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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065985

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to disrupt health systems worldwide, conducting Rapid Antigen Testing (RAT) at specified intervals has become an essential part of many people's lives around the world. We identified and analyzed the academic literature on COVID-19 RAT. The Web of Science electronic database was queried on 6 July 2022 to find relevant publications. Publication and citation data were retrieved directly from the database. VOSviewer, a bibliometric software, was then used to relate these data to the semantic content from the titles, abstracts, and keywords. The analysis was based on data from 1000 publications. The most productive authors were from Japan and the United States, led by Dr. Koji Nakamura from Japan (n = 10, 1.0%). The most academically productive countries were in the North America, Europe and Asia, led by the United States of America (n = 266, 26.6%). Sensitivity (n = 32, 3.2%) and specificity (n = 23, 2.3%) were among the most frequently recurring author keywords. Regarding sampling methods, "saliva" (n = 54, 5.4%) was mentioned more frequently than "nasal swab" (n = 32, 3.2%) and "nasopharyngeal swab" (n = 22, 2.2%). Recurring scenarios that required RAT were identified: emergency department, healthcare worker, mass screening, airport, traveler, and workplace. Our bibliometric analysis revealed that COVID-19 RAT has been utilized in a range of studies. RAT results were cross-checked with RT-PCR tests for sensitivity and specificity. These results are consistent with comparable exchanges of methods, results or discussions among laboratorians, authors, institutions and publishers in the involved countries of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States
2.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046228

ABSTRACT

Background Crowdsourcing is a low-cost, adaptable, and innovative method to collect ideas from numerous contributors with diverse backgrounds. Crowdsourcing from social media like Twitter can be used for generating ideas in a noticeably brief time based on contributions from globally distributed users. The world has been challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic in the last several years. Measures to combat the pandemic continue to evolve worldwide, and ideas and opinions on optimal counteraction strategies are of high interest. Objective This study aimed to validate the use of Twitter as a crowdsourcing platform in order to gain an understanding of public opinion on what measures can help to end the COVID-19 pandemic faster. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from December 22, 2021, to February 4, 2022. Tweets were posted by accounts operated by the authors, asking “How to faster end the COVID-19 pandemic?” and encouraging the viewers to comment on measures that they perceive would be effective to achieve this goal. The ideas from the users' comments were collected and categorized into two major themes – personal and institutional measures. In the final stage of the campaign, a Twitter poll was conducted to get additional comments and to estimate which of the two groups of measures were perceived to be important amongst Twitter users. Results The crowdsourcing campaign generated seventeen suggested measures categorized into two major themes (personal and institutional) that received a total of 1,727 endorsements (supporting comments, retweets, and likes). The poll received a total of 325 votes with 58% of votes underscoring the importance of both personal and institutional measures, 20% favoring personal measures, 11% favoring institutional measures, and 11% of the votes given just out of curiosity to see the vote results. Conclusions Twitter was utilized successfully for crowdsourcing ideas on strategies how to end the COVID-19 pandemic faster. The results indicate that the Twitter community highly values the significance of both personal responsibility and institutional measures to counteract the pandemic. This study validates the use of Twitter as a primary tool that could be used for crowdsourcing ideas with healthcare significance.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e36086, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital technology uses in cardiology have become a popular research focus in recent years. However, there has been no published bibliometric report that analyzed the corresponding academic literature in order to derive key publishing trends and characteristics of this scientific area. OBJECTIVE: We used a bibliometric approach to identify and analyze the academic literature on digital technology uses in cardiology, and to unveil popular research topics, key authors, institutions, countries, and journals. We further captured the cardiovascular conditions and diagnostic tools most commonly investigated within this field. METHODS: The Web of Science electronic database was queried to identify relevant papers on digital technology uses in cardiology. Publication and citation data were acquired directly from the database. Complete bibliographic data were exported to VOSviewer, a dedicated bibliometric software package, and related to the semantic content of titles, abstracts, and keywords. A term map was constructed for findings visualization. RESULTS: The analysis was based on data from 12,529 papers. Of the top 5 most productive institutions, 4 were based in the United States. The United States was the most productive country (4224/12,529, 33.7%), followed by United Kingdom (1136/12,529, 9.1%), Germany (1067/12,529, 8.5%), China (682/12,529, 5.4%), and Italy (622/12,529, 5.0%). Cardiovascular diseases that had been frequently investigated included hypertension (152/12,529, 1.2%), atrial fibrillation (122/12,529, 1.0%), atherosclerosis (116/12,529, 0.9%), heart failure (106/12,529, 0.8%), and arterial stiffness (80/12,529, 0.6%). Recurring modalities were electrocardiography (170/12,529, 1.4%), angiography (127/12,529, 1.0%), echocardiography (127/12,529, 1.0%), digital subtraction angiography (111/12,529, 0.9%), and photoplethysmography (80/12,529, 0.6%). For a literature subset on smartphone apps and wearable devices, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (20/632, 3.2%) and other JMIR portfolio journals (51/632, 8.0%) were the major publishing venues. CONCLUSIONS: Digital technology uses in cardiology target physicians, patients, and the general public. Their functions range from assisting diagnosis, recording cardiovascular parameters, and patient education, to teaching laypersons about cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This field already has had a great impact in health care, and we anticipate continued growth.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Cardiology , Mobile Applications , Bibliometrics , Digital Technology , Humans , United States
4.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(6): e35754, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization Emergency Committee declared the rapid worldwide spread of COVID-19 a global health emergency. By December 2020, the safety and efficacy of the first COVID-19 vaccines had been demonstrated. However, international vaccination coverage rates have remained below expectations (in Europe at the time of manuscript submission). Controversial mandatory vaccination is currently being discussed and has already been introduced in some countries (Austria, Greece, and Italy). We used the Twitter survey system as a viable method to quickly and comprehensively gather international public health insights on mandatory vaccination against COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand the public's perception of mandatory COVID-19 vaccination in real time using Twitter polls. METHODS: Two Twitter polls were developed (in the English language) to seek the public's opinion on the possibility of mandatory vaccination. The polls were pinned to the Digital Health and Patient Safety Platform's (based in Vienna, Austria) Twitter timeline for 1 week in mid-November 2021, 3 days after the official public announcement of mandatory COVID-19 vaccination in Austria. Twitter users were asked to participate and retweet the polls to reach the largest possible audience. RESULTS: Our Twitter polls revealed two extremes on the topic of mandatory vaccination against COVID-19. Almost half of the 2545 respondents (n=1246, 49%) favor mandatory vaccination, at least in certain areas. This attitude contrasts with the 45.7% (n=1162) who categorically reject mandatory vaccination. Over one-quarter (n=621, 26.3%) of participating Twitter users said they would never get vaccinated, as reflected by the current Western European and North American vaccination coverage rate. Concatenating interpretation of these two polls should be done cautiously as participating populations might substantially differ. CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory vaccination against COVID-19 (in at least certain areas) is favored by less than 50%, whereas it is opposed by almost half of the surveyed Twitter users. Since (social) media strongly influences public perceptions and views, and social media discussions and surveys are specifically susceptible to the "echo chamber effect," the results should be interpreted as a momentary snapshot. Therefore, the results of this study need to be complemented by long-term surveys to maintain their validity.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903390

