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1.
Tomography ; 8(4): 1836-1850, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, primarily causes a respiratory tract infection that is not limited to respiratory distress syndrome, but it is also implicated in other body systems. Systemic complications were reported due to an exaggerated inflammatory response, which involves severe alveolar damage in the lungs and exacerbates the hypercoagulation that leads to venous thrombosis, ischemic attack, vascular dysfunction and infarction of visceral abdominal organs. Some complications are related to anticoagulant drugs that are administrated to stabilize hypercoagulability, but increase the risk of bleeding, hematoma and hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to report the diagnostic role of CT in the early diagnosis and management of patients with severe COVID-19 complications through the most interesting cases in our experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis of patients studied for COVID-19 in our institution and hospitals, which are part of the university training network, was performed. CASES: Pneumomediastinum, cortical kidney necrosis, splenic infarction, cerebral ischemic stroke, thrombosis of the lower limb and hematomas are the most major complications that are reviewed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the CT imaging modality with its high sensitivity and specificity remains the preferred imaging choice to diagnose early the different complications associated with COVID-19, such as thrombosis, ischemic stroke, infarction and pneumomediastinum, and their management, which significantly improved the outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mediastinal Emphysema , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infarction/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/complications , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
2.
Int J Cardiol Congenit Heart Dis ; 6: 100266, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773368

ABSTRACT

Background: real-world data on COVID-19 vaccine safety, immunogenicity and acceptance in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are lacking. Methods: ACHD patients who were offered COVID-19 vaccination from January to June 2021 were included. Data on adverse events, on patients' attitude towards vaccination and antispike IgG titre were retrospectively collected. A group of healthy individuals with similar age and sex undergoing vaccination was included for comparison. Results: 208 patients followed in a single ACHD tertiary centre (33.3 [26-45] years, 54% male) received COVID-19 vaccine, 65% vaccinated at our institution: 199 (96%) received Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine, 4 (2%) Moderna-1273 and 5 (2%) AstraZeneca-ChAdOx1. Median follow-up after vaccination was 79 [57-96] days. No major adverse event was reported and the incidence of minor events was not different between ACHD patients and the control group. One patient was diagnosed with acute pericarditis. There were two deaths unrelated to the vaccine during follow-up. Three (1.5%) vaccinated patients tested positive for COVID-19. Antispike IgG titre, available in 159 (76%) patients, was 1334 [600-3401] BAU/ml, not significantly different from the control group (p=0.2). One patient with Fontan failure was seronegative. Advanced physiological stage was associated with lower antibody response, independently from previous viral exposure (p<0.0001). Fourteen percent refused COVID-19 vaccination at our institution. However, 50% of vaccinated patients declared to have been influenced by the discussion with the ACHD cardiologist and 66% of those vaccinated in situ reported that undergoing COVID-19 vaccination at the ACHD centre made them feel safer. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccines appear safe in ACHD with satisfactory immunogenicity. However, the most vulnerable patients showed lower antibody response. ACHD team may play a key role in vaccine acceptance.

3.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376731

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, "SARS-CoV-2", was recognized as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have explored the changes and the role of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, but until today, the results have been controversial. Based on these premises, we conducted a retrospective assessment of monocyte intracellular TNF-α expression (iTNF-α) and on the frequencies of lymphocyte sub-populations in twenty-five patients with moderate/severe COVID-19. We found lymphopenia in all COVID-19 infected subjects compared to healthy subjects. On initial observation, in patients with favorable outcomes, we detected a high absolute eosinophil count and a high CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes ratio, while in the Exitus Group, we observed high neutrophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. During infection, in patients with favorable outcomes, we observed a rise in the lymphocyte count, in the monocyte and in Treg lymphocyte counts, and in the CD4+ and in CD8+ T lymphocytes count but a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. Instead, in the Exitus Group, we observed a reduction in the Treg lymphocyte counts and a decrease in iTNF-α expression. Our preliminary findings point to a modulation of the different cellular mediators of the immune system, which probably play a key role in the outcomes of COVID-19.

4.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334990

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, "SARS-CoV-2", was recognized as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have explored the changes and the role of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, but until today, the results have been controversial. Based on these premises, we conducted a retrospective assessment of monocyte intracellular TNF-α expression (iTNF-α) and on the frequencies of lymphocyte sub-populations in twenty-five patients with moderate/severe COVID-19. We found lymphopenia in all COVID-19 infected subjects compared to healthy subjects. On initial observation, in patients with favorable outcomes, we detected a high absolute eosinophil count and a high CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes ratio, while in the Exitus Group, we observed high neutrophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. During infection, in patients with favorable outcomes, we observed a rise in the lymphocyte count, in the monocyte and in Treg lymphocyte counts, and in the CD4+ and in CD8+ T lymphocytes count but a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. Instead, in the Exitus Group, we observed a reduction in the Treg lymphocyte counts and a decrease in iTNF-α expression. Our preliminary findings point to a modulation of the different cellular mediators of the immune system, which probably play a key role in the outcomes of COVID-19.

5.
J Pers Med ; 11(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302361

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: the purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of computed tomography (CT) findings and lung residue in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, via quantified evaluation of the disease, using a computer aided tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we retrospectively evaluated 341 CT examinations of 140 patients (68 years of median age) infected with COVID-19 (confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), who were hospitalized, and who received clinical and CT examinations. All CTs were evaluated by two expert radiologists, in consensus, at the same reading session, using a computer-aided tool for quantification of the pulmonary disease. The parameters obtained using the computer tool included the healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity, consolidation, and total lung volume. RESULTS: statistically significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05) were found among quantified volumes of healthy residual parenchyma, ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, and total lung volume, considering different clinical conditions (stable, improved, and worsened). Statistically significant differences were found among quantified volumes for healthy residual parenchyma, GGO, and consolidation (p value ≤ 0.05) between dead patients and discharged patients. CT was not performed on cadavers; the death was an outcome, which was retrospectively included to differentiate findings of patients who survived vs. patients who died during hospitalization. Among discharged patients, complete disease resolutions on CT scans were observed in 62/129 patients with lung disease involvement ≤5%; lung disease involvement from 5% to 15% was found in 40/129 patients, while 27/129 patients had lung disease involvement between 16 and 30%. Moreover, 8-21 days (after hospital admission) was an "advanced period" with the most severe lung disease involvement. After the extent of involvement started to decrease-particularly after 21 days-the absorption was more obvious. CONCLUSIONS: a complete disease resolution on chest CT scans was observed in 48.1% of discharged patients using a computer-aided tool to quantify the GGO and consolidation volumes; after 16 days of hospital admission, the abnormalities identified by chest CT began to improve; in particular, the absorption was more obvious after 21 days.

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