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2.
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843093

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo test if patients recovering from COVID-19 are at increased risk of mental morbidities and to what extent such risk is exacerbated by illness severity.DesignPopulation-based cross-sectional study.SettingIceland.ParticipantsA total of 22 861 individuals were recruited through invitations to existing nationwide cohorts and a social media campaign from 24 April to 22 July 2020, of which 373 were patients recovering from COVID-19.Main outcome measuresSymptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD;modified Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5) above screening thresholds. Adjusting for multiple covariates and comorbidities, multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and mental morbidities.ResultsCompared with individuals without a diagnosis of COVID-19, patients recovering from COVID-19 had increased risk of depression (22.1% vs 16.2%;adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.82) and PTSD (19.5% vs 15.6%;aRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.75) but not anxiety (13.1% vs 11.3%;aRR 1.24, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.64). Elevated relative risks were limited to patients recovering from COVID-19 that were 40 years or older and were particularly high among individuals with university education. Among patients recovering from COVID-19, symptoms of depression were particularly common among those in the highest, compared with the lowest tertile of influenza-like symptom burden (47.1% vs 5.8%;aRR 6.42, 95% CI 2.77 to 14.87), among patients confined to bed for 7 days or longer compared with those never confined to bed (33.3% vs 10.9%;aRR 3.67, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.86) and among patients hospitalised for COVID-19 compared with those never admitted to hospital (48.1% vs 19.9%;aRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.44).ConclusionsSevere disease course is associated with increased risk of depression and PTSD among patients recovering from COVID-19.

3.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(5): e406-e416, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term mental and physical health consequences of COVID-19 (long COVID) are a persistent public health concern. Little is still known about the long-term mental health of non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19 with varying illness severities. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of adverse mental health symptoms among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population by acute infection severity up to 16 months after diagnosis. METHODS: This observational follow-up study included seven prospectively planned cohorts across six countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK). Participants were recruited from March 27, 2020, to Aug 13, 2021. Individuals aged 18 years or older were eligible to participate. In a cross-sectional analysis, we contrasted symptom prevalence of depression, anxiety, COVID-19-related distress, and poor sleep quality (screened with validated mental health instruments) among individuals with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 at entry, 0-16 months from diagnosis. In a cohort analysis, we further used repeated measures to estimate the change in mental health symptoms before and after COVID-19 diagnosis. FINDINGS: The analytical cohort consisted of 247 249 individuals, 9979 (4·0%) of whom were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period. Mean follow-up was 5·65 months (SD 4·26). Participants diagnosed with COVID-19 presented overall with a higher prevalence of symptoms of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·18 [95% CI 1·03-1·36]) and poorer sleep quality (1·13 [1·03-1·24]) but not symptoms of anxiety (0·97 [0·91-1·03]) or COVID-19-related distress (1·05 [0·93-1·20]) compared with individuals without a COVID-19 diagnosis. Although the prevalence of depression and COVID-19-related distress attenuated with time, individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 but never bedridden due to their illness were consistently at lower risk of depression (PR 0·83 [95% CI 0·75-0·91]) and anxiety (0·77 [0·63-0·94]) than those not diagnosed with COVID-19, whereas patients who were bedridden for more than 7 days were persistently at higher risk of symptoms of depression (PR 1·61 [95% CI 1·27-2·05]) and anxiety (1·43 [1·26-1·63]) than those not diagnosed throughout the study period. INTERPRETATION: Severe acute COVID-19 illness-indicated by extended time bedridden-is associated with long-term mental morbidity among recovering individuals in the general population. These findings call for increased vigilance of adverse mental health development among patients with a severe acute disease phase of COVID-19. FUNDING: Nordforsk, Horizon2020, Wellcome Trust, and Estonian Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Morbidity
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306388

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades there has been a number of global outbreaks of viral diseases. This has accelerated the efforts to model and forecast the disease spreading, in order to find ways to confine the spreading regionally and between regions. Towards this we have devised a model of geographical spreading of viral infections due to human spatial mobility and adapted it to the latest COVID-19 pandemic. In this the region to be modelled is overlaid with a two-dimensional grid weighted with the population density defined cells, in each of which a compartmental SEIRS system of delay difference equations simulate the local dynamics (microdynamics) of the disease. The infections between cells are stochastic and allow for the geographical spreading of the virus over the two-dimensional space (macrodynamics). This approach allows to separate the parameters related to the biological aspects of the disease from the ones that represent the spatial contagious behaviour through different kinds of mobility of people acting as virus carriers. These provide sufficient information to trace the evolution of the pandemic in different situations. In particular we have applied this approach to three in many ways different countries, Mexico, Finland and Iceland and found that the model is capable of reproducing and predicting the stochastic global path of the pandemic. This study sheds light on how the diverse cultural and socioeconomic aspects of a country influence the evolution of the epidemics and also the efficacy of social distancing and other confinement measures.

