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1.
Appl Soft Comput ; 128: 109401, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966354

ABSTRACT

The quick diagnosis of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) disease is vital to prevent its propagation and improve therapeutic outcomes. Computed tomography (CT) is believed to be an effective tool for diagnosing COVID-19, however, the CT scan contains hundreds of slices that are complex to be analyzed and could cause delays in diagnosis. Artificial intelligence (AI) especially deep learning (DL), could facilitate and speed up COVID-19 diagnosis from such scans. Several studies employed DL approaches based on 2D CT images from a single view, nevertheless, 3D multiview CT slices demonstrated an excellent ability to enhance the efficiency of COVID-19 diagnosis. The majority of DL-based studies utilized the spatial information of the original CT images to train their models, though, using spectral-temporal information could improve the detection of COVID-19. This article proposes a DL-based pipeline called CoviWavNet for the automatic diagnosis of COVID-19. CoviWavNet uses a 3D multiview dataset called OMNIAHCOV. Initially, it analyzes the CT slices using multilevel discrete wavelet decomposition (DWT) and then uses the heatmaps of the approximation levels to train three ResNet CNN models. These ResNets use the spectral-temporal information of such images to perform classification. Subsequently, it investigates whether the combination of spatial information with spectral-temporal information could improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. For this purpose, it extracts deep spectral-temporal features from such ResNets using transfer learning and integrates them with deep spatial features extracted from the same ResNets trained with the original CT slices. Then, it utilizes a feature selection step to reduce the dimension of such integrated features and use them as inputs to three support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. To further validate the performance of CoviWavNet, a publicly available benchmark dataset called SARS-COV-2-CT-Scan is employed. The results of CoviWavNet have demonstrated that using the spectral-temporal information of the DWT heatmap images to train the ResNets is superior to utilizing the spatial information of the original CT images. Furthermore, integrating deep spectral-temporal features with deep spatial features has enhanced the classification accuracy of the three SVM classifiers reaching a final accuracy of 99.33% and 99.7% for the OMNIAHCOV and SARS-COV-2-CT-Scan datasets respectively. These accuracies verify the outstanding performance of CoviWavNet compared to other related studies. Thus, CoviWavNet can help radiologists in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 diagnosis.

2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820172

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing COVID-19 accurately and rapidly is vital to control its quick spread, lessen lockdown restrictions, and decrease the workload on healthcare structures. The present tools to detect COVID-19 experience numerous shortcomings. Therefore, novel diagnostic tools are to be examined to enhance diagnostic accuracy and avoid the limitations of these tools. Earlier studies indicated multiple structures of cardiovascular alterations in COVID-19 cases which motivated the realization of using ECG data as a tool for diagnosing the novel coronavirus. This study introduced a novel automated diagnostic tool based on ECG data to diagnose COVID-19. The introduced tool utilizes ten deep learning (DL) models of various architectures. It obtains significant features from the last fully connected layer of each DL model and then combines them. Afterward, the tool presents a hybrid feature selection based on the chi-square test and sequential search to select significant features. Finally, it employs several machine learning classifiers to perform two classification levels. A binary level to differentiate between normal and COVID-19 cases, and a multiclass to discriminate COVID-19 cases from normal and other cardiac complications. The proposed tool reached an accuracy of 98.2% and 91.6% for binary and multiclass levels, respectively. This performance indicates that the ECG could be used as an alternative means of diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , Communicable Disease Control , Electrocardiography , Humans
3.
Digital health ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787042

ABSTRACT

The accurate and rapid detection of the novel coronavirus infection, coronavirus is very important to prevent the fast spread of such disease. Thus, reducing negative effects that influenced many industrial sectors, especially healthcare. Artificial intelligence techniques in particular deep learning could help in the fast and precise diagnosis of coronavirus from computed tomography images. Most artificial intelligence-based studies used the original computed tomography images to build their models;however, the integration of texture-based radiomics images and deep learning techniques could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the novel coronavirus diseases. This study proposes a computer-assisted diagnostic framework based on multiple deep learning and texture-based radiomics approaches. It first trains three Residual Networks (ResNets) deep learning techniques with two texture-based radiomics images including discrete wavelet transform and gray-level covariance matrix instead of the original computed tomography images. Then, it fuses the texture-based radiomics deep features sets extracted from each using discrete cosine transform. Thereafter, it further combines the fused texture-based radiomics deep features obtained from the three convolutional neural networks. Finally, three support vector machine classifiers are utilized for the classification procedure. The proposed method is validated experimentally on the benchmark severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 computed tomography image dataset. The accuracies attained indicate that using texture-based radiomics (gray-level covariance matrix, discrete wavelet transform) images for training the ResNet-18 (83.22%, 74.9%), ResNet-50 (80.94%, 78.39%), and ResNet-101 (80.54%, 77.99%) is better than using the original computed tomography images (70.34%, 76.51%, and 73.42%) for ResNet-18, ResNet-50, and ResNet-101, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, and F1-score achieved using the proposed computer-assisted diagnostic after the two fusion steps are 99.47%, 99.72%, 99.60%, 99.72%, and 99.60% which proves that combining texture-based radiomics deep features obtained from the three ResNets has boosted its performance. Thus, fusing multiple texture-based radiomics deep features mined from several convolutional neural networks is better than using only one type of radiomics approach and a single convolutional neural network. The performance of the proposed computer-assisted diagnostic framework allows it to be used by radiologists in attaining fast and accurate diagnosis.

