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FASEB Bioadv ; 3(8): 626-638, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341129


The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), under the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is one of the largest single providers of health care in the U.S. VA supports an embedded research program that addresses VA clinical priorities in close partnership with operations leaders, which is a hallmark of a Learning Health System (LHS). Using the LHS framework, we describe current VA research initiatives in mental health and substance use disorders that rigorously evaluate national programs and policies designed to reduce the risk of suicide and opioid use disorder (data to knowledge); test implementation strategies to improve the spread of effective programs for Veterans at risk of suicide or opioid use disorder (knowledge to performance); and identify novel research directions in suicide prevention and opioid/pain treatments emanating from implementation and quality improvement research (performance to data). Lessons learned are encapsulated into best practices for building and sustaining an LHS within health systems, including the need for early engagement with clinical leaders; pragmatic research questions that focus on continuous improvement; multi-level, ongoing input from regional and local stakeholders, and business case analyses to inform ongoing investment in sustainable infrastructure to maintain the research-health system partnership. Essential ingredients for supporting VA as an LHS include data and information sharing capacity, protected time for researchers and leaders, and governance structures to enhance health system ownership of research findings. For researchers, incentives to work with health systems operations (e.g., retainer funding) are vital for LHS research to be recognized and valued by academic promotion committees.

Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(5): 786-787, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162914
Ann Intern Med ; 174(2): 271, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110710
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083594


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology