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1.
Journal of Infection and Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773509

ABSTRACT

Background Two vaccines for COVID-19 have been approved and administered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA);Pfizer-BioNtech BNT162b2 and AstraZeneca-Oxford AZD1222 vaccines. The purpose of this study was to describe the real-world data on the outcome of single dose of these COVID-19 vaccines in a large cohort in KSA and to analyse demographics and co-morbidities as risk factors for infection post one-dose vaccination. Methods In this prospective cohort study, a total of 18,543 subjects received one dose of either of the vaccines at a vaccination centre in KSA, and were followed up for three to eight months. Data were collected from three sources;clinical data from medical records, adverse events (AEs) from a self-reporting system, and COVID-19 infection data from the national databases. The study was conducted during the pandemic restrictions on travel, mobility, and social interactions. Results The median age of participants was 33 years with an average body mass index of 27.3. The majority were males (60.1%). Results showed that 92.17% of the subjects had no COVID-19 infection post-vaccination as infection post-vaccination was documented for 1452 (7.83%). Diabetes mellitus (p=0.03), organ transplantation (p=0.02), and obesity (p<0.01) were associated with infection post-vaccination. Unlike vaccine type, being Saudi, male, or obese was associated with the occurrence breakthrough infections more than other parameters. AEs included injection site pain, fatigue, fever, myalgia, headache and was reported by 5.8% of the subjects. Conclusion Single dose COVID-19 vaccines showed a protection rate of 92.17% up to eight months follow-up in this cohort. This rate in AZD1222 was higher than what have been previously reported in effectiveness studies and clinical trials. Obese, male, and Saudi were at higher risk of contracting the infection post-vaccination, Saudi and male might have more social interaction with the public when mobility and social interactions were limited during the pandemic. Side effects and AEs were within what has been reported in clinical trials.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 261-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of COVID-19 on health, it was essential to implement a comprehensive framework for COVID-19 control and prevention. A well-recognized tool from the field of injury prevention known as the Haddon matrix was utilized. The matrix states that any accident is affected by the host, agent, and environment. Another well-recognized tool used by the national fire protection association known as the Community risk reduction tool (CRR). The (CRR) tool utilizes the Five E's of Community Risk Reduction. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the risk factors that increase the susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 infection based on the Haddon matrix and the proposed prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the literature to assess known factors contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility, infection, and severity of infection. We then used the Haddon matrix to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. We then used the community risk reduction (CRR) model to set all responses and control measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Subsequently, we incorporated both tools to develop the combined model. CONCLUSION: we proposed and implemented a combined model that utilizes the CRR model as the systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Combining both models was practical and helpful in planning the preparedness and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia that can be generalized to national and international levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101191, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Of the three lethal coronaviruses, in addition to the ongoing pandemic-causing SARS-CoV 2, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains in circulation. Information on MERS-CoV has relied on small sample of patients. We updated the epidemiology, laboratory and clinical characteristics, and survival patterns of MERS-CoV retrospectively with the largest sample of followed patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of line-listed records of non-random, continuously admitted patients who were suspected (6,873) or confirmed with MERS-CoV (501) admitted to one of the four MERS-CoV referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia, 2014-2019. FINDINGS: Of the 6,873 MERS-CoV suspected persons, the majority were male (56%) and Saudi nationals (83%) and 95% had no known history that increased their risk of exposure to MERS-CoV patients or vectors (95%). More confirmed cases reported history that increased their risk of MERS-CoV infection (41%). Among the suspected, MERS-CoV confirmation (7.4% overall) was independently associated with being male, known transmission link to MERS-CoV patients or vectors, fever, symptoms for 7 days, admission through intensive care unit, and diabetes. Among persons with confirmed MERS-CoV, single symptoms were reported by 20%, 3-symptom combinations (fever, cough and dyspnea) reported by 21% and 2-symptom combinations (fever, cough) reported by 16%. Of the two-thirds (62%) of MERS-CoV confirmed patients who presented with co-morbidity, 32% had 2-"comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension). More than half of the MERS-CoV patents showed abnormal chest X-ray, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine kinase. About a quarter of MERS-CoV patients had positive cultures on blood, urine, or respiratory secretions. During an average hospital stay of 18 days (range 11 to 30), 64% developed complications involving liver, lungs, or kidneys. Ventilation requirement (29% of MERS-CoV cases) was independently associated with abnormal chest X-ray, viremia (Ct value <30), elevated creatinine, and prothrombin time. Death (21% overall) was independently associated with older age, dyspnea and abnormal chest X-ray on admission, and low hemoglobulin levels. INTERPRETATIONS: With two-thirds of the symptomatic persons developing multiorgan complications MERS-CoV remains the coronavirus with the highest severity (29%) and case fatality rate (21%) among the three lethal coronaviruses. Metabolic abnormalities appear to be an independent risk factor for sustained MERS-CoV transmission. The poorly understood transmission dynamics and non-specific clinical and laboratory features call for high index of suspicion among respiratory disease experts to help early detection of outbreaks. We reiterate the need for case control studies on transmission. FUNDING: No special funding to declare.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3923-3934, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-chain ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. As of March 25, 2021, the total number of positive cases and fatalities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had reached 386,300 and 6624, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 1.71%. The KSA was among the leading nations to heed the advice of WHO officials and put strict precautionary and preventive measures in place to curb the early spread of COVID-19 before it was declared a global pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This was an uncontrolled before-after study following a mixed-method approach for data collection. National and regional data were extracted from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network (HESN), a centralized public health collection system for quantitative and statistical data. Quantitative and qualitative methods have been utilized in studying data derived from tech media. RESULTS: The Saudi authorities utilized different technological tools to aid in managing and combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In the case of Al Madinah Al Mounawarah, after the implementation of several technologies, the most important being Tawakkalna, the number of active daily cases decreased by 61%. CONCLUSION: The use of the Tawakkalna application was proven to be a successful method in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic in the KSA. This vital and essential experience warrants the use of different digital technology that offers a personalized profile displaying the person's status (affected, vaccinated, or no history of infection). This application played and will continue to play a crucial and effective role in pandemic containment in Saudi Arabia.