5.
J Intern Med ; 291(6): 837-848, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it have substantially affected the daily lives of most of the world's population. OBJECTIVE: We describe the impact of the first COVID-19 wave and associated social restrictions on the mental health of a large adult population. METHODS: We performed a cohort study nested in a prospective randomized clinical trial, comparing responses during the first COVID-19 wave to previous responses. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) of the population moving up one severity category on validated instruments used to measure stress (PSS-10), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9), and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Responses were linked to inpatient and outpatient ICD-10 codes from registries. Models were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and pre-existing diagnoses of mental illness. RESULTS: Of 63,848 invited participants, 42,253 (66%) responded. The median age was 60 (inter-quartile range 53-68) and 19,032 (45%) were male. Responses during the first wave of COVID-19 did not suggest increased stress (OR 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.01; p = 0.28) or anxiety (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.05; p = 0.61), but were associated with decreased depression (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.93, p < 0.0001) and increased satisfaction with life (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16, p < 0.0001). A secondary analysis of repeated measures data showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Social restrictions were sufficient to contain the pandemic but did not negatively impact validated measures of mental illness or psychiatric well-being. However, responses to individual questions showed signs of fear and stress. This may represent a normal, rather than pathological, population response to a stressful situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this multinational study was to assess the development of adverse mental health symptoms among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population by acute infection severity up to 16 months after diagnosis. METHODS Participants consisted of 247 249 individuals from seven cohorts across six countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) recruited from April 2020 through August 2021. We used multivariable Poisson regression to contrast symptom-prevalence of depression, anxiety, COVID-19 related distress, and poor sleep quality among individuals with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 at entry to respective cohorts by time (0-16 months) from diagnosis. We also applied generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to test differences in repeated measures of mental health symptoms before and after COVID-19 diagnosis among individuals ever diagnosed with COVID-19 over time. FINDINGS A total of 9979 individuals (4%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period and presented overall with a higher symptom burden of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.36) and poorer sleep quality (1.13, 1.03-1.24) but not with higher levels of symptoms of anxiety or COVID-19 related distress compared with individuals without a COVID-19 diagnosis. While the prevalence of depression and COVID-19 related distress attenuated with time, the trajectories varied significantly by COVID-19 acute infection severity. Individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 but never bedridden due to their illness were consistently at lower risks of depression and anxiety (PR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91 and 0.77, 0.63-0.94, respectively), while patients bedridden for more than 7 days were persistently at higher risks of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 and 1.43, 1.26-1.63, respectively) throughout the 16-month study period. CONCLUSION Acute infection severity is a key determinant of long-term mental morbidity among COVID-19 patients.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049967, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test if patients recovering from COVID-19 are at increased risk of mental morbidities and to what extent such risk is exacerbated by illness severity. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 22 861 individuals were recruited through invitations to existing nationwide cohorts and a social media campaign from 24 April to 22 July 2020, of which 373 were patients recovering from COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; modified Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5) above screening thresholds. Adjusting for multiple covariates and comorbidities, multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and mental morbidities. RESULTS: Compared with individuals without a diagnosis of COVID-19, patients recovering from COVID-19 had increased risk of depression (22.1% vs 16.2%; adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.82) and PTSD (19.5% vs 15.6%; aRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.75) but not anxiety (13.1% vs 11.3%; aRR 1.24, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.64). Elevated relative risks were limited to patients recovering from COVID-19 that were 40 years or older and were particularly high among individuals with university education. Among patients recovering from COVID-19, symptoms of depression were particularly common among those in the highest, compared with the lowest tertile of influenza-like symptom burden (47.1% vs 5.8%; aRR 6.42, 95% CI 2.77 to 14.87), among patients confined to bed for 7 days or longer compared with those never confined to bed (33.3% vs 10.9%; aRR 3.67, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.86) and among patients hospitalised for COVID-19 compared with those never admitted to hospital (48.1% vs 19.9%; aRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Severe disease course is associated with increased risk of depression and PTSD among patients recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Physica A ; 582: 126274, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313372

ABSTRACT

The shocking severity of the Covid-19 pandemic has woken up an unprecedented interest and accelerated effort of the scientific community to model and forecast epidemic spreading to find ways to control it regionally and between regions. Here we present a model that in addition to describing the dynamics of epidemic spreading with the traditional compartmental approach takes into account the social behaviour of the population distributed over a geographical region. The region to be modelled is defined as a two-dimensional grid of cells, in which each cell is weighted with the population density. In each cell a compartmental SEIRS system of delay difference equations is used to simulate the local dynamics of the disease. The infections between cells are modelled by a network of connections, which could be terrestrial, between neighbouring cells, or long range, between cities by air, road or train traffic. In addition, since people make trips without apparent reason, noise is considered to account for them to carry contagion between two randomly chosen distant cells. Hence, there is a clear separation of the parameters related to the biological characteristics of the disease from the ones that represent the spatial spread of infections due to social behaviour. We demonstrate that these parameters provide sufficient information to trace the evolution of the pandemic in different situations. In order to show the predictive power of this kind of approach we have chosen three, in a number of ways different countries, Mexico, Finland and Iceland, in which the pandemics have followed different dynamic paths. Furthermore we find that our model seems quite capable of reproducing the path of the pandemic for months with few initial data. Unlike similar models, our model shows the emergence of multiple waves in the case when the disease becomes endemic.

10.
Obes Sci Pract ; 7(2): 239-243, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As severity of outcome in COVID-19 is disproportionately higher among individuals with obesity, smokers, patients with hypertension, kidney disease, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D), serum levels of ACE2, the cellular entry point for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were examined in these high-risk groups. METHODS: Associations of ACE2 levels to smokers and patients with hypertension, T2D, obesity, CHD, or COPD were investigated in a single center population-based study of 5457 Icelanders from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavík Study (AGES-RS) of the elderly (mean age 75 ± 6 years), using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Serum levels of ACE2 were higher in smokers and individuals with T2D and/or obesity while they were unaffected in the other patient groups. CONCLUSION: ACE2 levels are higher in some patient groups with comorbidities linked to COVID-19 including obesity and T2D and as such may have an emerging role as a circulating biomarker for severity of outcome in the disease.

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