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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19551, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119159

ABSTRACT

Previous studies investigated the frequency of different adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines. However, this study compares these adverse events between the two main COVID-19 vaccines used in Saudi Arabia (Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca) using telemedicine technology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 958 individuals, 7 days after receiving either Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines during June 2021. Immediate adverse events were reported by 1.04% and 2.09% for Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines, respectively, with no serious events. Recipients of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had a higher percentage of local adverse events (24.8% versus 9.8% in AstraZeneca vaccine). The most common reported systemic adverse events in both vaccines respectively were general fatigue (23.1% and 25.1%), fever (18.5% and 27.2%), myalgia (20.6% and 20.3%), and headache (15.2% and 17.2%). No significant difference was recorded between both vaccines regarding overall systemic adverse events; however, they were more frequent following the first dose of AstraZeneca vaccine compared to Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, while the reverse was observed for the second dose. Adverse events were more frequent in females and younger age groups for both vaccines. Most of systemic and local adverse events were mild in nature. Further cohort studies are recommended to investigate the long-term adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18186, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096799

ABSTRACT

Animal and human data indicate variable effects of interferons in treating coronavirus infections according to inflammatory status and timing of therapy. In this sub-study of the MIRACLE trial (MERS-CoV Infection Treated with a Combination of Lopinavir-Ritonavir and Interferon ß-1b), we evaluated the heterogeneity of treatment effect of interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir versus placebo among hospitalized patients with MERS on 90-day mortality, according to cytokine levels and timing of therapy. We measured plasma levels of 17 cytokines at enrollment and tested the treatment effect on 90-day mortality according to cytokine levels (higher versus lower levels using the upper tertile (67%) as a cutoff point) and time to treatment (≤ 7 days versus > 7 days of symptom onset) using interaction tests. Among 70 included patients, 32 received interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir and 38 received placebo. Interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir reduced mortality in patients with lower IL-2, IL-8 and IL-13 plasma concentrations but not in patients with higher levels (p-value for interaction = 0.09, 0.07, and 0.05, respectively) and with early but not late therapy (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity of treatment effect according to other cytokine levels. Further work is needed to evaluate whether the assessment of inflammatory status can help in identifying patients with MERS who may benefit from interferon-ß1b and lopinavir-ritonavir. Trial registration: This is a sub-study of the MIRACLE trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02845843).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Ritonavir , Animals , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe complications from COVID-19 and poor responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were commonly reported in cancer patients compared to those without cancer. Therefore, the identification of predisposing factors to SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients would assist in the prevention of COVID-19 and improve vaccination strategies. The literature lacks reports on this topic from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, we studied clinical and laboratory data of 139 cancer patients from King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, KSA. METHODS: The cancer patients fall into three categories; (i) uninfected with SARS-CoV-2 pre-vaccination and remained uninfected post-vaccination (control group; n = 114; 81%), (ii) pre-vaccination infected group (n = 16; 11%), or (iii) post-vaccination infected group (n = 9; 6%). Next, the clinical and lab data of the three groups of patients were investigated. RESULTS: Comorbidity factors like diabetes and hemodialysis were associated with the risk of infection in cancer patients before the vaccination (p<0.05). In contrast to breast cancer, papillary thyroid cancer was more prevalent in the infected patients pre- and post-vaccination (p<0.05). Pre-vaccination infected group had earlier cancer stages compared with the control group (p = 0.01). On the other hand, combined therapy was less commonly administrated to the infected groups versus the control group (p<0.05). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was lower in the post-vaccination infected group compared to the control group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Collectively, this is the first study from KSA to report potential risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients pre- and post-vaccination. Further investigations on these risk factors in a larger cohort are worthwhile to draw a definitive conclusion about their roles in predisposing cancer patients to the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060327
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041952