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is an infectious pathology generated by intense severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infectious disease has emerged in 2019. The COVID-19-associated pandemic has considerably affected the way of life and the economy in the world. It is consequently crucial to find solutions allowing remedying or alleviating the effects of this infectious disease. Natural products have been in perpetual application from immemorial time given that they are attested to be efficient towards several illnesses without major side effects. Various studies have shown that plant extracts or purified molecules have a promising inhibiting impact towards coronavirus. In addition, it is substantial to understand the characteristics, susceptibility and impact of diet on patients infected with COVID-19. In this review, we recapitulate the influence of extracts or pure molecules from medicinal plants on COVID-19. We approach the possibilities of plant treatment/co-treatment and feeding applied to COVID-19. We also show coronavirus susceptibility and complications associated with nutrient deficiencies and then discuss the major food groups efficient on COVID-19 pathogenesis. Then, we covered emerging technologies using plant-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We conclude by giving nutrient and plants curative therapy recommendations which are of potential interest in the COVID-19 infection and could pave the way for pharmacological treatments or co-treatments of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diet , Humans , Incidence , Nutrients , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 14(11):2194, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857009

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is an infectious pathology generated by intense severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infectious disease has emerged in 2019. The COVID-19-associated pandemic has considerably affected the way of life and the economy in the world. It is consequently crucial to find solutions allowing remedying or alleviating the effects of this infectious disease. Natural products have been in perpetual application from immemorial time given that they are attested to be efficient towards several illnesses without major side effects. Various studies have shown that plant extracts or purified molecules have a promising inhibiting impact towards coronavirus. In addition, it is substantial to understand the characteristics, susceptibility and impact of diet on patients infected with COVID-19. In this review, we recapitulate the influence of extracts or pure molecules from medicinal plants on COVID-19. We approach the possibilities of plant treatment/co-treatment and feeding applied to COVID-19. We also show coronavirus susceptibility and complications associated with nutrient deficiencies and then discuss the major food groups efficient on COVID-19 pathogenesis. Then, we covered emerging technologies using plant-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We conclude by giving nutrient and plants curative therapy recommendations which are of potential interest in the COVID-19 infection and could pave the way for pharmacological treatments or co-treatments of COVID-19.

8.
Metabolites ; 12(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810023

ABSTRACT

This study centered on detecting potentially anti-inflammatory active constituents in ethanolic extracts of Chinese Lonicera species by taking an UHPLC-HRMS-based metabolite profiling approach. Extracts from eight different Lonicera species were subjected to both UHPLC-HRMS analysis and to pharmacological testing in three different cellular inflammation-related assays. Compounds exhibiting high correlations in orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) of pharmacological and MS data served as potentially activity-related candidates. Of these candidates, 65 were tentatively or unambiguously annotated. 7-Hydroxy-5,3',4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone and three bioflavonoids, as well as three C32- and one C34-acetylated polyhydroxy fatty acid, were isolated from Lonicera hypoglauca leaves for the first time, and their structures were fully or partially elucidated. Of the potentially active candidate compounds, 15 were subsequently subjected to pharmacological testing. Their activities could be experimentally verified in part, emphasizing the relevance of Lonicera species as a source of anti-inflammatory active constituents. However, some compounds also impaired the cell viability. Overall, the approach was found useful to narrow down the number of potentially bioactive constituents in the complex extracts investigated. In the future, the application of more refined concepts, such as extract prefractionation combined with bio-chemometrics, may help to further enhance the reliability of candidate selection.

