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1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089401

ABSTRACT

Among other diseases, Covid 19 creates a critical situation around the world. Five layers have been recorded so far, resulting in the loss of millions of lives in different countries. The virus was thought to be contagious, so the government initially severely forced citizens to keep a distance from each other. Since then, several vaccines have been developed that play an important role in controlling mortality. In the case of Covid-19 mortality, the government should be forced to take significant steps in the form of lockdown, keeping you away or forcing citizens to vaccinate. In this paper, modeling of Covid-19 death rates is discussed via probability distributions. To delineate the performance of the best fitted model, the mortality rate of Pakistan and Afghanistan is considered. Numerical results conclude that the NFW model can be used to predict the mortality rate for Covid-19 patients more accurately than other probability models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Probability , Government
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065969

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory infections caused by coronaviruses can range from mild to deadly. Although there are numerous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), few have been published on its Omicron variant. In order to remedy this deficiency, this study undertook a bibliometric analysis of the publishing patterns of studies on the Omicron variant and identified hotspots. Automated transportation, environmental protection, improved healthcare, innovation in banking, and smart homes are just a few areas where machine learning has found use in tackling complicated problems. The sophisticated Scopus database was queried for papers with the term "Omicron" in the title published between January 2020 and June 2022. Microsoft Excel 365, VOSviewer, Bibliometrix, and Biblioshiny from R were used for a statistical analysis of the publications. Over the study period, 1917 relevant publications were found in the Scopus database. Viruses was the most popular in publications for Omicron variant research, with 150 papers published, while Cell was the most cited source. The bibliometric analysis determined the most productive nations, with USA leading the list with the highest number of publications (344) and the highest level of international collaboration on the Omicron variant. This study highlights scientific advances and scholarly collaboration trends and serves as a model for demonstrating global trends in Omicron variant research. It can aid policymakers and medical researchers to fully grasp the current status of research on the Omicron variant. It also provides normative data on the Omicron variant for visualization, study, and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Publications
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274600, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054345

ABSTRACT

This study enumerates the evolution of basic human values orientations and the dynamic relationship between them, computed from Schwartz's value survey conducted in European nations. For this purpose, eight datasets related to the human value scale were extracted from the European Social Survey; each corresponds to a single round conducted cross-sectionally every two years since 2001. Change detection algorithm was implemented to the cluster solutions of temporal datasets, and the evolution of important clusters was traced. Finding of the study reveals that Universalism and Benevolence values are on the rise in European societies in the last couple of decades. Most of the European inhabitants believe in the smooth group functioning and form the organismic needs of cooperation. The people prefer anxiety-free life, and love for nature, environment, humanity, and kindness to other beings in society are essential constructs for them. They avoid self-centred behaviour and prefer social physiognomies.


Subject(s)
Social Values , Beneficence , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Journal of Computational Biophysics & Chemistry ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807528

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19 disease, has proven to be a disastrous pandemic due to its contagious nature. This study has been planned to theoretically explore some antidotes against this virus from natural compounds. A total of 150 compounds from the shogaol class and shogaol derivatives (SDs) have been screened whereas 50 among those, which obeyed Lipinski’s Rule of Five (Ro5), have further been investigated using molecular docking techniques. Furthermore, reference antiviral drug chloroquine (ChQ) and Co-Crystallized inhibitor have also been studied against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 for comparing the potential of our docked ligands. Surprisingly, 78% of our docked ligands have shown binding energies and inhibition constants lower than ChQ and all ligands showed these values lower than an inhibitor. We further visualized the nature of intermolecular interactions for the best docked six ligands, which have shown higher binding affinities. We have also assessed ADMET properties for three ligands that displayed visually the best intermolecular interactions. Quantum analysis of three selected ligands L4, L5, and L9 has proved their reactivity and kinetic stability. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulations over 60ns have been run for free Mpro and its selected three ligand-protein complexes for evaluating conformational stability and residual flexibility of docked complexes. Furthermore, 100ns the MD simulations have been performed for two ligand complexes L4, L5 (with negative binding free energy), and inhibitor. Available parameters suggest stable complexes for our ligands and could be active drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in near future. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Computational Biophysics & Chemistry is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 28(1): 88-95, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442168

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 virus is a causative agent of viral pandemic in human beings which specifically targets respiratory system of humans and causes viral pneumonia. This unusual viral pneumonia is rapidly spreading to all parts of the world, currently affecting about 105 million people with 2.3 million deaths. Current review described history, genomic characteristics, replication, and pathogenesis of COVID-19 with special emphasis on Nigella sativum (N. sativum) as a treatment option. N. sativum seeds are historically and religiously used over the centuries, both for prevention and treatment of different diseases. This review summarizes the potential role of N. sativum seeds against COVID-19 infection at levels of in silico, cell lines and animal models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 827, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The shortage of medicines represents a complex global phenomenon that triggers patient care and safety issues. The study was undertaken to explore the impact of medicines shortages on patients in Pakistan. The study also identified barriers which hinder the solutions of medicines shortages issue. METHODS: A qualitative study design was adopted and the data was collected in stages between July and September 2019using an in-depth interview approach. The purposive and convenient sampling strategy was used to recruit the study participants. Sample size was limited by using the saturation point criteria. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 35 stakeholders including 13 physicians, 12 pharmacists and 10 patients participated in the study. The findings of the study were classified into five key themes and seven subthemes. The five themes included, 'impact of medicine shortages on patients', 'patients' practices in response to medicine shortages', 'influence of medicines shortages on medical practice or pharmaceutical business', 'barriers to solutions for medicines shortages', and 'suggestions to assuage the impact of medicine shortages.'This study showed that the medicine shortages had significant clinical and financial impact on patients. Patients' opted for a number of risk-prone practices to avoid treatment disruption during shortages. An array of pharmaceutical market, medicines quality and patient related factors refrain physicians to switch from brand name medicine to generics and lead to ineffective management of medicines shortages. Promotion of generic prescription, implementation of punitive policies and proper patient consultation was advised to assuage the impact of medicine shortages on patients. CONCLUSION: The adverse clinical, economic and humanistic impact affirmed in this study demand the introduction of risk-management strategies for medicines shortages in hospital and community settings in accordance with the international standards. Promotion of effective patient counselling by the healthcare professionals to deter risk-prone practices associated with medicines shortages is mandatory.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists , Physicians , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Qualitative Research
8.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2297-2312, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353457