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 142: 105210, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591390

ABSTRACT

The accurate and speedy detection of COVID-19 is essential to avert the fast propagation of the virus, alleviate lockdown constraints and diminish the burden on health organizations. Currently, the methods used to diagnose COVID-19 have several limitations, thus new techniques need to be investigated to improve the diagnosis and overcome these limitations. Taking into consideration the great benefits of electrocardiogram (ECG) applications, this paper proposes a new pipeline called ECG-BiCoNet to investigate the potential of using ECG data for diagnosing COVID-19. ECG-BiCoNet employs five deep learning models of distinct structural design. ECG-BiCoNet extracts two levels of features from two different layers of each deep learning technique. Features mined from higher layers are fused using discrete wavelet transform and then integrated with lower-layers features. Afterward, a feature selection approach is utilized. Finally, an ensemble classification system is built to merge predictions of three machine learning classifiers. ECG-BiCoNet accomplishes two classification categories, binary and multiclass. The results of ECG-BiCoNet present a promising COVID-19 performance with an accuracy of 98.8% and 91.73% for binary and multiclass classification categories. These results verify that ECG data may be used to diagnose COVID-19 which can help clinicians in the automatic diagnosis and overcome limitations of manual diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neural Networks, Computer , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Electrocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PeerJ ; 8: e10086, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-859063

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) was first observed in Wuhan, China, and quickly propagated worldwide. It is considered the supreme crisis of the present era and one of the most crucial hazards threatening worldwide health. Therefore, the early detection of COVID-19 is essential. The common way to detect COVID-19 is the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, although it has several drawbacks. Computed tomography (CT) scans can enable the early detection of suspected patients, however, the overlap between patterns of COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia makes it difficult for radiologists to diagnose COVID-19 accurately. On the other hand, deep learning (DL) techniques and especially the convolutional neural network (CNN) can classify COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. In addition, DL techniques that use CT images can deliver an accurate diagnosis faster than the RT-PCR test, which consequently saves time for disease control and provides an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The shortage of publicly available datasets of CT images, makes the CAD system's design a challenging task. The CAD systems in the literature are based on either individual CNN or two-fused CNNs; one used for segmentation and the other for classification and diagnosis. In this article, a novel CAD system is proposed for diagnosing COVID-19 based on the fusion of multiple CNNs. First, an end-to-end classification is performed. Afterward, the deep features are extracted from each network individually and classified using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Next, principal component analysis is applied to each deep feature set, extracted from each network. Such feature sets are then used to train an SVM classifier individually. Afterward, a selected number of principal components from each deep feature set are fused and compared with the fusion of the deep features extracted from each CNN. The results show that the proposed system is effective and capable of detecting COVID-19 and distinguishing it from non-COVID-19 cases with an accuracy of 94.7%, AUC of 0.98 (98%), sensitivity 95.6%, and specificity of 93.7%. Moreover, the results show that the system is efficient, as fusing a selected number of principal components has reduced the computational cost of the final model by almost 32%.

6.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 6: e306, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854580

ABSTRACT

The precise and rapid diagnosis of coronavirus (COVID-19) at the very primary stage helps doctors to manage patients in high workload conditions. In addition, it prevents the spread of this pandemic virus. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be used to distinguish between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 from the computed tomography (CT) imaging. Furthermore, the CAD systems are capable of delivering an accurate faster COVID-19 diagnosis, which consequently saves time for the disease control and provides an efficient diagnosis compared to laboratory tests. In this study, a novel CAD system called FUSI-CAD based on AI techniques is proposed. Almost all the methods in the literature are based on individual convolutional neural networks (CNN). Consequently, the FUSI-CAD system is based on the fusion of multiple different CNN architectures with three handcrafted features including statistical features and textural analysis features such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) which were not previously utilized in coronavirus diagnosis. The SARS-CoV-2 CT-scan dataset is used to test the performance of the proposed FUSI-CAD. The results show that the proposed system could accurately differentiate between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 images, as the accuracy achieved is 99%. Additionally, the system proved to be reliable as well. This is because the sensitivity, specificity, and precision attained to 99%. In addition, the diagnostics odds ratio (DOR) is ≥ 100. Furthermore, the results are compared with recent related studies based on the same dataset. The comparison verifies the competence of the proposed FUSI-CAD over the other related CAD systems. Thus, the novel FUSI-CAD system can be employed in real diagnostic scenarios for achieving accurate testing for COVID-19 and avoiding human misdiagnosis that might exist due to human fatigue. It can also reduce the time and exertion made by the radiologists during the examination process.

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