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1.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002402

ABSTRACT

Restoring everyday civil life from the devastating pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be only by the development of an efficient vaccine. As of April 12, 2022, 497,960,492 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported, including 6,181,850 lives having been lost worldwide and completely paralyzing the d global economy. Detection of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, in December 2019, and the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 that was published on January 11, 2020, leads to a global race, to prepare for a preventive vaccine. No single institution can develop a vaccine individually because there are many stages for developing and producing a successful vaccine. Since this virus threatens the health, the economy, and society the demand for a fast-track vaccine is understandable. This article tries to give an overview of vaccine 'candidates' development and clinical trials, and it mentions some challenges of using these vaccines for managing SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(1): 37-50, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732597

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension and coronary heart disease, with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality. METHODS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were searched between January 1, 2020, and July 18, 2020, to identify eligible studies. Random-effect models were used to estimate the pooled event rates of pre-existing cardiovascular disease comorbidities and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of disease severity and mortality associated with the exposures of interest. RESULTS: A total of 34 studies involving 19,156 patients with COVID-19 infection met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease in the included studies was 14.0%. Pre-existing cardiovascular disease in COVID-19 patients was associated with severe outcomes (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 2.9 to 5.7) and mortality (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 2.9 to 12.7). Hypertension and coronary heart disease increased the risk of severe outcomes by 2.6 times (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9 to 3.6) and 2.5 times (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 3.8), respectively. No significant publication bias was indicated. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities have a higher risk of severe outcomes and mortality. Awareness of pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidity is important for the early management of COVID-19.

3.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(26): e0053221, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343948

ABSTRACT

A variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from Jordan was identified during the second wave of infection. The genome of this variant has a unique set of mutations that suggest local evolution. Due to the continuous emergence of new variants worldwide, molecular surveillance is crucial for fighting the pandemic.

4.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 77(3): 311-322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211798

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept the world, affecting more than 200 countries and territories. As of August 22, 2020, the pandemic infected more than 23,329,752 including 807,054 patients who have died. Although the main clinical features of the pandemic disease are respiratory, cerebrovascular comorbidities emerged as one of the leading causes of death associated with COVID-19. Different case reports have indicated that C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer (pro-inflammatory biomarkers) were elevated in COVID-19 patients, which can significantly increase the risk of ischemic stroke. Available data on cerebrovascular complications in COVID-19 patients were collected and a meta-analysis was designed and carried out to evaluate the risk of severity and mortality associated with high levels of CRP and D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients. In addition, we aimed to describe the overall event rate of pre-existing cerebrovascular disease in COVID-19 patients. In our analysis, 5,614 cases have been studied, out of these patients 164 cases have developed cerebrovascular comorbities. Cerebrovascular comorbidity increased the risk of disease severity (odd ratio = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.48 to 12.84) and mortality (odd ratio = 7.0; 95% CI: 2.56 to 18.99). Statistical analyses showed that CRP and D-dimer serum levels were elevated by six-folds in the severe cases of COVID-19 patients. This significant increase in these two proteins levels can serve as a vital indicator for COVID-19 patients who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 cerebrovascular complications, such as stroke.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cerebrovascular Disorders/blood , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 31(3): 111-116, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-442989

ABSTRACT

The emerging COVID-19 pandemic poses a threat to the global health care system. Given the lack of antiviral therapies or vaccines for the disease, the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) obtained much attention as a treatment for COVID-19. However, there are limited and uncertain clinical data to support the beneficial effect of this drug in COVID-19 treatment. HCQ has several side effects and warnings, including blindness, heart failure, and renal toxicity, even with recommended doses. For severe cases of COVID-19 or in patients with preexisting conditions, administering such a drug could be fatal, particularly when taken at high doses or in combination with other antibiotics. However, further well-designed studies that would address the optimal dose, duration of treatment, possible side effects, and long-term usage outcomes are needed to make the final decision. In this paper, we aim to discuss the risk of using HCQ in treating COVID-19 patients, including its possible side effects.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pathogens ; 9(5)2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141483

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept across the world, affecting more than 200 countries and territories. Genomic analysis suggests that the COVID-19 virus originated in bats and transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate hosts in the Wuhan seafood market, China, in December of 2019. This virus belongs to the Betacoronavirus group, the same group of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and for the similarity, it was named SARS-CoV-2. Given the lack of registered clinical therapies or vaccines, many physicians and scientists are investigating previously used clinical drugs for COVID-19 treatment. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the CoVs origin, pathogenicity, and genomic structure, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Besides, we summarize the recently investigated drugs that constitute an option for COVID-19 treatment.

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