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2.
Simul Healthc ; 15(6): 422-426, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024173

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT: Healthcare simulation training can be significantly disrupted by infectious disease outbreaks, yet it is a key component in several important medical education activities, such as resuscitation refresher training and high-stakes prelicensure healthcare examinations. This article details the strategic and tactical considerations for continuing simulation training during infectious disease outbreaks. A framework of graded responses, titrated to outbreak severity, is provided from the perspective of an academic medical center managing simulation training during the early stage of the now global coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Simulation Training/standards
3.
Asian Spine J ; 14(5): 721-729, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995130

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused pronounced strain on global healthcare systems, forcing the streamlining of clinical activities and conservation of health resources. There is a pressing need for institutions to present discipline-specific strategies for the management of COVID-19 patients. We present the comprehensive considerations at the National University Hospital, Singapore from the surgeon's and anesthetist's perspectives in the performance of spinal surgery in COVID-19 patients. These are based on national guidelines and overarching principles of protection for the healthcare workers (HCWs) and efficiency in surgical planning. The workflow begins with the emergency department screening that has been adapted to the local epidemiology of COVID-19 in order to identify suspected/confirmed cases. If patient history cannot be obtained, demographic, clinical, and imaging data are used. Designated orthopedic "contaminated teams" are available 24/7 with an activation time of <30 minutes for review. In cases where sub-specialty spine surgeons were required, these professionals were inducted into the "contaminated team" and quarantined until cleared to return to work. Indications for emergency spine surgery were determined pre-emptively. Preoperative surgical considerations included the minimization of manpower, limited dissection, reduced operative time, and judicious use of equipment, leading to reduced aerosolization. Anesthesia considerations include preoperative screening for COVID-19-related concerns that influence surgery, operating room process planning and induction, intraoperative, reversal, recovery, and resuscitation considerations. Focused multi-disciplinary preoperative briefing facilitates familiarization. Surgical, anesthetic, and postoperative workflows were designed to reduce the risk of transmission and protect HCWs while effectively performing spinal surgery. The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated paradigm shifts in healthcare planning, hospital workflows, and operative protocols. The viral burden does not discriminate between surgeons and physicians, and it is crucial that we, as medical professionals, adapt practices to be malleable and fluid to address the ever-changing developments.

4.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(7): 536-543, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-419071

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is on the world. While many countries have imposed general lockdown, emergency services are continuing. Healthcare professionals have been infected with the virulent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS), which spreads by close contact and aerosols. The anesthesiologist is particularly vulnerable to aerosols while performing intubation and other airway related procedures. Regional anesthesia (RA) minimizes the need for airway manipulation and the risks of cross infection to other patients, and the healthcare personnel. In this context, for prioritizing RA over general anesthesia, wherever possible, a structured algorithmic approach is outlined. The role of percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (oxygen saturation), blood pressure and early use of point-of-care ultrasound in differential diagnosis and specific management is detailed. The perioperative anesthetic implications of multisystem manifestations of COVID-19, anesthetic management options, the scope of RA and considerations for its safe conduct in operating rooms is described. An outline for safe and rapid training of healthcare personnel, with an Entrustable Professional Activity framework for ascertaining the practice readiness among trained residents for RA in COVID-19, is suggested. These are the authors' experiences gained from the current pandemic and similar SARS, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and influenza outbreaks in recent past faced by our authors in Singapore, India, Hong Kong and Canada.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction/trends , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/standards , Anesthesiologists/standards , Anesthesiologists/trends , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(1): 66-74.e3, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380384

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. As the pandemic evolves rapidly, there are data emerging to suggest that pregnant women diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019 can have severe morbidities (up to 9%). This is in contrast to earlier data that showed good maternal and neonatal outcomes. Clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 include features of acute respiratory illnesses. Typical radiologic findings consists of patchy infiltrates on chest radiograph and ground glass opacities on computed tomography scan of the chest. Patients who are pregnant may present with atypical features such as the absence of fever as well as leukocytosis. Confirmation of coronavirus disease 2019 is by reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction from upper airway swabs. When the reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction test result is negative in suspect cases, chest imaging should be considered. A pregnant woman with coronavirus disease 2019 is at the greatest risk when she is in labor, especially if she is acutely ill. We present an algorithm of care for the acutely ill parturient and guidelines for the protection of the healthcare team who is caring for the patient. Key decisions are made based on the presence of maternal and/or fetal compromise, adequacy of maternal oxygenation (SpO2 >93%) and stability of maternal blood pressure. Although vertical transmission is unlikely, there must be measures in place to prevent neonatal infections. Routine birth processes such as delayed cord clamping and skin-to-skin bonding between mother and newborn need to be revised. Considerations can be made to allow the use of screened donated breast milk from mothers who are free of coronavirus disease 2019. We present management strategies derived from best available evidence to provide guidance in caring for the high-risk and acutely ill parturient. These include protection of the healthcare workers caring for the coronavirus disease 2019 gravida, establishing a diagnosis in symptomatic cases, deciding between reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction and chest imaging, and management of the unwell parturient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Obstetrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Acute Disease , Algorithms , Anesthesia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Labor, Obstetric , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 384-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260512

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare systems worldwide. The disruption to hospital routines has affected continuing medical education (CME) for specialty trainees (STs). We share our academic institution's experience in mitigating the disruption on the CME programme amidst the pandemic. Most specialty training programmes had switched to videoconferencing to maintain teaching. Some programmes also utilized small group teachings with precautions and e-learning modules. Surgical residencies were disproportionately affected due to reductions in elective procedures but some ways to provide continued surgical exposure include going through archived surgical videos with technical pointers from experienced faculty and usage of surgical simulators . We should adapt CME sessions to keep trainees up to date with core clinical competencies as they will continue to manage both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases and this pandemic may last until year's end.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Continuing/trends , Medicine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medicine/education , Health Services Research , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Organizational Innovation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Preventive Medicine/education , Psychiatry/education , Pulmonary Medicine/education , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med Teach ; 42(7): 762-771, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245790

ABSTRACT

Background: The Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). We state the consolidated and systematic approach for academic medical centres in response to the evolving pandemic outbreaks for sustaining medical education.Discussion: Academic medical centres need to establish a 'COVID-19 response team' in order to make time-sensitive decisions while managing pandemic threats. Major themes of medical education management include leveraging on remote or decentralised modes of medical education delivery, maintaining the integrity of formative and summative assessments while restructuring patient-contact components, and developing action plans for maintenance of essential activities based on pandemic risk alert levels. These core principles must be applied seamlessly across the various fraternities of academic centres: undergraduate education, residency training, continuous professional development and research. Key decisions from the pandemic response teams that help to minimise major disruptions in medical education and to control disease transmissions include: minimising inter-cluster cross contaminations and plans for segregation within and among cohorts; reshuffling academic calendars; postponing or restructuring assessments.Conclusions: While minimising the transmission of the pandemic outbreak within the healthcare establishments is paramount, medical education and research activities cannot come to a standstill each time there is a threat of one.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence/standards , Competency-Based Education , Cooperative Behavior , Education, Medical , Educational Measurement/standards , Humans , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Learning , Mental Health , Mentors , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
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