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1.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:16004-16006, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436630

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate a health-friendly speaker verification system for voice-based identity verification on mobile devices. The system is built upon a speech processing module, a ResNet-based local acoustic feature extractor and a multi head attention-based embedding layer, and is optimized under an additive margin softmax loss for discriminative speaker verification. It is shown that the system achieves superior performance no matter whether there is mask wearing or not. This characteristic is important for speaker verification services operating in regions affected by the raging coronavirus pneumonia. With this demonstrationl, the audience will have an in-depth experience of how the accuracy of bio-metric verification and the personal health are simultaneously ensured. We wish that this demonstration would boost the development of next-generation bio-metric verification technologies.

2.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:10469-10477, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436946

ABSTRACT

Combining the increasing availability and abundance of healthcare data and the current advances in machine learning methods have created renewed opportunities to improve clinical decision support systems. However, in healthcare risk prediction applications, the proportion of cases with the condition (label) of interest is often very low relative to the available sample size. Though very prevalent in healthcare, such imbalanced classification settings are also common and challenging in many other scenarios. So motivated, we propose a variational disentanglement approach to semi-parametrically learn from rare events in heavily imbalanced classification problems. Specifically, we leverage the imposed extreme-distribution behavior on a latent space to extract information from low-prevalence events, and develop a robust prediction arm that joins the merits of the generalized additive model and isotonic neural nets. Results on synthetic studies and diverse real-world datasets, including mortality prediction on a COVID-19 cohort, demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms existing alternatives.

3.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:15424-15430, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436934

ABSTRACT

An accurate and efficient forecasting system is imperative to the prevention of emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19 in public health. This system requires accurate transient modeling, lower computation cost, and fewer observation data. To tackle these three challenges, we propose a novel deep learning approach using black-box knowledge distillation for both accurate and efficient transmission dynamics prediction in a practical manner. First, we leverage mixture models to develop an accurate, comprehensive, yet impractical simulation system. Next, we use simulated observation sequences to query the simulation system to retrieve simulated projection sequences as knowledge. Then, with the obtained query data, sequence mixup is proposed to improve query efficiency, increase knowledge diversity, and boost distillation model accuracy. Finally, we train a student deep neural network with the retrieved and mixed observation projection sequences for practical use. The case study on COVID-19 justifies that our approach accurately projects infections with much lower computation cost when observation data are limited.

4.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:15393-15400, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436877

ABSTRACT

How do we forecast an emerging pandemic in real time in a purely data-driven manner? How to leverage rich heterogeneous data based on various signals such as mobility, testing, and/or disease exposure for forecasting? How to handle noisy data and generate uncertainties in the forecast? In this paper, we present DEEPCOVID, an operational deep learning framework designed for real-time COVID-19 forecasting. DEEPCOVID works well with sparse data and can handle noisy heterogeneous data signals by propagating the uncertainty from the data in a principled manner resulting in meaningful uncertainties in the forecast. The deployed framework also consists of modules for both real-time and retrospective exploratory analysis to enable interpretation of the forecasts. Results from real-time predictions (featured on the CDC website and FiveThirtyEight.com) since April 2020 indicates that our approach is competitive among the methods in the COVID-19 Forecast Hub, especially for short-term predictions.

5.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:15362-15369, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436830

ABSTRACT

In Natural Language (NL) applications, there is often a mismatch between what the NL interface is capable of interpreting and what a lay user knows how to express. This work describes a novel natural language interface that reduces this mismatch by refining natural language input through successive, automatically generated semi-structured templates. In this paper we describe how our approach, called SKATE, uses a neural semantic parser to parse NL input and suggest semi-structured templates, which are recursively filled to produce fully structured interpretations. We also show how SKATE integrates with a neural rule-generation model to interactively suggest and acquire commonsense knowledge. We provide a preliminary coverage analysis of SKATE for the task of story understanding, and then describe a current business use-case of the tool in a specific domain: COVID-19 policy design.

6.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:15137-15145, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436815

