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1.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103641, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797201

ABSTRACT

Background: Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest worldwide but little research has been carried out in Pakistan. Aims: The present study assessed the prevalence of gaming addiction among a Pakistani sample of adults in the general population. It also explored the effects of online gaming addiction upon sleep quality. Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during a national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Using a convenience sampling technique, an online survey comprising demographic information, the Game Addiction Scale (GAS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was completed by 618 participants (67.5% male) aged 18-56 years (M = 24.53 years, SD = ±5.016). Results: Out of 618 participants, 57.0% (n=352) played online games. Among gamers, 12.5% (n = 44) were classed as addicted to the gaming based on GAS scores. Compared to those not addicted to gaming, participants with gaming addiction had significantly poorer subjective sleep quality, higher sleep disturbance, lesser sleep duration, and higher daytime dysfunction. Gaming addiction was also more prevalent among males compared to females. Conclusion: Gaming addiction among the Pakistani general population is significantly associated with poor sleep quality. This problem needs to be addressed at both individual and societal levels to avoid adverse long-term health impacts.

2.
Death Stud ; 46(6): 1465-1471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774117

ABSTRACT

With nearly 4 million deaths worldwide, COVID-19 has resulted in a great loss of life. For many of the bereaved, the grieving process has been especially difficult due to COVID-19 spatial distancing procedures and the traumatic circumstances of this particular form of loss. Consequently, a large number of the world's bereaved are experiencing dysfunctional levels of grief. To assess such grief, the Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) was created to identify those affected who may benefit from professional support. This study aimed to psychometrically analyze the properties of the Urdu version of the scale, among a sample of 272 Pakistanis who lost a loved one to COVID-19 from March to June 2021. Results revealed that the scale was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing dysfunctional pandemic grief for both men and women. However, unique gender differences were found. Additional research should further confirm the psychometric properties of the PGS on other culturally diverse samples.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Female , Grief , Humans , Male , Pakistan , Pandemics , Psychometrics
3.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700210

ABSTRACT

The present study's aim is to find the prevalence of two of the common indicators of mental health - depression and anxiety - and any correlation with socio-demographic indicators in the Pakistani population during the lockdown from 5 May to 25 July 2020. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online questionnaire sent to volunteer participants. A total of 1047 participants over 18 were recruited through convenience sampling. The survey targeted depression and anxiety levels, which were measured using a 14 item self-reporting Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Out of the total sample population (N=354), 39.9% suffered from depression and 57.7% from anxiety. Binary logistical regressions indicated significant predictive associations of gender (OR=1.410), education (OR=9.311), residence (OR=0.370), household income (OR=0.579), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.671), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=2.641). These were the key factors e associated with a significant increase in depression. Increases in anxiety levels were significantly linked to gender (OR=2.427), residence (OR=0.619), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.166), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=7.330). These results suggest depression and anxiety were prevalent among the Pakistani population during the lockdown. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, citizens' mental health needs the Pakistani government's urgent attention as well as that of mental health experts. Further large-scale, such as healthcare practitioners, should be undertaken to identify other mental health indicators that need to be monitored.

4.
Brain Behav ; 11(11): e2383, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor quality sleep and emotional disturbances are expected in times of crisis. COVID-19 has severely impacted healthcare worldwide and with that comes the concern about its effects on healthcare workers. The purpose of the present study was to assess sleep quality and psychological distress in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The present work is a multi-centric cross-sectional study targeting healthcare workers from India, Pakistan, and Nepal. It used an online version of the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the General Health Questionnaire, and data were analyzed using SPSS V.24. RESULTS: A total of 1790 participants completed the questionnaire. Of the 1790 participants, 57% reported poor sleep quality, and 10% reported a high level of psychological distress. A cross-cultural comparison found some differences between the different groups of participants. The details of the differences were further explored in the article. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights that a significant proportion of healthcare workers are affected by poor sleep quality and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also emphasizes the imperative to provide them with psychosocial support to avoid potential short- and long-term psychological consequences of these troubling times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 22(1): 100256, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study examined the role of different psychological coping mechanisms in mental and physical health during the initial phases of the COVID-19 crisis with an emphasis on meaning-centered coping. METHOD: A total of 11,227 people from 30 countries across all continents participated in the study and completed measures of psychological distress (depression, stress, and anxiety), loneliness, well-being, and physical health, together with measures of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, and a measure called the Meaning-centered Coping Scale (MCCS) that was developed in the present study. Validation analyses of the MCCS were performed in all countries, and data were assessed by multilevel modeling (MLM). RESULTS: The MCCS showed a robust one-factor structure in 30 countries with good test-retest, concurrent and divergent validity results. MLM analyses showed mixed results regarding emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. However, the MCCS was the strongest positive predictor of physical and mental health among all coping strategies, independently of demographic characteristics and country-level variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the MCCS is a valid measure to assess meaning-centered coping. The results also call for policies promoting effective coping to mitigate collective suffering during the pandemic.


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: Este estudio examinó el papel de diferentes estrategias de afrontamiento psicológico en la salud mental y física durante las fases iniciales de la crisis de COVID-19. MÉTODO: 11,227 personas de 30 países representando todos los continentes participaron en el estudio y completaron medidas de malestar psicológico (depresión, estrés y ansiedad), soledad, bienestar, salud física, medidas de afrontamiento centrado en el problema y en la emoción, y una medida denominada Escala del Afrontamiento Centrado en el Sentido (MCCS) que fue desarrollada en este estudio. El análisis de validación de la MCCS se realizó en todos los países, y los datos se evaluaron mediante un modelo multinivel. RESULTADOS: La MCCS mostró una estructura unifactorial en 30 países con buenos resultados de validez test-retest, concurrente y divergente. Los análisis mostraron resultados mixtos en cuanto a las estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en la emoción y en el problema. La MCCS fue el predictor positivo más fuerte de salud física y mental, independientemente de las características demográficas y las variables a nivel de país. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que la MCCS es un insrumento fiable para medir afrontamiento centrado en el sentido. Estos resultados pueden servir para dirigir políticas que promuevan un afrontamiento eficaz con el fin de mitigar el sufrimiento colectivo durante la pandemia.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 647821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191705

ABSTRACT

Objective: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly affected individual's lives around the world and resulted in various negative psychological consequences. During the pandemic, reflection on and attention to COVID-19 may help in dealing with its symptomology but frequent and persistent thoughts about the situation can be unhealthy. The present study examined the direct and indirect associations between obsession concerning COVID-19, psychological distress, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. Design: This mediation study presents a primary analysis of normative data collected after the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Parametric bootstrapping was used to test the mediation models of subjective well-being, the extent of the effect, and meaning in life as parallel and serial mediators concerning the associations between COVID-19 obsession and psychological distress measures. Setting: A sample of 1,002 adults (45% men and 55% women) were recruited utilizing an online survey between April to May 2020. They were aged between 19 and 45 years (M = 24.30, SD = 7.29) and normalized on population characteristics. Results: Two out of three mediators in parallel mediation fully mediated the relationship between obsession and psychological distress (total effect = 0.443, SE = 0.050, p < 0.0001) illustrating that high-level obsessions were associated with low levels of satisfaction with life and presence of meaning in life and search for meaning in life. Psychological distress is likely to decrease in the presence of a high level of satisfaction with life and meaning. Moreover, satisfaction with life and search for meaning in life significantly mediated the association between COVID-19 obsession (z=-3.507, p < 0.0001 and z = -2.632, p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed that life satisfaction and search for meaning in life may play a significant role in decreasing psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Death Stud ; 46(5): 1100-1105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003412

ABSTRACT

The present study determined the application of terror management theory during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Death anxiety and psychological distress were examined in the context of work status. A sample of 478 from the general population voluntarily participated in the study. Findings revealed a significant moderating role of work status, illustrating the strong relationship between psychological distress and death anxiety for non-working participants. Therefore, psychological distress is related to more significant death anxiety among non-working than those who are working. This study highlights the importance of work as an anxiety buffering factor concerning mortality thoughts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/psychology , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
Death Stud ; 46(5): 1059-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603784

ABSTRACT

The psychological toll of the COVID-19 pandemic is being felt by people around the world. Persistent and disturbed thinking about the disease appears to be contributing to this mental health concern. Although the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) has been shown to be a reliable and valid instrument in the U.S., it has not been examined with in Pakistan. The current study addressed this problem by examining the validity of an Urdu translated version of the OCS using online survey data from 240 university students and teachers in Pakistan. The results showed that the OCS exhibited factorial validity, as well as measurement invariance for gender. However, the OCS also showed limited evidence of construct validity in terms of showing weak positive correlations with the total scale and social dysfunction and self-confidence subscales of the General Heath Questionnaire and no correlation with the depression and anxiety subscale (GHQ-12). These findings suggest that further research is necessary before the Urdu version of the OCS is widely adopted in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Obsessive Behavior , Pakistan , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
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