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: After the impressive results of the 2020 Hajj management, Saudi authorities decided to expand the quota to 60,000 pilgrims in 2021, which resulted in a convenient and successful experience. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective pre and post-study study conducted on all pilgrims attending the 2021 Hajj using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test surveillance with paired-swab samples (pre-Hajj and post-Hajj) to evaluate the risk potential of COVID-19 among Hajj pilgrims, the effectiveness of preventive measures and the potential effect of the Hajj ritual as a huge mass gathering on the epidemiological situation of the Saudi Arabian population. RESULT: Forty-one cases had positive COVID-19 infections out of a total of 58,428 pilgrims who attended the 2021 Hajj season, as detected by nonmandatory pre- and post-Hajj PCR. Notably, the 2021 Hajj season achieved a decreasing leg of the COVID-19 pandemic curve. The adjusted incidence rate in KSA from July 11th to August 7th ranged from 19 to 24 cases per 100,000 population. In contrast, the incidence rate for the same duration in Hajj ranged from 3 to 7 cases per 100,000 pilgrims. CONCLUSION: The Saudi mitigation plan ensured the safety of pilgrims and healthcare workers for Hajj, successfully limited the risk of COVID-19 transmission inside and contributed to global health security. The success story of Hajj in 2020 and 2021 during the pandemic represents a successful model for planning, achieving and managing future mass gatherings by integrating technology with global and national health policies and public health measures.

6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 578-585, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is an important healthcare burden. We examined persistent symptoms in COVID-19 patients at least four weeks after the onset of infection, participants' return to pre-COVID-19 health status and associated risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted (December 2020 to January 2021). A validated online questionnaire was sent to randomly selected individuals aged more than 14 years from a total of 1397,386 people confirmed to have COVID-19 at least 4 weeks prior to the start of this survey. This sample was drawn from the Saudi ministry of health COVID-19 testing registry system. RESULTS: Out of the 9507 COVID-19 patients who responded to the survey, 5946 (62.5%) of them adequately completed it. 2895 patients (48.7%) were aged 35-44 years, 64.4% were males, and 91.5% were Middle Eastern or North African. 79.4% experienced unresolved symptoms for at least 4 weeks after the disease onset. 9.3% were hospitalized with 42.7% visiting healthcare facility after discharge and 14.3% requiring readmission. The rates of main reported persistent symptoms in descending order were fatigue 53.5%, muscle and body ache 38.2%, loss of smell 35.0%, joint pain 30.5%, and loss of taste 29.1%. There was moderate correlation between the number of symptoms at the onset and post-four weeks of COVID-19 infection. Female sex, pre-existing comorbidities, increased number of baseline symptoms, longer hospital-stay, and hospital readmission were predictors of delayed return to baseline health state (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The symptoms of PACS are prevalent after contracting COVID-19 disease. Several risk factors could predict delayed return to baseline health state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 573-577, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two vaccines for COVID-19 have been approved and administered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); Pfizer-BioNtech BNT162b2 and AstraZeneca-Oxford AZD1222 vaccines. The purpose of this study was to describe the real-world data on the outcome of single dose of these COVID-19 vaccines in a large cohort in KSA and to analyse demographics and co-morbidities as risk factors for infection post one-dose vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 18,543 subjects received one dose of either of the vaccines at a vaccination centre in KSA, and were followed up for three to eight months. Data were collected from three sources; clinical data from medical records, adverse events (AEs) from a self-reporting system, and COVID-19 infection data from the national databases. The study was conducted during the pandemic restrictions on travel, mobility, and social interactions. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 33 years with an average body mass index of 27.3. The majority were males (60.1%). Results showed that 92.17% of the subjects had no COVID-19 infection post-vaccination as infection post-vaccination was documented for 1452 (7.83%). Diabetes mellitus 03), organ transplantation (p = 0.02), and obesity (p < 0.01) were associated with infection post-vaccination. Unlike vaccine type, being Saudi, male, or obese was associated with the occurrence breakthrough infections more than other parameters. AEs included injection site pain, fatigue, fever, myalgia, headache and was reported by 5.8% of the subjects. CONCLUSION: Single dose COVID-19 vaccines showed a protection rate of 92.17% up to eight months follow-up in this cohort. This rate in AZD1222 was higher than what have been previously reported in effectiveness studies and clinical trials. Obese, male, and Saudi were at higher risk of contracting the infection post-vaccination, Saudi and male might have more social interaction with the public when mobility and social interactions were limited during the pandemic. Side effects and AEs were within what has been reported in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 261-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of COVID-19 on health, it was essential to implement a comprehensive framework for COVID-19 control and prevention. A well-recognized tool from the field of injury prevention known as the Haddon matrix was utilized. The matrix states that any accident is affected by the host, agent, and environment. Another well-recognized tool used by the national fire protection association known as the Community risk reduction tool (CRR). The (CRR) tool utilizes the Five E's of Community Risk Reduction. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the risk factors that increase the susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 infection based on the Haddon matrix and the proposed prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the literature to assess known factors contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility, infection, and severity of infection. We then used the Haddon matrix to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. We then used the community risk reduction (CRR) model to set all responses and control measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Subsequently, we incorporated both tools to develop the combined model. CONCLUSION: we proposed and implemented a combined model that utilizes the CRR model as the systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Combining both models was practical and helpful in planning the preparedness and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia that can be generalized to national and international levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:116-116, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1594812