ABSTRACT

The number of published PDF documents in both the academic and commercial world has increased exponentially in recent decades. There is a growing need to make their rich content discoverable to information retrieval tools. Achieving high-quality semantic searches demands that a document's structural components such as title, section headers, paragraphs, (nested) lists, tables and figures (including their captions) are properly identified. Unfortunately, the PDF format is known to not conserve such structural information because it simply represents a document as a stream of low-level printing commands, in which one or more characters are placed in a bounding box with a particular styling. In this paper, we present a novel approach to document structure recovery in PDF using recurrent neural networks to process the low-level PDF data representation directly, instead of relying on a visual re-interpretation of the rendered PDF page, as has been proposed in previous literature. We demonstrate how a sequence of PDF printing commands can be used as input into a neural network and how the network can learn to classify each printing command according to its structural function in the page. This approach has three advantages: First, it can distinguish among more fine-grained labels (typically 10-20 labels as opposed to 1-5 with visual methods), which results in a more accurate and detailed document structure resolution. Second, it can take into account the text flow across pages more naturally compared to visual methods because it can concatenate the printing commands of sequential pages. Last, our proposed method needs less memory and it is computationally less expensive than visual methods. This allows us to deploy such models in production environments at a much lower cost. Through extensive architectural search in combination with advanced feature engineering, we were able to implement a model that yields a weighted average F-1 score of 97% across 17 distinct structural labels. The best model we achieved is currently served in production environments on our Corpus Conversion Service (CCS), which was presented at KDD18. This model enhances the capabilities of CCS significantly, as it eliminates the need for human annotated label ground-truth for every unseen document layout. This proved particularly useful when applied to a huge corpus of PDF articles related to COVID-19.

7.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:16044-16047, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436787

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most severe challenges the world faces today. In order to contain the transmission of COVID-19, people around the world have been advised to practise social distancing. However, maintaining social distance is a challenging problem, as we often do not know beforehand how crowded the places we intend to visit are. In this paper, we demonstrate crowded.sg, an AI-empowered platform that leverages on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), crowdsourced images, and computer vision techniques to provide social distancing decision support.

8.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:16029-16031, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436748

ABSTRACT

We present KAAPA (Knowledge Aware Answers from PDF Analysis), an integrated solution for machine reading comprehension over both text and tables extracted from PDFs. KAAPA enables interactive question refinement using facets generated from an automatically induced Knowledge Graph. In addition, it provides a concise summary of the supporting evidence for the provided answers by aggregating information across multiple sources. KAAPA can be applied consistently to any collection of documents in English with zero domain adaptation effort. We showcase the use of KAAPA for QA on scientific literature using the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset.

9.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:15755-15756, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436698

ABSTRACT

For high-stakes prediction making, the Responsible Artificial Intelligence (RAI) is more important than ever. It builds upon Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) to advance the efforts in providing fairness, model explainability, and accountability to the AI systems. During the literature review of COVID-19 related prognosis and diagnosis, we found out that most of the predictive models are not faithful to the RAI principles, which can lead to biassed results and wrong reasoning. To solve this problem, we show how novel XAI techniques boost transparency, reproducibility and quality of models.

10.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:5330-5338, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1395937

ABSTRACT

We study the problem of fairly allocating a divisible resource, also known as cake cutting, with an additional requirement that the shares that different agents receive should be sufficiently separated from one another. This captures, for example, constraints arising from social distancing guidelines. While it is sometimes impossible to allocate a proportional share to every agent under the separation requirement, we show that the well-known criterion of maximin share fairness can always be attained. We then establish several computational properties of maximin share fairness-for instance, the maximin share of an agent cannot be computed exactly by any finite algorithm, but can be approximated with an arbitrarily small error. In addition, we consider the division of a pie (i.e., a circular cake) and show that an ordinal relaxation of maximin share fairness can be achieved.

11.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4892-4900, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381797

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has crushed daily routines and is still rampaging through the world. Existing solution for nonpharmaceutical interventions usually needs to timely and precisely select a subset of residential urban areas for containment or even quarantine, where the spatial distribution of confirmed cases has been considered as a key criterion for the subset selection. While such containment measure has successfully stopped or slowed down the spread of COVID-19 in some countries, it is criticized for being inefficient or ineffective, as the statistics of confirmed cases are usually time-delayed and coarse-grained. To tackle the issues, we propose C-Watcher, a novel data-driven framework that aims at screening every neighborhood in a target city and predicting infection risks, prior to the spread of COVID-19 from epicenters to the city. In terms of design, C-Watcher collects large-scale long-term human mobility data from Baidu Maps, then characterizes every residential neighborhood in the city using a set of features based on urban mobility patterns. Furthermore, to transfer the firsthand knowledge (witted in epicenters) to the target city before local outbreaks, we adopt a novel adversarial encoder framework to learn "city-invariant" representations from the mobility-related features for precise early detection of high-risk neighborhoods, even before any confirmed cases known, in the target city. We carried out extensive experiments on C-Watcher using the real-data records in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreaks, where the results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of C-Watcher for early detection of high-risk neighborhoods from a large number of cities.