9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(3): e34003, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Online information on COVID-19 vaccination may influence people's perception and willingness to be vaccinated. Official websites of vaccination programs have not been systematically assessed before. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess and compare the readability and content quality of web-based information on COVID-19 vaccination posted on official/governmental websites. Furthermore, the relationship between evaluated website parameters and country vaccination rates were calculated. METHODS: By referring to an open data set hosted at Our World in Data, the 58 countries/regions with the highest total vaccination count as of July 8, 2021, were identified. Together with the websites from the World Health Organization and European Union, a total of 60 vaccination campaign websites were targeted. The "frequently asked questions" or "questions and answers" section of the websites were evaluated in terms of readability (Flesch Reading Ease score and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level), quality (Health On the Net Foundation code [HONcode] certification and Quality Evaluation Scoring Tool), and content stating vaccination duration of protection and potential side effects. RESULTS: In terms of readability, the Flesch Reading Ease score of the vaccination frequently asked questions websites ranged between 11.2 and 69.5, with a mean of 40.9 (SD 13.2). Meanwhile, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level ranged between 6.5 and 17.6, with a mean of 12.1 (SD 2.8). In terms of quality, only 2 websites were HONcode certified, and the Quality Evaluation Scoring Tool score of the websites ranged between 7 and 20, with a mean of 15.3 (SD 3.1). Half of the websites (25/50) did not present a publication date or date of the last update. Regarding the duration of protection offered by the vaccines, 46% (23/50) of the websites stated that they do not know, and another 40% (20/50) did not address it. Five side effects of the vaccinations were most frequently mentioned, namely, fever/chill (41/50, 82%), various injection site discomfort events (eg, swelling, redness, or pain; 39/50, 78%), headache (36/50, 72%), fatigue (33/50, 66%), and muscle/joint pain (31/50, 62%). CONCLUSIONS: In general, the content quality of most of the evaluated websites was good, but HONcode certification should be considered, content should be written in a more readable manner, and a publication date or date of the last update should be presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Comprehension , Humans , Reading , Vaccination
10.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 17(5): 473-487, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730521

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged as a major public health threat, has affected >400 million people globally leading to >5 million mortalities to date. Treatments of COVID-19 are still to be developed as the available therapeutic approaches are not able to combat the virus causing the disease (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; SARS-CoV-2) satisfactorily. However, antiviral peptides (AVPs) have demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic effects against many coronaviruses (CoVs). AREAS COVERED: This review critically discusses various types of AVPs evaluated for the treatment of COVID-19 along with their mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the peptides inhibiting the entry of the virus by targeting its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or integrins, fusion mechanism as well as activation of proteolytic enzymes (cathepsin L, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), or furin) are also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Although extensively investigated, successful treatment of COVID-19 is still a challenge due to emergence of virus mutants. Antiviral peptides are anticipated to be blockbuster drugs for the management of this serious infection because of their formulation and therapeutic advantages. Although they may act on different pathways, AVPs having a multi-targeted approach are considered to have the upper hand in the management of this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
11.
JMIR Med Educ ; 8(1): e32747, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital teaching in medical education has grown in popularity in the recent years. However, to the best of our knowledge, no bibliometric report to date has been published that analyzes this important literature set to reveal prevailing topics and trends and their impacts reflected in citation counts. OBJECTIVE: We used a bibliometric approach to unveil and evaluate the scientific literature on digital teaching research in medical education, demonstrating recurring research topics, productive authors, research organizations, countries, and journals. We further aimed to discuss some of the topics and findings reported by specific highly cited works. METHODS: The Web of Science electronic database was searched to identify relevant papers on digital teaching research in medical education. Basic bibliographic data were obtained by the "Analyze" and "Create Citation Report" functions of the database. Complete bibliographic data were exported to VOSviewer for further analyses. Visualization maps were generated to display the recurring author keywords and terms mentioned in the titles and abstracts of the publications. RESULTS: The analysis was based on data from 3978 papers that were identified. The literature received worldwide contributions with the most productive countries being the United States and United Kingdom. Reviews were significantly more cited, but the citations between open access vs non-open access papers did not significantly differ. Some themes were cited more often, reflected by terms such as virtual reality, innovation, trial, effectiveness, and anatomy. Different aspects in medical education were experimented for digital teaching, such as gross anatomy education, histology, complementary medicine, medicinal chemistry, and basic life support. Some studies have shown that digital teaching could increase learning satisfaction, knowledge gain, and even cost-effectiveness. More studies were conducted on trainees than on undergraduate students. CONCLUSIONS: Digital teaching in medical education is expected to flourish in the future, especially during this era of COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e28152, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media has been extensively used for the communication of health-related information and consecutively for the potential spread of medical misinformation. Conventional systematic reviews have been published on this topic to identify original articles and to summarize their methodological approaches and themes. A bibliometric study could complement their findings, for instance, by evaluating the geographical distribution of the publications and determining if they were well cited and disseminated in high-impact journals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the current literature to discover the prevalent trends and topics related to medical misinformation on social media. METHODS: The Web of Science Core Collection electronic database was accessed to identify relevant papers with the following search string: ALL=(misinformati* OR "wrong informati*" OR disinformati* OR "misleading informati*" OR "fake news*") AND ALL=(medic* OR illness* OR disease* OR health* OR pharma* OR drug* OR therap*) AND ALL=("social media*" OR Facebook* OR Twitter* OR Instagram* OR YouTube* OR Weibo* OR Whatsapp* OR Reddit* OR TikTok* OR WeChat*). Full records were exported to a bibliometric software, VOSviewer, to link bibliographic information with citation data. Term and keyword maps were created to illustrate recurring terms and keywords. RESULTS: Based on an analysis of 529 papers on medical and health-related misinformation on social media, we found that the most popularly investigated social media platforms were Twitter (n=90), YouTube (n=67), and Facebook (n=57). Articles targeting these 3 platforms had higher citations per paper (>13.7) than articles covering other social media platforms (Instagram, Weibo, WhatsApp, Reddit, and WeChat; citations per paper <8.7). Moreover, social media platform-specific papers accounted for 44.1% (233/529) of all identified publications. Investigations on these platforms had different foci. Twitter-based research explored cyberchondria and hypochondriasis, YouTube-based research explored tobacco smoking, and Facebook-based research studied vaccine hesitancy related to autism. COVID-19 was a common topic investigated across all platforms. Overall, the United States contributed to half of all identified papers, and 80% of the top 10 most productive institutions were based in this country. The identified papers were mostly published in journals of the categories public environmental and occupational health, communication, health care sciences services, medical informatics, and medicine general internal, with the top journal being the Journal of Medical Internet Research. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant platform-specific topic preference for social media investigations on medical misinformation. With a large population of internet users from China, it may be reasonably expected that Weibo, WeChat, and TikTok (and its Chinese version Douyin) would be more investigated in future studies. Currently, these platforms present research gaps that leave their usage and information dissemination warranting further evaluation. Future studies should also include social platforms targeting non-English users to provide a wider global perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Bibliometrics , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542586

