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1.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 281-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure and respiratory physiotherapy outside the Intensive Care Unit during a pandemic. METHODS: In this cohort study performed in February-May 2020 in a large teaching hospital in Milan, COVID-19 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome receiving continuous positive airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure =10 cm H2O, FiO2=0.6, daily treatment duration: 4×3h-cycles) and respiratory physiotherapy including pronation outside the Intensive Care Unit were followed-up. RESULTS: Of 90 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (45/90, 50% pronated at least once) outside the Intensive Care Unit and with a median (interquartile) follow-up of 37 (11-46) days, 45 (50%) were discharged at home, 28 (31%) were still hospitalized, and 17 (19%) died. Continuous positive airway pressure failure was recorded for 35 (39%) patients. Patient mobilization was associated with reduced failure rates (P=0.033). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure with patient mobilization (including pronation) was effective and safe in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 managed outside the Intensive Care Unit setting during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pronation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715434

ABSTRACT

Correlation between risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and CD3+ counts within the peripheral blood stem cell graft has recently been reported in the setting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). We aimed to investigate the benefit of the addition of a single dose of anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG 5 mg/kg) to PT-Cy in this setting. Starting in 2019, all patients receiving PBSC transplant containing CD3+ counts above 300 × 106/kg (study group) received a post-transplant dose of ATLG in addition to standard PT-Cy. The study was designed as a real-life analysis and included all consecutive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) recipients according to the above-mentioned inclusion criterion (n = 21), excluding cord blood and bone marrow donors. Using a 1:2 matched-pair analysis, we compared the outcomes with a historical population who received PT-Cy only (control group). We found a delayed platelet engraftment (29% vs. 45% at 30 days, p = 0.03) and a non-significant trend toward higher risk of poor graft function (29% vs. 19%, p = 0.52). The addition of ATLG impacted long-term immune reconstitution on the CD4+ subsets, but this did not translate into higher rate of relapse or viral infection. Acute GvHD was not significantly impacted, but 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was significantly lower in the study group (15% vs. 41%, p = 0.04). Survival outcomes were comparable. In conclusion PT-Cy and ATLG was overall safe and translated into a low rate of chronic GvHD incidence.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324910

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of angiotensin II (ANGII) in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients is controversial. Its effect on markers of organ function is unknown. Methods: We used ANGII either as rescue vasopressor agent or as low dose vasopressor support. Patients treated before ANGII availability or in an adjacent COVID-19 ICU served as controls. For data analysis, we applied Bayesian modelling as appropriate. We assessed the effects of ANG on markers of organ function. Results: We compared 46 ANGII patients with 53 controls. Compared with controls, ANGII increased MAP (median difference, 9.05 mmHg [95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 16.22];p = 0.013) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (median difference, 23.17 [95% confidence interval, 3.46 to 42.88];p = 0.021). ANGII had no effect on lactate, urinary output, serum creatinine, C-Reactive protein, platelet count, or thromboembolic complications. However, it significantly decreased the odd ratio of liver dysfunction (odds ratio: 0.32;0.09 to 0.94) and, on Bayesian modelling, in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine, ANGII carried a 95.7% probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use. Conclusions: In ventilated COVID-19 patients, ANGII therapy was associated with increased blood pressure and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios, decreased odds ratio of liver dysfunction, and a high probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine.

5.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-172295

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement C3/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/immunology , Atrial Fibrillation/pathology , Atrial Fibrillation/virology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/immunology , Hypercholesterolemia/pathology , Hypercholesterolemia/virology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-23326

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak spread from China all around the world, causing thousands of deaths. In Italy, the hardest hit region was Lombardy, with the first reported case on 20 February 2020. San Raffaele Scientific Institute — a large tertiary hospital and research centre in Milan, Italy — was immediately involved in the management of the public health emergency. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the elective surgical activity of the hospital was rapidly reduced and large areas of the hospital were simultaneously reorganised to admit and assist patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, the hospital became the regional referral hub for cardiovascular emergencies in order to keep ensuring a high level of health care to non-COVID-19 patients in northern Italy. In a few days, a COVID-19 emergency department was created, improving the general ward capacity to a total number of 279 beds dedicated to patients with COVID-19. Moreover, the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds was increased from 28 to 72 (54 of them dedicated to patients with COVID-19, and 18 to cardiology and cardiac surgery hub emergencies), both converting pre-existing areas and creating new high technology spaces. All the involved health care personnel were rapidly trained to use personal protection equipment and to manage this particular category of patients both in general wards and ICUs. Furthermore, besides clinical activities, continuously important research projects were carried out in order to find new strategies and more effective therapies to better face an unprecedented health emergency in Italy.

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