12.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4883-4891, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic provides new motivation for a classic problem in epidemiology: estimating the empirical rate of transmission during an outbreak (formally, the time-varying reproduction number) from case counts. While standard methods exist, they work best at coarse-grained national or state scales with abundant data, and struggle to accommodate the partial observability and sparse data common at finer scales (e.g., individual schools or towns). For example, case counts may be sparse when only a small fraction of infections are caught by a testing program. Or, whether an infected individual tests positive may depend on the kind of test and the point in time when they are tested. We propose a Bayesian framework which accommodates partial observability in a principled manner. Our model places a Gaussian process prior over the unknown reproduction number at each time step and models observations sampled from the distribution of a specific testing program. For example, our framework can accommodate a variety of kinds of tests (viral RNA, antibody, antigen, etc.) and sampling schemes (e.g., longitudinal or cross-sectional screening). Inference in this framework is complicated by the presence of tens or hundreds of thousands of discrete latent variables. To address this challenge, we propose an efficient stochastic variational inference method which relies on a novel gradient estimator for the variational objective. Experimental results for an example motivated by COVID-19 show that our method produces an accurate and well-calibrated posterior, while standard methods for estimating the reproduction number can fail badly.

13.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4864-4873, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381768

ABSTRACT

A molecular and cellular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 variably infects and causes severe COVID-19 remains a bottleneck in developing interventions to end the pandemic. We sought to use deep learning (DL) to study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity by identifying transcriptomic patterns and cell types associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. To do this, we developed a new approach to generating self-supervised edge features. We propose a model that builds on Graph Attention Networks (GAT), creates edge features using self-supervised learning, and ingests these edge features via a Set Transformer. This model achieves significant improvements in predicting the disease state of individual cells, given their transcriptome. We apply our model to single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung organoids and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of patients with COVID-19, achieving state-of-the-art performance on both datasets with our model. We then borrow from the field of explainable AI (XAI) to identify the features (genes) and cell types that discriminate bystander vs. infected cells across time and moderate vs. severe COVID-19 disease. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first application of DL to identifying the molecular and cellular determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity using single-cell omics data.

14.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4855-4863, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381760

ABSTRACT

Forecasting influenza in a timely manner aids health organizations and policymakers in adequate preparation and decision making. However, effective influenza forecasting still remains a challenge despite increasing research interest. It is even more challenging amidst the COVID pandemic, when the influenza-like illness (ILI) counts are affected by various factors such as symptomatic similarities with COVID-19 and shift in healthcare seeking patterns of the general population. Under the current pandemic, historical influenza models carry valuable expertise about the disease dynamics but face difficulties adapting. Therefore, we propose CALI-NET, a neural transfer learning architecture which allows us to 'steer' a historical disease forecasting model to new scenarios where flu and COVID co-exist. Our framework enables this adaptation by automatically learning when it should emphasize learning from COVID-related signals and when it should learn from the historical model. Thus, we exploit representations learned from historical ILI data as well as the limited COVID-related signals. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is successful in adapting a historical forecasting model to the current pandemic. In addition, we show that success in our primary goal, adaptation, does not sacrifice overall performance as compared with state-of-the-art influenza forecasting approaches.

15.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4846-4854, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381752

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the new pandemic, i.e., COVID-19, has severely threatened global health. Deep-learning-based computer-aided screening, e.g., COVID-19 infected CT area segmentation, has attracted much attention. However, the publicly available COVID-19 training data are limited, easily causing overfitting for traditional deep learning methods that are usually data-hungry with millions of parameters. On the other hand, fast training/testing and low computational cost are also necessary for quick deployment and development of COVID-19 screening systems, but traditional deep learning methods are usually computationally intensive. To address the above problems, we propose MiniSeg, a lightweight deep learning model for efficient COVID-19 segmentation. Compared with traditional segmentation methods, MiniSeg has several significant strengths: i) it only has 83K parameters and is thus not easy to overfit;ii) it has high computational efficiency and is thus convenient for practical deployment;iii) it can be fast retrained by other users using their private COVID-19 data for further improving performance. In addition, we build a comprehensive COVID-19 segmentation benchmark for comparing MiniSeg to traditional methods.

16.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4838-4845, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381743

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has affected millions of individuals around the world and has posed a significant challenge to global healthcare. From the early days of the pandemic, it became clear that it is highly contagious and that human mobility contributes significantly to its spread. In this paper, we utilize graph representation learning to capitalize on the underlying relationship of population movement with the spread of COVID-19. Specifically, we create a graph where the nodes correspond to a country's regions, the features include the region's history of COVID-19, and the edge weights denote human mobility from one region to another. Subsequently, we employ graph neural networks to predict the number of future cases, encoding the underlying diffusion patterns that govern the spread into our learning model. Furthermore, to account for the limited amount of training data, we capitalize on the pandemic's asynchronous outbreaks across countries and use a model-agnostic meta-learning based method to transfer knowledge from one country's model to another's. We compare the proposed approach against simple baselines and more traditional forecasting techniques in 4 European countries. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method, highlighting the usefulness of GNNs in epidemiological prediction. Transfer learning provides the best model, highlighting its potential to improve the accuracy of the predictions in case of secondary waves, given data from past/parallel outbreaks.