7.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1174-1178, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347716

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious serious acute respiratory syndrome that has emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread rapidly throughout the world including Saudi Arabia. An important source of infection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Healthcare workers (HCWs) have a greater risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection than the general population. Globally, thousands of HCWs have lost their lives due to COVID-19 infection. AIM: Identify Incidence Rate and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 infection among health workers in Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study carried from March to November 2020. HCWs selected by a Complete Enumeration Survey method. Data analyzed in frequencies and percentage tables. To test the differences, post hoc after chi-square-(χ2) tests were used. RESULTS: As of November 30, 2020, a total of 57,159 HCWs tested positive with COVID-19. Their median age was 34 years, and 53% were male. Nurses were the most infected HCWs category (36%). The most common source of infection was from the community (78%). The majority of HCWs who acquired the infection from healthcare facilities got the infection from another HCW (63%). There was a significant difference between community and healthcare-acquired COVID-19 in relation to gender (P < 0.001) nationality (P < 0.001) job categories (P < 0.001) three age groups (<26: P = 0.012, 26-35 and 36-45: P < 0.001), and among HCWs who worked in MOH and private healthcare facilities (P < 0.001). The total number of reported deaths among HCWs during the study period was 198, with a case fatality rate of (0.35%). CONCLUSION: This study findings show that infected HCWs characteristics were similar to the previous studies and indicate incidence rates of 10% among COVID-19 infected HCWs in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the infection status of HCWs is critical, to understand their needs and challenges, improve protective measures, and provide effective recommendations for policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
8.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0021921, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319381

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infection that emerged in the Middle East in 2012. Symptoms range from mild to severe and include both respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses. The virus is mainly present in camel populations with occasional zoonotic spill over into humans. The severity of infection in humans is influenced by numerous factors, and similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), underlying health complications can play a major role. Currently, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are coincident in the Middle East and thus a rapid way of sequencing MERS-CoV to derive genotype information for molecular epidemiology is needed. Additionally, complicating factors in MERS-CoV infections are coinfections that require clinical management. The ability to rapidly characterize these infections would be advantageous. To rapidly sequence MERS-CoV, an amplicon-based approach was developed and coupled to Oxford Nanopore long read length sequencing. This and a metagenomic approach were evaluated with clinical samples from patients with MERS. The data illustrated that whole-genome or near-whole-genome information on MERS-CoV could be rapidly obtained. This approach provided data on both consensus genomes and the presence of minor variants, including deletion mutants. The metagenomic analysis provided information of the background microbiome. The advantage of this approach is that insertions and deletions can be identified, which are the major drivers of genotype change in coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in late 2012 in Saudi Arabia. The virus is a serious threat to people not only in the Middle East but also in the world and has been detected in over 27 countries. MERS-CoV is spreading in the Middle East and neighboring countries, and approximately 35% of reported patients with this virus have died. This is the most severe coronavirus infection so far described. Saudi Arabia is a destination for many millions of people in the world who visit for religious purposes (Umrah and Hajj), and so it is a very vulnerable area, which imposes unique challenges for effective control of this epidemic. The significance of our study is that clinical samples from patients with MERS were used for rapid in-depth sequencing and metagenomic analysis using long read length sequencing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Microbiota/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(7): 1607-1620, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298388