ABSTRACT

B Introduction: b The COVID-19 pandemic remains an immediate and present concern, yet as of now there is still ongoing controversial discussions about the available therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19. B Method: b A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Asir Central Hospital in Saudi Arabia between the 1 SP st sp and 30 SP th sp of June 2020. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1109-1113, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. AIMS: This study aimed to provide an update on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to October 2020. METHODS: Data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to 20 October 2020 were retrieved from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network of the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia. Data collected were: demographic characteristics of cases, clinical course of the infection, related mortality and association with exposure to confirmed cases or camels. RESULTS: In total, 299 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the study period. The mean age of cases was 52.4 years. Most of the cases were males (78.9%) and had comorbidities (72.7%), and 11.9% of cases were health care providers. Of the 299 cases, 83 (27.7%) died. Older age and having comorbidities were associated with higher mortality. Exposure to camels was associated with lower mortality. Health care providers also had a lower mortality rate than non-health care providers. Compared with COVID-19, MERS-CoV infection still has a higher mortality rate but with a more predictable pattern and an anticipated deterioration. CONCLUSION: MERS-CoV infection remains a public health concern. The percentage of cases that were health care providers (11.9%) is lower than previously reported (19.1-25.0%), possibly due to the various preventive measures put in place to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1114-1124, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most countries rushed to take early measures to control this disease. AIMS: This paper describes and evaluates the Saudi Arabian strategic preparedness and response plan on COVID-19 up to 31 December 2020. METHODS: Saudi Arabia adopted the World Health Organization's guidelines on response to COVID-19, which are based on nine pillars of public health preparedness and response. The measures Saudi Arabia took are assessed against these pillars. RESULTS: In response to COVID-19, Saudi Arabia prepared public and private institutions to deal with the pandemic. Saudi authorities established a governance system comprised of responsible committees to continuously monitor national and international updates, trace contacts, screen the population, raise awareness and take proper actions to contain the spread of this disease. After the announcement of the first case in Saudi Arabia, all schools, social events, sports activities, domestic travel and international flights were suspended. Restrictions on social movement, social and religious gatherings, travel and businesses were imposed ahead of the first 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases. The Hajj pilgrimage for 2020 was scaled down to limit participants and no cases of COVID-19 were detected among pilgrims. The country maintained all basic health services and immunization programmes and supported all proposals for COVID-19 drugs and vaccines. The country is working to develop its capacity to produce these products and achieve self-sufficiency. CONCLUSION: Saudi Arabia took extreme measures to respond to COVID-19 which contributed to limiting the spread and effect of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Travel , Vaccination
13.
Infection ; 50(3): 643-649, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection had been investigated utilizing serology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community-based sero-survey was carried out in the neighborhoods of three cities in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Of 5629 participants, 2766 (49.1%) were women; and 2148 (38.1%) were 18-34 years of age, and 3645 (64.7%) were from South East Asia. Positive serology was seen in 2825 (50.2% (95% CI: 48.8-51.5%) for SARS-CoV-2 anti-S1 IgG antibodies by ECLIA. Being in the age category of 18-34 years and being from Eastern Mediterranean Region (country A) were associated with higher COVID-19 seropositivity with estimated odds ratio of 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.8] and 2.5 [95% CI 1.1.5-4.2] respectively. Gender, social status, education, nationality, symptoms, presence of comorbidities and activity style were positively associated with increased seropositivity. Factors associated negatively with the rate of seropositivity were higher education and having outdoor activity with estimated OR of 0.92 [95% CI 0.46-0.95] and 0.59 [95% CI 0.47-0.74], respectively. CONCLUSION: The study showed high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among high density population. Health education campaigns should target middle-aged, those with low education, those living in lower standards and indoor workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101191, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Of the three lethal coronaviruses, in addition to the ongoing pandemic-causing SARS-CoV 2, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains in circulation. Information on MERS-CoV has relied on small sample of patients. We updated the epidemiology, laboratory and clinical characteristics, and survival patterns of MERS-CoV retrospectively with the largest sample of followed patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of line-listed records of non-random, continuously admitted patients who were suspected (6,873) or confirmed with MERS-CoV (501) admitted to one of the four MERS-CoV referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia, 2014-2019. FINDINGS: Of the 6,873 MERS-CoV suspected persons, the majority were male (56%) and Saudi nationals (83%) and 95% had no known history that increased their risk of exposure to MERS-CoV patients or vectors (95%). More confirmed cases reported history that increased their risk of MERS-CoV infection (41%). Among the suspected, MERS-CoV confirmation (7.4% overall) was independently associated with being male, known transmission link to MERS-CoV patients or vectors, fever, symptoms for 7 days, admission through intensive care unit, and diabetes. Among persons with confirmed MERS-CoV, single symptoms were reported by 20%, 3-symptom combinations (fever, cough and dyspnea) reported by 21% and 2-symptom combinations (fever, cough) reported by 16%. Of the two-thirds (62%) of MERS-CoV confirmed patients who presented with co-morbidity, 32% had 2-"comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension). More than half of the MERS-CoV patents showed abnormal chest X-ray, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine kinase. About a quarter of MERS-CoV patients had positive cultures on blood, urine, or respiratory secretions. During an average hospital stay of 18 days (range 11 to 30), 64% developed complications involving liver, lungs, or kidneys. Ventilation requirement (29% of MERS-CoV cases) was independently associated with abnormal chest X-ray, viremia (Ct value <30), elevated creatinine, and prothrombin time. Death (21% overall) was independently associated with older age, dyspnea and abnormal chest X-ray on admission, and low hemoglobulin levels. INTERPRETATIONS: With two-thirds of the symptomatic persons developing multiorgan complications MERS-CoV remains the coronavirus with the highest severity (29%) and case fatality rate (21%) among the three lethal coronaviruses. Metabolic abnormalities appear to be an independent risk factor for sustained MERS-CoV transmission. The poorly understood transmission dynamics and non-specific clinical and laboratory features call for high index of suspicion among respiratory disease experts to help early detection of outbreaks. We reiterate the need for case control studies on transmission. FUNDING: No special funding to declare.