17.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4874-4882, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381709

ABSTRACT

Supervised learning method requires a large volume of annotated datasets. Collecting such datasets is time-consuming and expensive. Until now, very few annotated COVID-19 imaging datasets are available. Although self-supervised learning enables us to bootstrap the training by exploiting unlabeled data, the generic self-supervised methods for natural images do not sufficiently incorporate the context. For medical images, a desirable method should be sensitive enough to detect deviation from normal-appearing tissue of each anatomical region;here, anatomy is the context. We introduce a novel approach with two levels of self-supervised representation learning objectives: one on the regional anatomical level and another on the patient-level. We use graph neural networks to incorporate the relationship between different anatomical regions. The structure of the graph is informed by anatomical correspondences between each patient and an anatomical atlas. In addition, the graph representation has the advantage of handling any arbitrarily sized image in full resolution. Experiments on large-scale Computer Tomography (CT) datasets of lung images show that our approach compares favorably to baseline methods that do not account for the context. We use the learnt embedding to quantify the clinical progression of COVID-19 and show that our method generalizes well to COVID-19 patients from different hospitals. Qualitative results suggest that our model can identify clinically relevant regions in the images.

18.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4830-4837, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381699

ABSTRACT

Accurate prediction of the transmission of epidemic diseases such as COVID-19 is crucial for implementing effective mitigation measures. In this work, we develop a tensor method to predict the evolution of epidemic trends for many regions simultaneously. We construct a 3-way spatio-temporal tensor (location, attribute, time) of case counts and propose a nonnegative tensor factorization with latent epidemiological model regularization named STELAR. Unlike standard tensor factorization methods which cannot predict slabs ahead, STELAR enables long-term prediction by incorporating latent temporal regularization through a system of discrete-time difference equations of a widely adopted epidemiological model. We use latent instead of location/attribute-level epidemiological dynamics to capture common epidemic profile sub-types and improve collaborative learning and prediction. We conduct experiments using both county- and state-level COVID-19 data and show that our model can identify interesting latent patterns of the epidemic. Finally, we evaluate the predictive ability of our method and show superior performance compared to the baselines, achieving up to 21% lower root mean square error and 25% lower mean absolute error for county-level prediction.

19.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:7754-7761, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381686

ABSTRACT

In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, many social activities have moved online;society's overwhelming reliance on the complex cyberspace makes its security more important than ever. In this paper, we propose and develop an intelligent system named Dr.HIN to protect users against the evolving Android malware attacks in the COVID-19 era and beyond. In Dr.HIN, besides app content, we propose to consider higher-level semantics and social relations among apps, developers and mobile devices to comprehensively depict Android apps;and then we introduce a structured heterogeneous information network (HIN) to model the complex relations and exploit meta-path guided strategy to learn node (i.e., app) representations from HIN. As the representations of malware could be highly entangled with benign apps in the complex ecosystem of development, it poses a new challenge of learning the latent explanatory factors hidden in the HIN embeddings to detect the evolving malware. To address this challenge, we propose to integrate domain priors generated from different views (i.e., app content, app authorship, app installation) to devise an adversarial disentangler to separate the distinct, informative factors of variations hidden in the HIN embeddings for large-scale Android malware detection. This is the first attempt of disentangled representation learning in HIN data. Promising experimental results based on real sample collections from security industry demonstrate the performance of Dr.HIN in evolving Android malware detection, by comparison with baselines and popular mobile security products.

20.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence / 33rd Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence / 11th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence ; 35:4821-4829, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1381682

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread globally for several months. Because its transmissibility and high pathogenicity seriously threaten people's lives, it is crucial to accurately and quickly detect COVID-19 infection. Many recent studies have shown that deep learning (DL) based solutions can help detect COVID-19 based on chest CT scans. However, most existing work focuses on 2D datasets, which may result in low quality models as the real CT scans are 3D images. Besides, the reported results span a broad spectrum on different datasets with a relatively unfair comparison. In this paper, we first use three state-of-the-art 3D models (ResNet3D101, DenseNet3D121, and MC3 18) to establish the baseline performance on three publicly available chest CT scan datasets. Then we propose a differentiable neural architecture search (DNAS) framework to automatically search the 3D DL models for 3D chest CT scans classification and use the Gumbel Softmax technique to improve the search efficiency. We further exploit the Class Activation Mapping (CAM) technique on our models to provide the interpretability of the results. The experimental results show that our searched models (CovidNet3D) outperform the baseline human-designed models on three datasets with tens of times smaller model size and higher accuracy. Furthermore, the results also verify that CAM can be well applied in CovidNet3D for COVID-19 datasets to provide interpretability for medical diagnosis. Code: https://github.com/HKBU-HPML/CovidNet3D.

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