ABSTRACT

The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how the medicine sales staff responded to presumptive COVID-19 patients in Pakistan. The data were obtained from the medicine sales staff working at drug retail outlets of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan, through in-depth face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. A two-step sampling strategy was used, including purposive and convenient sampling techniques. Sample size was determined by applying the saturation point criteria. A total of 17 interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the thematic analysis. Analysis of data yielded six themes and seven sub-themes. The themes included (1) knowledge about various aspects of COVID-19, (2) practices of sales staff in response to COVID-19 pandemic, (3) attitude of sales staff towards COVID-19 pandemic, (4) services offered to presumptive COVID-19 patients, (5) challenges encountered during pandemic and (6) suggestions to improve delivery of pharmacy services by sales staff. In Pakistan, non-pharmacist sales staff had superficial knowledge about COVID-19. Presumptive COVID-19 patients were provided with only basic pharmacy services. Professional training is advised among pharmacy sales staff as a short-term solution to improve their knowledge. As a long-term goal, the availability of pharmacists at drug retail outlets is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Attitude of Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2
9.
APMIS ; 129(10): 579-586, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338793

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel respiratory disease that has led to a global pandemic and created a havoc. The COVID-19 disease severity varies among individuals, depending on fluctuating symptoms. Many infectious diseases such as hepatitis B and dengue hemorrhagic fever have been associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to explore whether ABO blood groups might serve as a risk or a protective factor for COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the symptomatic variations of COVID-19 infection among the individuals with different blood groups were also analyzed. An online questionnaire-based survey was conducted in which 305 partakers were included, who had successfully recovered from coronavirus infection. The ABO blood groups of 1294 healthy individuals were also taken as a control. The results of the current study demonstrated that antibody A containing blood groups (blood group B, p-value: 0.049 and blood group O, p-value: 0.289) had a protective role against COVID-19 infection. The comparison of symptomatic variations among COVID-19-infected subjects showed that blood group O subjects had lower chances of experiencing severe symptoms relating to respiratory distress, while subjects with AB blood group were more prone to develop symptoms, but the differences in both groups were found to be statistically non-significant. In conclusion, subjects who do not have anti-A antibodies in their serum (i.e., subjects with group A and AB) are more likely to be infected with COVID-19. The current data showed that there was no significant association of signs and symptoms variations of COVID-19 infection among individuals with different blood groups.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(5): 1041-1054, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662423

ABSTRACT

The scoping review was undertaken to outline the vulnerabilities of Pakistan's public health and healthcare system, which put the population at increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated morbidity and mortality. The major electronic databases were searched using both "text words" and "thesaurus terms," focusing on viral infections, COVID-19 and healthcare systems in Pakistan. The content of the selected articles was analyzed by using thematic approach. Out of the total 171 potentially relevant citations, 24 articles were included in the data synthesis. We found that the recent COVID-19 outbreak is a major threat to Pakistan's public health and healthcare system, and the country is not in a position to control spread of disease and provide required standards of care deemed necessary by the World Health Organization. A number of intertwined reasons that expose the Pakistani population at increased risk of COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality, include public related demurrals, healthcare workforce related demurrals, organizational and regulatory voids, and travel patterns. To cope with the upsurge of COVID-19 in Pakistan, the regulators need to re-examine and recognize deficiencies in the healthcare system, and thereafter reinforce core capacities in workforce and monetary resources, surveillance, laboratory services, and hospital preparedness for isolation and ventilation of patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Developing Countries , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
12.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 13: 33, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598640

ABSTRACT

In the wake of atrocious rise in COVID-19 cases, developed countries are leveraging a range of community pharmacy services with the goal of improving access to essential medication and healthcare services. While in the developing nations, including Pakistan, pharmacists are unable to perform COVID-19 containment roles in community, since presence of pharmacists at community pharmacy settings and delivery of pharmacy services have historically been plagued by shortcomings at various levels. In this document, we identified these shortcomings which need to be resolved on many fronts. Broadly, a number of intertwined government related, public related, academic curricula and pharmacist related, and drug retailers' related factors refrain community pharmacists from performing and facilitating Pakistan's fragile public and healthcare system in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. Government led multifaceted approaches are urgently needed to strengthen this unrecognized domain and thereby effectively combat COVID-19 by utilizing community pharmacy services, as evidenced in the developed world. [Note: Part of this article is published in Pakistan Observer Newspaper; dated 17 May 2020).

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