ABSTRACT

The complement system, a network of highly-regulated proteins, represents a vital part of the innate immune response. Over-activation of the complement system plays an important role in inflammation, tissue damage, and infectious disease severity. The prevalence of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia remains significant and cases are still being reported. The role of complement in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pathogenesis and complement-modulating treatment strategies has received limited attention, and studies involving MERS-CoV-infected patients have not been reported. This study offers the first insight into the pulmonary expression profile including seven complement proteins, complement regulatory factors, IL-8, and RANTES in MERS-CoV infected patients without underlying chronic medical conditions. Our results significantly indicate high expression levels of complement anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a), IL-8, and RANTES in the lungs of MERS-CoV-infected patients. The upregulation of lung complement anaphylatoxins, C5a, and C3a was positively correlated with IL-8, RANTES, and the fatality rate. Our results also showed upregulation of the positive regulatory complement factor P, suggesting positive regulation of the complement during MERS-CoV infection. High levels of lung C5a, C3a, factor P, IL-8, and RANTES may contribute to the immunopathology, disease severity, ARDS development, and a higher fatality rate in MERS-CoV-infected patients. These findings highlight the potential prognostic utility of C5a, C3a, IL-8, and RANTES as biomarkers for MERS-CoV disease severity and mortality. To further explore the prediction of functional partners (proteins) of highly expressed proteins (C5a, C3a, factor P, IL-8, and RANTES), the computational protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and six proteins (hub nodes) were identified.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL5/genetics , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Complement C3a/metabolism , Complement C5a/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Complement C3a/genetics , Complement C5a/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Interleukin-8/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Up-Regulation
10.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(7): 682-691, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study presents the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia (KSA). It identifies the important predictors of the disease prognosis. METHODS: The study reviewed and analysed a sample of 307,010 confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 cases, between March and August 2020, available in the health electronic surveillance system (HESN) of the Ministry of Health of KSA. Descriptive and univariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The overall estimated prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 cases in KSA between March and August 2020 was 6.1% . The estimated incidence proportion was 879.7 per 100,000 population. The overall case fatality ratio was 2.0%. Males represented 63.9% , with a mean age of 35.1 ± 16.6 years. Young adults (16-39 years) were the most affected ages (53.3%). Fever (90.5%) with a mean body temperature of 37.4 ± 2.0 Celsius, cough (90%), and sore throat (77.4%) were the most prevalent symptoms. A history of contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case was reported in 98.8% of patients.Males (2.1%) and elderly cases aged 65-99 years (25.6%) had the highest association with mortality (p < .001). Among the clinical characteristics investigated, low oxygen saturation (SpO2 ≤ 93%) had the highest association with hospital admission (50.8%) and mortality (19.1%) (p < .001). Cases with cardiovascular diseases (28.6%) and malignancy (28%) demonstrated the highest associations with mortality compared to other underlying diseases (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In KSA, the prevalent symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, and sore throat. Makkah and Almadinah regions are significantly associated with highest burden of mortality. The low level of oxygen saturation, high fever, old age, and underlying cardiovascular disease are the most important predictors for prognosis.

11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 606385, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063369

ABSTRACT

A highly accelerating number of people around the world have been infected with novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mass screening programs were suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an effective precautionary measure to contain the spread of the virus. On 16 April 2020, a COVID-19 mass screening program was initiated in Saudi Arabia in multiple phases. This study aims to analyze the number of detected COVID-19 cases, their demographic data, and regions most affected in the initial two phases of these mass screening programs. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the high-risk population as part of the COVID-19 mass screening program across all regions in Saudi Arabia during April and May 2020. A Chi-square-test was used to determine the associations between positive cases and various demographic variables. Out of 71,854 screened individuals, 13.50% (n = 9701) were COVID-19 positive, of which 83.27% (n = 59,835) were males. Among positive cases, in the 30-39 years age group, 6.36% were in the active phase, and 2.19% were in the community phase. Based on our experience, launching mass screening programs is crucial for early case detection, isolation, and pattern recognition for immediate public interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(4): 437-443, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 patients, and the risk factors associated with death in Saudi Arabia to serve as a reference to further understand this pandemic and to help in the future decisions and control of this global crisis. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 240,474 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected retrospectively through the Health Electronic Surveillance Network at the Ministry of Health. Patients were classified based on their outcome as recovered, dead, or active with no definite outcome. We must specify the date period. RESULTS: As of 20th of June 2020, 79.7% of COVID-19 cases were young and middle-aged, ranging between 20-59 years. There was evidently a difference in the sex ratio, where males constituted 71.7% of cases. The majority were non-Saudi nationals, representing 54.7% of cases. Furthermore, the contraction of COVID-19 was travel-related in 45.1% of cases. Signs and symptoms were reported in 63% of cases, the most common of which were fever; 85.2%, and cough; 85%. Deaths occurred more frequently in patients 40-49 years, 50-59 years, and 60-69 years, representing 19.2%, 27.9%, and 21.3% of deaths, respectively. Additionally, the case fatality rate (CFR) was higher in older age-groups, reaching 10.1% in those ≥80 years. Moreover, the CFR of males was higher than that of females, with 0.95% and 0.62%, respectively. As for nationality, Saudis had a CFR of 0.46% versus 1.19% in non-Saudis. CONCLUSION: The total number of positive COVID-19 cases detected constitute 0.7% of the Saudi population to date. Older age, non-Saudi nationalities, being male, travelling outside Saudi Arabia, and the presence of symptoms, as opposed to being asymptomatic were considered risk factors and found to be significantly more associated with death in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Travel , Young Adult
13.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 3173-3178, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013261

