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1.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

2.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(7): 1303-1310, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761431

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was transported from China to Iran via passengers. The virus is transmitted through droplets from coughing, sneezing, talking and contact with infected surfaces. Due to high transmissibility in places such as clinics, medical offices, buses and offices where there are large crowds, it spread rapidly in Iran and caused the mortality of a significant number of people, especially the elderly with underlying disease. Preventing travel and gatherings, as well as applying house quarantine in Apr 2020, reduced COVID-19 somewhat but then due to lack of attention to social distancing, reducing the use of masks by the people and inappropriate decisions by the national committee on combating coronavirus (NCCC), including reducing the working hours of public offices and shops, reducing the staff of government offices, monopoly on the distribution of essential materials and supplies, the presence of overcrowding in clinics of medical centers, hospitals, and private clinics caused the decline of the disease in the country to decrease. Measures can be taken to prevent the spread of the virus as much as possible, including: rapid detection of infected people, their isolation, contact tracing, quarantine of people over 65 and under 15, protection of the elderly, prevention of gatherings, forcing the use of protective equipment in possible gatherings, and electronicizing public services.

3.
Gene Reports ; : 101572, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1705097

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most infectious diseases in the world. In this study, we intended to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis by MIRU-VNTR to define the changes that occur in the transmission of tuberculosis in the region during the COVID-19 era. A total of 120 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients referred to East Azerbaijan Center TB from December 2020 to August 2021. Demographic information such as age, sex, place of birth, previous TB history, and relevant medical data was collected. The drug susceptibility testing was performed by the proportion method and the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR method was applied to identify molecular epidemiology relationships. The isolates were collected from 78 males (52%) and 72 females (48%) Iranian patients and 6 (4%) Azerbaijani patients. 120 distinct patterns were identified including 15 clustered patterns and 36 unique patterns. The largest cluster was composed of seven isolates. Furthermore,1 cluster with 7 isolates, 1 cluster with 5 members, 4 clusters with 3 members, and 9 clusters with 2 members. In MIRU-VNTR typing, 75 clusters belonged to Tabriz and just 3 clusters belonged to Azerbaijan. All isolates were sensitive to rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Results of the current study showed COVID-19 pandemic had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Less diagnosis and less clustering can indicate public controls and hygiene and the use of masks had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, misidentification and less focus on other respiratory infections are expected during the pandemic. Studies on co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis and the role of mask and sanitization against TB are strongly recommended.

4.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 14(8):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1453462
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
6.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2021: 8866311, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298414

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a polyphenolic antioxidant whose possible health benefits include anticarcinogenic, antiaging, and antimicrobial properties that have gained significant attention. The compound is well accepted by individuals and has been commonly used as a nutraceutical in recent decades. Its widespread usage makes it essential to study as a single agent as well as in combination with traditional prescription antibiotics as regards to antimicrobial properties. Resveratrol demonstrates the action of antimicrobials against a remarkable bacterial diversity, viruses, and fungus. This report explains resveratrol as an all-natural antimicrobial representative. It may modify the bacterial virulence qualities resulting in decreased toxic substance production, biofilm inhibition, motility reduction, and quorum sensing disturbance. Moreover, in conjunction with standard antibiotics, resveratrol improves aminoglycoside efficacy versus Staphylococcus aureus, while it antagonizes the deadly function of fluoroquinolones against S. aureus and also Escherichia coli. The present study aimed to thoroughly review and study the antimicrobial potency of resveratrol, expected to help researchers pave the way for solving antimicrobial resistance.

7.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 11(3): 397-398, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289419
8.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(6): e04257, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287327

ABSTRACT

Reinfection with COVID-19 is possible after exposure to a high dose of the virus. Due to immunity acquired during the previous infection, light symptoms are expected. The finding indicates importance of continuous protection in healthcare workers.

9.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 171-178, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273805

ABSTRACT

Background: To end the COVID-19 pandemic, a large part of the world must be immune to the virus by vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gauge intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among ordinary people and to identify attitudes towards vaccines and barriers for vaccine acceptance. Methods: The study population comprises 1880 people residing in different countries that answer a prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire topics are demographics, historical issues, participants' attitudes and beliefs regarding vaccines, concerns, and vaccine hesitancy. Results: Attitudes and beliefs relating to vaccines in general, and the COVID-19 vaccine, were ascertained. Overall, 66.81% of the contributors would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19, while %33.19 did not intend to be vaccinated. Reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy included concern regarding vaccine side effects, fear of getting sick from the uptake of the vaccine, and the absence of accurate vaccine promotion news. Individuals with higher education believe that India (68.6%) produces the best vaccine (P <0.001), while healthcare workers think the Chinese vaccine (44.2%) is the best (P =0.020). Individuals with higher education have not been vaccinated, not be healthcare workers, and females were the most contributors to effective of the vaccine in reducing mortality from COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: Given the degree of hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccination, a multifaceted approach to facilitate vaccine uptake that includes vaccine education, behavioral change strategies, and health promotion, is paramount.

10.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 469-474, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950598

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 in bats was transmitted to humans at a live and wet animal market in China through the intermediate host, creating COVID-19. Viral, environmental and host factors play roles in virus infection and disease. The virus has high transmissibility and is rapidly transmitted to people through close contact and droplets from coughing, sneezing and talking loudly, as well as through contact with contaminated objects. As crowding is an environmental risk factor for contamination, its transmission is high among patients and staff in hospital and also in elderly-care centers. It is more common in the elderly, in men, and subjects with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Crowding , Diabetes Complications , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Viral Load
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