ABSTRACT

Compounds of natural origin, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovering new medicines. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring ellagitannins, sanguiins, which are bioactive constituents of various traditional medicinal plants, especially from the Rosaceae family. In-depth studies of sanguiin H-6 as an antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory agent have led to potent drug candidates. In addition, recently, virtual screening studies have suggested that sanguiin H-6 might increase resistance toward SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of infection. Further experimental investigations on ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) supplemented with molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation are still needed to fully understand sanguiins' mechanism of action. In sum, sanguiins appear to be promising compounds for additional studies, especially for their application in therapies for a multitude of common and debilitating ailments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Animals , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pharmacokinetics , Rosaceae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Aging Dis ; 12(3): 710-717, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315005

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the People's Republic of China and the World Health Organization first reported on a cluster of pneumonia with an unknown cause. Nine months later more than 1.4 million people have died from COVID 19. In this work, the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on five nursing homes in Austria, which cared for 889 residents in the first half of 2020, were examined. The research question was whether the measures taken were appropriate to prevent an outbreak within the individual facilities. To detect previously unrecognized infections, the present study evaluated the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in residents and employees of the nursing homes. Following the analysis of blood samples, the prospectively collected data was connected to data from screening examinations and data from contact tracing. The present study demonstrated an overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in nursing homes of 3.7%. Whereas the prevalence in those facilities that have never been hit by an outbreak is 0%, the prevalence in those facilities with an outbreak is up to 4.9%. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 35 persons. A retrospective analysis of all 5 included nursing homes demonstrated that upon regular clinical screening in combination with PCRs an infection with SARS-COV-2 was detected in 66 residents and 24 employees from different professional groups. In only 25 of the 35 persons with neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 an infection was proven in advance. This study suggests that specific measures can prevent transmission within a health care facility. Nevertheless, the results also show that a risk reduction to 0% cannot be achieved. In preparation for further pandemic waves there is still the need to reduce the probability of a transmission in nursing homes with specific test strategies.