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 has become a significant threat to economic activity throughout the world, and it has made life particularly difficult for research institutions. According to a report published by Spain's largest public research body, Cybermetrics Labs, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) is ranked first among the leading hospitals in the Arab world, and it has instituted a wide range of policy changes to accommodate researchers by providing them with additional flexibility. The aim of this project was to highlight the most prevalent COVID-related global challenges facing research institutions and describe how research protocol at KFSH&RC has been adjusted to minimize the disruption experienced by its researchers.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(17): 1645-1656, 2020 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether combined treatment with recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir reduces mortality among patients hospitalized with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, adaptive, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled patients at nine sites in Saudi Arabia. Hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed MERS were randomly assigned to receive recombinant interferon beta-1b plus lopinavir-ritonavir (intervention) or placebo for 14 days. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality, with a one-sided P-value threshold of 0.025. Prespecified subgroup analyses and safety analyses were conducted. Because of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the data and safety monitoring board requested an unplanned interim analysis and subsequently recommended the termination of enrollment and the reporting of the results. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients were enrolled; 43 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 52 to the placebo group. A total of 12 patients (28%) in the intervention group and 23 (44%) in the placebo group died by day 90. The analysis of the primary outcome, with accounting for the adaptive design, yielded a risk difference of -19 percentage points (upper boundary of the 97.5% confidence interval [CI], -3; one-sided P = 0.024). In a prespecified subgroup analysis, treatment within 7 days after symptom onset led to lower 90-day mortality than use of placebo (relative risk, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75), whereas later treatment did not. Serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (9%) in the intervention group and in 10 (19%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir led to lower mortality than placebo among patients who had been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed MERS. The effect was greatest when treatment was started within 7 days after symptom onset. (Funded by the King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; MIRACLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02845843.).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interferon beta-1b/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time-to-Treatment
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1571-1574, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610771

ABSTRACT

During March 2016-March 2019, a total of 200,936 suspected cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection were identified in Saudi Arabia; infections were confirmed in 698 cases (0.3% [0.7/100,000 population per year]). Continued surveillance is necessary for early case detection and timely infection control response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(7): 920-925, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global battle to contain the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rages on. Previous studies described the clinical characteristics of COVID-19, but knowledge gaps remain in the Middle East region. Identifying these features will help in mapping the disease and guiding pandemic management. A multi-center, retrospective cross-sectional study was initiated to describe the demographic data, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19 cases across all the regions of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The analysis included all laboratory-confirmed positive COVID-19 patients from the 1st of March 2020 to 31st of March 2020 across all regions of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, incubation periods, laboratory findings, and patient outcomes data were retrieved from 1519 cases in the Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database. RESULTS: The median age was 36 years and 54.3% (n = 825) of the patients were men. Patients working in health care facilities represented 12.5% of the cases (n = 190) and 9.3% of cases were asymptomatic. The median incubation period was 6 days. The most common symptoms were cough (89.4%), fever (85.6%), and sore throat (81.6%); 20.1% of the patients had underlying comorbidities. Hypertension was seen in 8.8% and diabetes in 7.6% of all the cases. The percentage of cases with temperatures >38Ö¯C was 20.3% (n = 129), and 1.6% of patients had heart rates ≥125 beats/min and 4.7% of them had respiratory rates of >24 breaths/min. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 37.5% of cases. Overall, 71.6% of patients were admitted to hospitals and 4.7% required ICU treatment. We could not completely assess the clinical courses or final outcomes of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: In this multi-center retrospective study, fever and cough were common symptoms. Special attention should be addressed toward asymptomatic carriers and workers in health care facilities as they play a key role in disease transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
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