16.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 142-151, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases during the subsequent waves in Saudi Arabia and other countries prompted the Saudi Critical Care Society (SCCS) to put together a panel of experts to issue evidence-based recommendations for the management of COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The SCCS COVID-19 panel included 51 experts with expertise in critical care, respirology, infectious disease, epidemiology, emergency medicine, clinical pharmacy, nursing, respiratory therapy, methodology, and health policy. All members completed an electronic conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel addressed 9 questions that are related to the therapy of COVID-19 in the ICU. We identified relevant systematic reviews and clinical trials, then used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach as well as the evidence-to-decision framework (EtD) to assess the quality of evidence and generate recommendations. RESULTS: The SCCS COVID-19 panel issued 12 recommendations on pharmacotherapeutic interventions (immunomodulators, antiviral agents, and anticoagulants) for severe and critical COVID-19, of which 3 were strong recommendations and 9 were weak recommendations. CONCLUSION: The SCCS COVID-19 panel used the GRADE approach to formulate recommendations on therapy for COVID-19 in the ICU. The EtD framework allows adaptation of these recommendations in different contexts. The SCCS guideline committee will update recommendations as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3923-3934, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-chain ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. As of March 25, 2021, the total number of positive cases and fatalities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had reached 386,300 and 6624, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 1.71%. The KSA was among the leading nations to heed the advice of WHO officials and put strict precautionary and preventive measures in place to curb the early spread of COVID-19 before it was declared a global pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This was an uncontrolled before-after study following a mixed-method approach for data collection. National and regional data were extracted from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network (HESN), a centralized public health collection system for quantitative and statistical data. Quantitative and qualitative methods have been utilized in studying data derived from tech media. RESULTS: The Saudi authorities utilized different technological tools to aid in managing and combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In the case of Al Madinah Al Mounawarah, after the implementation of several technologies, the most important being Tawakkalna, the number of active daily cases decreased by 61%. CONCLUSION: The use of the Tawakkalna application was proven to be a successful method in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic in the KSA. This vital and essential experience warrants the use of different digital technology that offers a personalized profile displaying the person's status (affected, vaccinated, or no history of infection). This application played and will continue to play a crucial and effective role in pandemic containment in Saudi Arabia.