15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1016-1028, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226495

ABSTRACT

Elastase is a proteolytic enzyme belonging to the family of hydrolases produced by human neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Human neutrophil elastase is known to play multiple roles in the human body, but an increase in its activity may cause a variety of diseases. Elastase inhibitors may prevent the development of psoriasis, chronic kidney disease, respiratory disorders (including COVID-19), immune disorders, and even cancers. Among polyphenolic compounds, some flavonoids and their derivatives, which are mostly found in herbal plants, have been revealed to influence elastase release and its action on human cells. This review focuses on elastase inhibitors that have been discovered from natural sources and are biochemically characterised as flavonoids. The inhibitory activity on elastase is a characteristic of flavonoid aglycones and their glycoside and methylated, acetylated and hydroxylated derivatives. The presented analysis of structure-activity relationship (SAR) enables the determination of the chemical groups responsible for evoking an inhibitory effect on elastase. Further study especially of the in vivo efficacy and safety of the described natural compounds is of interest in order to gain better understanding of their health-promoting potential.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Leukocyte Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Neutrophils/enzymology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neutrophils/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
Current Research in Biotechnology ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1213124

ABSTRACT

The open innovation hub Digital Health and Patient Safety Platform (DHPSP) was recently established with the purpose to invigorate collaborative scientific research and the development of new digital products and personalized solutions aiming to improve human health and patient safety. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a Twitter-based campaign centered on using the hashtag #DHPSP to promote the visibility of the DHPSP initiative. Thus, tweets containing #DHPSP were monitored for five weeks for the period 20.10.2020-24.11.2020 and were analyzed with Symplur Signals (social media analytics tool). In the study period, a total of 11,005 tweets containing #DHPSP were posted by 3,020 Twitter users, generating 151,984,378 impressions. Analysis of the healthcare stakeholder-identity of the Twitter users who used #DHPSP revealed that the most of participating user accounts belonged to individuals or doctors, with the top three user locations being the United States (501 users), the United Kingdom (155 users), and India (121 users). Analysis of co-occurring hashtags and the full text of the posted tweets further revealed that the major themes of attention in the #DHPSP Twitter-community were related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), medicine and health, digital health technologies, and science communication in general. Overall, these results indicate that the #DHPSP initiative achieved high visibility and engaged a large body of Twitter users interested in the DHPSP focus area. Moreover, the conducted campaign resulted in an increase of DHPSP member enrollments and website visitors, and new scientific collaborations were formed. Thus, Twitter campaigns centered on a dedicated hashtag prove to be a highly efficient tool for visibility-promotion, which could be successfully utilized by healthcare-related open innovation platforms or initiatives.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e28973, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization's Emergency Committee declared the rapid, worldwide spread of COVID-19 a global health emergency. Since then, tireless efforts have been made to mitigate the spread of the disease and its impact, and these efforts have mostly relied on nonpharmaceutical interventions. By December 2020, the safety and efficacy of the first COVID-19 vaccines were demonstrated. The large social media platform Twitter has been used by medical researchers for the analysis of important public health topics, such as the public's perception on antibiotic use and misuse and human papillomavirus vaccination. The analysis of Twitter-generated data can be further facilitated by using Twitter's built-in, anonymous polling tool to gain insight into public health issues and obtain rapid feedback on an international scale. During the fast-paced course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Twitter polling system has provided a viable method for gaining rapid, large-scale, international public health insights on highly relevant and timely SARS-CoV-2-related topics. