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1.
RSC Adv ; 11(36): 22398-22408, 2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815631

ABSTRACT

Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. Natural products as sesame were reported to exhibit potential to protect from COVID-19 disease. In our study, the total methanolic extract of Sesamum indicum L. seeds (sesame) were led to isolation of seven known compounds, five lignan; sesamin 1, sesamolin 2, pinoresinol 3, hydroxymatairesinol 6, spicatolignan 7, together with two simple phenolic compounds; ferulic acid 4 and vanillic acid 5. All isolated compounds were evaluated in silico against three important SARS-CoV-2 protein targets; main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which possessed crucial role in replication and proliferation of the virus inside the human cell. The results revealed that compound 6 has the high affinity against the three main proteins, specially towards the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro that exceeded the currently used SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor darunavir as well as, exhibiting a similar binding energy at SARS CoV-2 PLpro when compared with the co-crystallized ligand. This activity continued to include the RdRp as it displayed a comparable docking score with remdesivir. Inferiorly, compounds 1 and 2 showed also similar triple inhibitory effect against the three main proteins while compound 7 exhibited a dual inhibitory effect against SARS CoV-2 PLPro and RdRp. Further molecular dynamic simulation experiments were performed to validate these docking experiments and to calculate their binding free energies (ΔGs). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed comparable binding stability inside the active site of each enzyme with ΔG values ranged from -4.9 to -8.8 kcal mol-1. All the compounds were investigated for their ADME and drug likeness properties, which showed acceptable ADME properties and obeying Lipinski's rule of five parameters. It can be concluded that the isolated compounds from sesame lignans could be an alternative source for the development of new natural leads against COVID-19.

2.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 16-34, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The discovery of drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 is a priority for human beings due to the severity of the global health pandemic caused by COVID-19. To this end, natural products can provide therapeutic alternatives that could be employed as an effective safe treatment for COVID-19. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: Twelve compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of C. officinalis L. and investigated for their inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro compared to its co-crystallized N3 inhibitor using molecular docking studies. Furthermore, a 100 ns MD simulation was performed for the most active two promising compounds, Calendulaglycoside A (SAP5) and Osteosaponin-I (SAP8). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At first, molecular docking studies showed interesting binding scores as compared to the N3 inhibitor. Calendulaglycoside A (SAP5) achieved a superior binding than the co-crystallized inhibitor indicating promising affinity and intrinsic activity towards the Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 as well. Moreover, findings illustrated preferential stability for SAP5 within the Mpro pocket over that of N3 beyond the 40 ns MD simulation course. Structural preferentiality for triterpene-Mpro binding highlights the significant role of 17ß-glucosyl and carboxylic 3α-galactosyl I moieties through high electrostatic interactions across the MD simulation trajectories. Furthermore, this study clarified a promising SAR responsible for the antiviral activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the design of new drug candidates targeting it as well. The above findings could be promising for fast examining the previously isolated triterpenes both pre-clinically and clinically for the treatment of COVID-19.

3.
RSC advances ; 11(36):22398-22408, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812594

ABSTRACT

Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. Natural products as sesame were reported to exhibit potential to protect from COVID-19 disease. In our study, the total methanolic extract of Sesamum indicum L. seeds (sesame) were led to isolation of seven known compounds, five lignan;sesamin 1, sesamolin 2, pinoresinol 3, hydroxymatairesinol 6, spicatolignan 7, together with two simple phenolic compounds;ferulic acid 4 and vanillic acid 5. All isolated compounds were evaluated in silico against three important SARS-CoV-2 protein targets;main protease (Mpro), papain-like protease (PLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which possessed crucial role in replication and proliferation of the virus inside the human cell. The results revealed that compound 6 has the high affinity against the three main proteins, specially towards the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro that exceeded the currently used SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor darunavir as well as, exhibiting a similar binding energy at SARS CoV-2 PLpro when compared with the co-crystallized ligand. This activity continued to include the RdRp as it displayed a comparable docking score with remdesivir. Inferiorly, compounds 1 and 2 showed also similar triple inhibitory effect against the three main proteins while compound 7 exhibited a dual inhibitory effect against SARS CoV-2 PLPro and RdRp. Further molecular dynamic simulation experiments were performed to validate these docking experiments and to calculate their binding free energies (ΔGs). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed comparable binding stability inside the active site of each enzyme with ΔG values ranged from −4.9 to −8.8 kcal mol−1. All the compounds were investigated for their ADME and drug likeness properties, which showed acceptable ADME properties and obeying Lipinski's rule of five parameters. It can be concluded that the isolated compounds from sesame lignans could be an alternative source for the development of new natural leads against COVID-19. Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads.

4.
Clin Pharmacol ; 14: 27-35, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779831

ABSTRACT

Background: The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has been widely used and approved for the prevention of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) for individuals aged 16 years and older in Saudi Arabia. The emergency use authorization of this vaccine is crucial to managing the pandemic in the Kingdom. This vaccination strategy requires proper usage, knowledge, and management by pharmacists and other health professionals. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using several previously validated questionnaires. Pharmacists working in different health sectors in Saudi Arabia in March-July 2021 participated via an online questionnaire. Comparative and descriptive analyses were used to analyze the data, and a P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 145 pharmacists with a mean age of 35.2 years (SD ± 5.59) were included. The study sample showed adequate general knowledge of COVID-19 and its causative virus signs. Overall, the results showed good knowledge of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and its pharmacological application among pharmacists in Saudi Arabia with significant chi square values (p< 0.0001). Conclusion: Pharmacists have good knowledge and understanding of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine; interestingly, the majority expressed a high level of awareness and agreed that Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is a valuable vaccine for COVID-19 management.

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