndrome overlaps clinically with degenerative and infectious conditions, and brain biopsy may be used for its diagnosis. Its vascular etiology may not be obvious on light microscopy, and electron microscopy is important for its confirmation.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Brain/ultrastructure , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/ultrastructure , Susac Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Neuroradiology ; 62(3): 301-306, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713667

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the association of different measures of intracranial thrombus permeability on non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) with recanalization with or without intravenous alteplase. METHODS: Patients with anterior circulation occlusion from the INTERRSeCT study were included. Thrombus permeability was measured on non-contrast CT and CTA using the following methods: [1] automated method, mean attenuation increase on co-registered thin (< 2.5 mm) CTA/NCCT; [2] semi-automated method, maximum attenuation increase on non-registered CTA/NCCT (ΔHUmax); [3] manual method, maximum attenuation on CTA (HUmax); and [4] visual method, residual flow grade. Primary outcome was recanalization with intravenous alteplase on the revised AOL scale (2b/3). Regression models were compared using C-statistic, Akaike (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). RESULTS: Four hundred eighty patients were included in this analysis. Statistical models using methods 2, 3, and 4 were similar in their ability to discriminate recanalizers from non-recanalizers (C-statistic 0.667, 0.683, and 0.634, respectively); method 3 had the least information loss (AIC = 483.8; BIC = 492.2). A HUmax ≥ 89 measured with method 3 provided optimal sensitivity and specificity in discriminating recanalizers from non-recanalizers [recanalization 55.4% (95%CI 46.2-64.6) when HUmax > 89 vs. 16.8% (95%CI 13.0-20.6) when HUmax ≤ 89]. In sensitivity analyses restricted to patients with co-registered CTA/NCCT (n = 88), methods 1-4 predicted recanalization similarly (C-statistic 0.641, 0.688, 0.640, 0.648, respectively) with Method 2 having the least information loss (AIC 104.8, BIC 109.8). CONCLUSION: Simple methods that measure thrombus permeability are as reliable as complex image processing methods in discriminating recanalizers from non-recanalizers.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(12): 1439-1445, 2019 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545347

ABSTRACT

Importance: Early treatment of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) reduces the risk of stroke. However, many patients present with symptoms that have an uncertain diagnosis. Patients with motor, speech, or prolonged symptoms are at the highest risk for recurrent stroke and the most likely to undergo comprehensive investigations. Lower-risk patients are much more likely to be cursorily investigated. Objective: To establish the frequency of acute infarct defined by diffusion restriction detected on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (DWI positive). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Diagnosis of Uncertain-Origin Benign Transient Neurological Symptoms (DOUBT) study was a prospective, observational, international, multicenter cohort study of 1028 patients with low-risk transient or minor symptoms referred to neurology within 8 days of symptom onset. Patients were enrolled between June 1, 2010, and October 31, 2016. Included patients were 40 years or older and had experienced nonmotor or nonspeech minor focal neurologic events of any duration or motor or speech symptoms of short duration (≤5 minutes), with no previous stroke. Exposures: Patients underwent a detailed neurologic assessment prior to undergoing a brain MRI within 8 days of symptom onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was restricted diffusion on a brain MRI scan (acute stroke). Results: A total of 1028 patients (522 women and 506 men; mean [SD] age, 63.0 [11.6] years) were enrolled. A total of 139 patients (13.5%) had an acute stroke as defined by diffusion restriction detected on MRI scans (DWI positive). The final diagnosis was revised in 308 patients (30.0%) after undergoing brain MRI. There were 7 (0.7%) recurrent strokes at 1 year. A DWI-positive brain MRI scan was associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke (relative risk, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.4-16.8) at 1 year. Absence of a DWI-positive lesion on a brain MRI scan had a 99.8% negative predictive value for recurrent stroke. Factors associated with MRI evidence of stroke in multivariable modeling were older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), male sex (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.39-2.96), motor or speech symptoms (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.37-3.29), ongoing symptoms at assessment (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.29-3.02), no prior identical symptomatic event (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.11), and abnormal results of initial neurologic examination (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggested that patients with transient ischemic attack and symptoms traditionally considered low risk carry a substantive risk of acute stroke as defined by diffusion restriction (DWI positive) on a brain MRI scan. Early MRI is required to make a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/physiopathology
20.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2101-2107, 2019 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303151

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose- We aimed to evaluate the current practice patterns, safety and outcomes of patients who receive endovascular therapy (EVT) having mild neurological symptoms. Methods- From Jan 2010 to Jan 2018, 127,794 ischemic stroke patients were enrolled in the Florida-Puerto Rico Stroke Registry. Patients presenting within 24 hours of symptoms who received EVT were classified into mild (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤5) or moderate/severe (NIHSS>5) categories. Differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results- Among 4110 EVT patients (median age, 73 [interquartile range=20] years; 50% women), 446 (11%) had NIHSS ≤5. Compared with NIHSS >5, those with NIHSS ≤5 arrived later to the hospital (median, 138 versus 101 minutes), were less likely to receive intravenous alteplase (30% versus 43%), had a longer door-to-puncture time (median, 167 versus 115 minutes) and more likely treated in South Florida (64% versus 53%). In multivariable analysis younger age, private insurance (versus Medicare), history of hypertension, prior independent ambulation and hospital size were independent characteristics associated with NIHSS ≤5. Among EVT patients with NIHSS ≤5, 76% were discharged home/rehabilitation and 64% were able to ambulate independently at discharge as compared with 53% and 32% of patients with NIHSS >5. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 4% of mild stroke EVT patients and 6.4% in those with NIHSS >5. Conclusions- Despite lack of evidence-based recommendations, 11% of patients receiving EVT in clinical practice have mild neurological presentations. Individual, hospital and geographic disparities are observed among endovascularly treated patients based on the severity of clinical symptoms. Our data suggest safety and overall favorable outcomes for EVT patients with mild stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Female , Florida , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Puerto Rico , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/surgery , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
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