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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 910383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080130

ABSTRACT

Human milk contains three antibody classes that confer mucosal immunity to the breastfed infant: secretory IgA (SIgA), secretory IgM (SIgM), and IgG. Influenza and pertussis vaccines administered during pregnancy induce pathogen specific SIgA and IgG responses in human milk that have been shown to protect the breastfed infant from these respiratory illnesses. In addition, mRNA vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus administered during pregnancy and lactation induce anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA responses in human milk. This review summarizes the immunologic benefits of influenza, pertussis, and COVID-19 vaccines conferred by human milk. Additionally, future research direction in human milk immunity and public health needs to improve lactational support are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Equity , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Milk, Human , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958041

ABSTRACT

Human milk contains three antibody classes that confer mucosal immunity to the breastfed infant: secretory IgA (SIgA), secretory IgM (SIgM), and IgG. Influenza and pertussis vaccines administered during pregnancy induce pathogen specific SIgA and IgG responses in human milk that have been shown to protect the breastfed infant from these respiratory illnesses. In addition, mRNA vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus administered during pregnancy and lactation induce anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA responses in human milk. This review summarizes the immunologic benefits of influenza, pertussis, and COVID-19 vaccines conferred by human milk. Additionally, future research direction in human milk immunity and public health needs to improve lactational support are discussed.

3.
JCI Insight ; 7(12)2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there are limited data comparing vaccine- and infection-induced neutralizing Abs (nAbs) against COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the 5 SARS-CoV-2 spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2-pseudotyped spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared with WT spike protein, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord-nAb levels at delivery than did infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared with infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level divided by maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicits effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that are influenced by gestational time of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Mothers , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 777103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528826

ABSTRACT

Background: Data regarding symptoms in the lactating mother-infant dyad and their immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during lactation are needed to inform vaccination guidelines. Methods: From a prospective cohort of 50 lactating individuals who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2), blood and milk samples were collected prior to first vaccination dose, immediately prior to 2nd dose, and 4-10 weeks after 2nd dose. Symptoms in mother and infant were assessed by detailed questionnaires. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in blood and milk were measured by Pylon 3D automated immunoassay and ELISA. In addition, vaccine-related PEGylated proteins in milk were measured by ELISA. Blood samples were collected from a subset of infants whose mothers received the vaccine during lactation (4-15 weeks after mothers' 2nd dose). Results: No severe maternal or infant adverse events were reported in this cohort. Two mothers and two infants were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period before achieving full immune response. PEGylated proteins were not found at significant levels in milk after vaccination. After vaccination, levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM significantly increased in maternal plasma and there was significant transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2-Receptor Binding Domain (anti-RBD) IgA and IgG antibodies to milk. Milk IgA levels after the 2nd dose were negatively associated with infant age. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were not detected in the plasma of infants whose mothers were vaccinated during lactation. Conclusions: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines generate robust immune responses in plasma and milk of lactating individuals without severe adverse events reported.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Lactation/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2810-e2813, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501000

ABSTRACT

Infant outcomes after maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not well described. In a prospective US registry of 263 infants, maternal SARS-CoV-2 status was not associated with birth weight, difficulty breathing, apnea, or upper or lower respiratory infection through 8 weeks of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Health Equity ; 4(1): 330-333, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710151

ABSTRACT

Growing discourse around maternity care during the pandemic offers an opportunity to reflect on how this crisis has amplified inequities in health care. We argue that policies upholding the rights of birthing people, and policies decreasing the risk of COVID-19 transmission are not mutually exclusive. The explicit lack of standardization of evidence-based maternity care, whether expressed in clinical protocols or institutional policy, has disproportionately impacted marginalized communities. If these factors remain unexamined, then it would seem that equity is not the priority, but retaining power and control is. We advocate for a comprehensive understanding of how this pandemic has revealed our deepest failures.

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