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1.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(10): 854-860, 2021 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441022

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicenter studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared to enalapril, and good tolerability, safety and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favorable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodeling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remains suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroads in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Biphenyl Compounds , Drug Combinations , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles , Treatment Outcome , Valsartan
2.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C176-C183, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377967

ABSTRACT

Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared with enalapril. After 7 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained with potential new indications. Two prospective randomized multicentre studies (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION) in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) have shown an improved clinical outcome and biomarker profile as compared with enalapril, and good tolerability, safety, and feasibility of initiating in-hospital administration of S/V. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the favourable effects of S/V in attenuating adverse myocardial remodelling, supporting an early benefit after treatment. Observational data from non-randomized studies in AHF report that in-hospital and pre-discharge prescription of evidence-based drugs associated with better survival still remain suboptimal. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has also negatively impacted on outpatient activities. Therefore, hospitalization, a real crossroad in the history of heart failure, must become a management and therapeutic opportunity for our patients. The objective of this ANMCO position paper is to encourage and facilitate early S/V administration in stabilized patients during hospitalization after an AHF episode, with the aim of improving care efficiency and clinical outcome.

3.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl C): C154-C163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic,new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(8): 610-619, 2021 Aug.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented event that has brought deep changes in hospital facilities with reshaping of the health system organization, revealing inadequacies of current hospital and local health systems. When the COVID-19 emergency will end, further evaluation of the national health system, new organization of acute wards, and a further evolution of the entire health system will be needed to improve care during the chronic phase of disease. Therefore, new standards for healthcare personnel, more efficient organization of hospital facilities for patients with acute illnesses, improvement of technological approaches, and better integration between hospital and territorial services should be pursued. With experience derived from the COVID-19 pandemic, new models, paradigms, interventional approaches, values and priorities should be suggested and implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Italy , National Health Programs/organization & administration
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a deep impact on periodic outpatient evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of low brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) values in predicting adverse events in heart failure (HF) patients in order to evaluate implications for safe delay of outpatient visits. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. One-thousand patients (mean age: 72 ± 10 years, 561 women) with HF and BNP values <250 pg/mL at discharge were included. A 6-month follow-up was performed. The primary endpoint was a combination of deaths and readmissions for HF within 6-month after discharge. RESULTS: At 6-month follow-up, 104 events (10.4%) were recorded (65 HF readmissions and 39 all-cause deaths). Univariate Cox analysis identified as significant predictors of outcome were age (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.044), creatinine (p = 0.001, HR = 1.411), and BNP (p < 0.001, HR = 1.010). Multivariate Cox regression confirmed that BNP (p < 0.001, HR = 1.009), creatinine (p = 0.016, HR = 1.247), and age (p = 0.013, HR = 1.027) were independent predictors of events in HF patients with BNP values <250 pg/mL at discharge. Patients with BNP values >100 pg/mL and creatinine >1.0 mg/dL showed increased events rates (from 4.3% to 19.0%) as compared to those with lower values (p < 0.000, HR = 4.014). CONCLUSIONS: Low pre-discharge BNP levels were associated with low rates of cardiovascular events in HF patients, independently of the frequency of follow-up.

6.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 706-710, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197501

ABSTRACT

AIM: To summarize our experience on the implementation of a telemedicine service dedicated to adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients during the lockdown for the first wave of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This is a prospective study enrolling all ACHD patients who answered a questionnaire dedicated telematic cardiovascular examination. RESULTS: A total of 289 patients were enrolled, 133 (47%) were male, 25 (9%) were affected by a genetic syndrome. The median age was 38 (29-51) years, whereas the median time interval between the last visit and the telematic follow-up was 9.5 (7.5-11.5) months. Overall, 35 patients (12%) reported a worsening of fatigue in daily life activity, 17 (6%) experienced chest pain, 42 (15%) had presyncope and 2 (1%) syncope; in addition, 28 patients (10%) presented peripheral edema and 14 (5%) were orthopneic. A total of 116 (40%) patients reported palpitations and 12 had at least one episode of atrial fibrillation and underwent successful electrical (8) or pharmacological (4) cardioversion. One patient was admitted to the emergency department for uncontrolled arterial hypertension, five for chest pain, and one for heart failure. Two patients presented fever but both had negative COVID-19 nasal swab. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telemedicine dramatically increased and here we report a positive experience in ACHD patients. The postpandemic role of telemedicine will depend on permanent regulatory solutions and this early study might encourage a more systematic telematic approach for ACHD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infection Control , Patient Care Management , Patient Preference/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration
7.
Future Cardiol ; 17(6): 991-997, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983819

ABSTRACT

Amiodarone is a drug commonly used to treat and prevent cardiac arrhythmias, but it is often associated with several adverse effects, the most serious of which is pulmonary toxicity. A 79-year-old man presented with respiratory failure due to interstitial pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The viral etiology was nevertheless excluded by repeated nasopharyngeal swabs and serological tests and the final diagnosis was amiodarone-induced organizing pneumonia. The clinical and computed tomography findings improved after amiodarone interruption and steroid therapy. Even during a pandemic, differential diagnosis should always be considered and pulmonary toxicity has to be taken into account in any patient taking amiodarone and who has new respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone/adverse effects , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G233-G238, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732037