19.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1274-1278, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains an immediate and present concern, yet as of now there is still no approved therapeutic available for the treatment of COVID-19.This study aimed to investigate and report evidence concerning demographic characteristics and currently-used medications that contribute to the ultimate outcomes of COVID-19 ICU patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all COVID-19 patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Asir Central Hospital in Saudi Arabia between the 1st and 30th of June 2020. Data extracted from patients' medical records included their demographics, home medications, medications used to treat COVID-19, treatment durations, ICU stay, hospital stay, and ultimate outcome (recovery or death).Descriptive statistics and regression modelling were used to analyze and compare the results. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees at both Asir Central Hospital and King Khalid University. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients with median age of 57 years having definite clinical and disease outcomes were included in the study. Male patients accounted for 87% of the study population, and more than 65% experienced at least one comorbidity. The mean hospital and ICU stay was 11.4 and 9.8 days, respectively. The most common drugs used were tocilizumab (31.4%), triple combination therapy (45.8%), favipiravir (56.8%), dexamethasone (86.7%), and enoxaparin (83%). Treatment with enoxaparin significantly reduced the length of ICU stay (p = 0.04) and was found to be associated with mortality reduction in patients aged 50-75 (p = 0.03), whereas the triple regimen therapy and tocilizumab significantly increased the length of ICU stay in all patients (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 tends to affect males more significantly than females. The use of enoxaparin is an important part of COVID-19 treatment, especially for those above 50 years of age, while the use of triple combination therapy and tocilizumab in COVID-19 protocols should be reevaluated and restricted to patients who have high likelihood of benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1174-1178, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347716

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious serious acute respiratory syndrome that has emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread rapidly throughout the world including Saudi Arabia. An important source of infection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Healthcare workers (HCWs) have a greater risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection than the general population. Globally, thousands of HCWs have lost their lives due to COVID-19 infection. AIM: Identify Incidence Rate and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 infection among health workers in Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study carried from March to November 2020. HCWs selected by a Complete Enumeration Survey method. Data analyzed in frequencies and percentage tables. To test the differences, post hoc after chi-square-(χ2) tests were used. RESULTS: As of November 30, 2020, a total of 57,159 HCWs tested positive with COVID-19. Their median age was 34 years, and 53% were male. Nurses were the most infected HCWs category (36%). The most common source of infection was from the community (78%). The majority of HCWs who acquired the infection from healthcare facilities got the infection from another HCW (63%). There was a significant difference between community and healthcare-acquired COVID-19 in relation to gender (P < 0.001) nationality (P < 0.001) job categories (P < 0.001) three age groups (<26: P = 0.012, 26-35 and 36-45: P < 0.001), and among HCWs who worked in MOH and private healthcare facilities (P < 0.001). The total number of reported deaths among HCWs during the study period was 198, with a case fatality rate of (0.35%). CONCLUSION: This study findings show that infected HCWs characteristics were similar to the previous studies and indicate incidence rates of 10% among COVID-19 infected HCWs in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the infection status of HCWs is critical, to understand their needs and challenges, improve protective measures, and provide effective recommendations for policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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