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand the public's perception on the safety and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines in real time by using Twitter polls. METHODS: We developed 2 Twitter polls to explore the public's views on available COVID-19 vaccines. The surveys were pinned to the Digital Health and Patient Safety Platform Twitter timeline for 1 week in mid-February 2021, and Twitter users and influencers were asked to participate in and retweet the polls to reach the largest possible audience. RESULTS: The adequacy of COVID-19 vaccine safety (ie, the safety of currently available vaccines; poll 1) was agreed upon by 1579 out of 3439 (45.9%) Twitter users. In contrast, almost as many Twitter users (1434/3439, 41.7%) were unsure about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Only 5.2% (179/3439) of Twitter users rated the available COVID-19 vaccines as generally unsafe. Poll 2, which addressed the question of whether users would undergo vaccination, was answered affirmatively by 82.8% (2862/3457) of Twitter users, and only 8% (277/3457) categorically rejected vaccination at the time of polling. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the perceived high level of uncertainty about the safety of the available COVID-19 vaccines, we observed an elevated willingness to undergo vaccination among our study sample. Since people's perceptions and views are strongly influenced by social media, the snapshots provided by these media platforms represent a static image of a moving target. Thus, the results of this study need to be followed up by long-term surveys to maintain their validity. This is especially relevant due to the circumstances of the fast-paced pandemic and the need to not miss sudden rises in the incidence of vaccine hesitancy, which may have detrimental effects on the pandemic's course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the world has been experiencing an extraordinary state of emergency. As patients entering a doctor's practice can potentially infect medical staff and other patients, using digital alternatives wherever possible is a potential solution to avoiding face-to-face encounters. In these conditions, telemedicine is becoming increasingly relevant. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine telemedicine use and gathered experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In June 2020, a representative group of Austrian respondents (n = 1000) was asked via online survey whether they had contacted a doctor during spring of 2020, and, if so, whether they had used a telemedical method to do so. The survey also reflected gathered experiences and degrees of satisfaction with the use of telemedicine. RESULTS: A third (33%) of those who contacted a doctor during the target period did so using telemedical tools. The majority of those with previous telehealth experience were satisfied with the help they received. Patients commonly used a telephone to contact their doctors. The overall assessment of telemedical aids tended to be positive, with more than half (53%) of those surveyed seeing significant advantages, and a 90% satisfaction rate among the respondents who used telehealth services. CONCLUSION: The outcomes from this work hint at fairly high acceptance of telemedical communication tools in the studied group of the Austrian population. Based on the high rate of satisfaction among patients who used telehealth, it is expected that the use of telehealth services will increase further in the near future.

19.
Process. ; 8(8)20200801.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-693340

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, there have been more than 10 million reported cases, more than 517,000 deaths in 215 countries, areas or territories. There is no effective antiviral medicine to prevent or treat COVID-19. Natural products and traditional medicine products with known safety profiles are a promising source for the discovery of new drug leads. There is increasing number of publications reporting the effect of natural products and traditional medicine products on COVID-19. In our review, we provide an overview of natural products and their derivatives or mimics, as well as traditional medicine products, which were reported to exhibit potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, and to manage COVID-19 in vivo, or in clinical reports or trials. These natural products and traditional medicine products are categorized in several classes: (1) anti-malaria drugs including chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, (2) antivirals including nucleoside analogs (remdesivir, favipiravir, β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine, ribavirin and among others), lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol, (3) antibiotics including azithromycin, ivermectin and teicoplanin, (4) anti-protozoal drug, emetine, anti-cancer drug, homoharringtonine, and others, as well as (5) traditional medicine (Lian Hua Qing Wen Capsule, Shuang Huang Lian Oral Liquid, Qingfei Paidu Decoction and Scutellariae Radix). Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled large clinical trials are needed to provide solid evidence for the potential effective treatment. Currently, drug repurposing is a promising strategy to quickly find an effective treatment for COVID-19. In addition, carefully combined cocktails need to be examined for preventing a COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting global health concerns.

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