ABSTRACT

Infections by SARS CoV2 - COVID-19 became in a short time a worldwide health emergency. The present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic induced in a short time, an unprecedented impact on public health and on the pre-existing care pathways. In order to appropriately address this epidemiological emergency, urgent solutions were needed, such as remodelling or stopping hospitalization and deferrable clinical activities to avoid spreading the SARS-CoV-2 infection. After the first emergency lockdown phase, care pathways must guarantee healthcare to patients and preserve the safety of the healthcare personnel and of all the other subjects that refer to the cardiological surgeries. Rigorous prescriptive appropriateness of the requested exams with consequent reduction of unnecessary examinations is an essential requirement to preserve prioritized diagnostic and care pathways to patients in need, minimizing the risks connected to the SARS-CoV-2 contagion in hospitals. Telemedicine services represent a valid answer to cardiovascular disease patients’ need for care and assistance, including those in quarantine and voluntary isolation. These services successfully contribute to fight the spread of the virus guaranteeing at the same time therapy and support through remote services that must therefore be considered a resource to be implemented and enhanced. This document has to be used by the healthcare personnel working in hospitals and in district offices, if applicable, and aims at managing patients, in complete safety and considered not suspect/not probable (‘not at risk’) of SARS-CoV-2 infection, eligible for diagnostic activity and subsequent therapy in outpatient surgeries. In particular, this document provides indications for patient evaluation to prevent COVID-19 exposure, gives general indications on managing appointments and waiting rooms, on how to strictly adhere to environmental safety measures, on the proper use of Individual Protective Equipment (IPE). It also provides specific indications for outpatient service procedures, like electrocardiogram, cardiologic examination, cardiologic checkup, Dynamic Holter Electrocardiogram, Transthoracic Echocardiography, Echo Stress, Transoesophageal Echocardiography, Bike Ergometer stress test, Ergospirometry, Outpatient Checkup of implantable electronic cardiac devices.

9.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_G):G211-G216, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-732033

ABSTRACT

The aim of this document is the management and organization of patients in need of urgent access to electrophysiology (EP) and pacing procedures during the COVID-19 emergency. Specifically, non-deferrable procedures or irreplaceable with a drug therapy prior to the resolution of the COVID-19 virus emergency [pacemaker (PM) implant/replacement/urgent defibrillator (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ICD) or arrhythmic storm or other indication of non-deferrable ablation]. The pacing and electrophysiological procedures urgent as they may be, less and less frequently represent situations of emergency, therefore for almost all cases, it is possible to perform a swab test to determine the positivity to COVID-19 of the patient. In cases where this is not possible, due to situations of emergency, the recommendations and procedures we have indicated are advisable, if not mandatory, in order to avoid the spreading of the virus to healthcare personnel and other patients.

12.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 6(4): 246-250, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597971

ABSTRACT

From December 31st, 2019, a novel highly pathogenic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide, reaching at present the dimension of a pandemic. In addition to damaging the lungs, SARS-CoV-2 may also damage the heart and this is corroborated by the evidence that cardiovascular comorbidities are associated with a higher mortality and poor clinical outcomes in patient infected by the virus. During the infection myocardial injury, myocarditis and arrhythmias have also been reported, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these complications are yet to be understood. Great attention is also being posed on the potential beneficial/harmful role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, as far as the virus binds to ACE2 to infect cells, but evidences lack. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can also affect the aspect of acute coronary syndromes, not only because these two distinct pathological entities share pathogenic aspects (such as the systemic inflammatory state and cytokine release), but also and above all for the consequences that the need to contain the infection has on the management of cardiological urgencies. The aim of this review was therefore to summarize the relationship between the virus and the cardiovascular system.

13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(5): 336-340, 2020 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-456893
14.
Cardiorenal Med ; 10(5): 277-287, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged in Wuhan, Hubei-China, as responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then spread rapidly worldwide. While most individuals remain asymptomatic or develop only mild symptoms, approximately 5% develop severe forms of COVID-19 characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple-organ failure (MOF) that usually require intensive-care support and often yield a poor prognosis. SUMMARY: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 is far from being completely understood, and the lack of effective treatments leads to a sense of urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies based on pathophysiological assumptions. The exaggerated cytokine release in response to viral infection, a condition known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or cytokine storm, is emerging as the mechanism leading to ARDS and MOF in COVID-19, thus endorsing the hypothesis that properly timed anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies could improve patients' clinical outcomes and prognosis. Key Messages: The objective of this article is to explore and comment on the potential role of the promising immunomodulatory therapies using pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to overcome the dysregulated proinflammatory response in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , CCR5 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , HIV Antibodies/therapeutic use , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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