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1.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(8): 1574-1582, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883008

ABSTRACT

Background: Several cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) relapse following the administration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have recently been reported, raising questions about the potential relationship between the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination and INS pathogenesis. Methods: We performed a retrospective multicentre survey describing the clinical and biological characteristics of patients presenting a relapse of INS after COVID-19 vaccination, with an assessment of outcome under treatment. Results: We identified 25 patients (16 men and 9 women) presenting a relapse within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccine injection. The glomerular disease was of childhood onset in half of the patients and most patients (21/25) had received at least one immunosuppressive drug in addition to steroids for frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (NS). All patients were in a stable condition at the time of injection and 11 had no specific treatment. In five patients, the last relapse was reported >5 years before vaccine injection. The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine was used in 80% of the patients. In 18 cases, INS relapse occurred after the first injection, a mean of 17.5 days after vaccination. A second injection was nevertheless administered in 14 of these patients. Five relapses occurred after administration of the second dose and two relapses after the administration of the third dose. All but one of the patients received steroids as first-line treatment, with an additional immunosuppressive agent in nine cases. During follow-up, complete remission was achieved in 21 patients, within 1 month in 17 cases. Only one patient had not achieved at least partial remission after 3 months of follow-up. Conclusions: This case series suggests that, in rare patients, COVID-19 vaccination may trigger INS relapse that is generally easy to control. These findings should encourage physicians to persuade their patients to complete the COVID-19 vaccination schedule.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with COVID-19, however, its mechanism is still controversial, particularly in ICU settings. Urinary proteinuria profile could be a non-invasive tool of interest to scrutinize the pathophysiological process underlying AKI in COVID-19 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study between March 2020 and April 2020. All patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and without end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy before ICU admission were included. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and risk factors for AKI and to describe its clinical and biological characteristics, particularly its urinary protein profile. RESULTS: Seventy patients were included; 87% needed mechanical ventilation and 61% needed vasopressor during their ICU stay; 64.3% of patients developed AKI and half of them needed dialysis. Total and tubular proteinuria on day 1 were higher in patients with AKI, whereas glomerular proteinuria was similar in both groups. The main risk factor for AKI was shock at admission (OR = 5.47 (1.74-17.2), p < 0.01). Mortality on day 28 was higher in AKI (23/45, 51.1%) than in no-AKI patients (1/25, 4%), p < 0.001. Risk factors for 28-days mortality were AKI with need for renal replacement therapy, non-renal SOFA score and history of congestive heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ICU; it seems to be related to tubular lesions rather than glomerular injury and is related to shock at ICU admission.

6.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 206-211, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that renal complications in a native kidney are a major concern in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causal agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The spectrum of renal lesions observed on renal grafts in this context remains to be determined. METHODS: We report the case of a renal transplant recipient with non-severe COVID-19, who subsequently developed nephrotic syndrome associated with acute renal injury. RESULTS: Renal biopsy demonstrated focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions classified as not otherwise specified histological variant. Genotyping for 2 risk alleles of the apolipoprotein L1 gene demonstrated that the donor was homozygous for the G2/G2 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients receiving kidneys from donors with high-risk apolipoprotein L1 variants, COVID-19 may promote acute glomerular injury in the form of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/etiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 38, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe a frugal approach (focusing on needs, performance, and costs) to manage a massive influx of COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) using the Boussignac valve protected by a filter ("Filter Frugal CPAP", FF-CPAP) in and out the ICU. METHODS: (1) A bench study measured the impact of two filters with different mechanical properties on CPAP performances, and pressures were also measured in patients. (2) Non-ICU healthcare staff working in COVID-19 intermediate care units were trained with a video tutorial posted on a massive open online course. (3) A clinical study assessed the feasibility and safety of using FF-CPAP to maintain oxygenation and manage patients out of the ICU during a massive outbreak. RESULTS: Bench assessments showed that adding a filter did not affect the effective pressure delivered to the patient. The resistive load induced by the filter variably increased the simulated patient's work of breathing (6-34%) needed to sustain the tidal volume, depending on the filter's resistance, respiratory mechanics and basal inspiratory effort. In patients, FF-CPAP achieved pressures similar to those obtained on the bench. The massive training tool provided precious information on the use of Boussignac FF-CPAP on COVID-19 patients. Then 85 COVID-19 patients with ICU admission criteria over a 1-month period were studied upon FF-CPAP initiation for AHRF. FF-CPAP significantly decreased respiratory rate and increased SpO2. Thirty-six (43%) patients presented with respiratory indications for intubation prior to FF-CPAP initiation, and 13 (36%) of them improved without intubation. Overall, 31 patients (36%) improved with FF-CPAP alone and 17 patients (20%) did not require ICU admission. Patients with a respiratory rate > 32 breaths/min upon FF-CPAP initiation had a higher cumulative probability of intubation (p < 0.001 by log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Adding a filter to the Boussignac valve does not affect the delivered pressure but may variably increase the resistive load depending on the filter used. Clinical assessment suggests that FF-CPAP is a frugal solution to provide a ventilatory support and improve oxygenation to numerous patients suffering from AHRF in the context of a massive outbreak.

8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081553

ABSTRACT

We report a multicentric retrospective case series of patients with COVID-19 who developed acute kidney injury and/or proteinuria and underwent a kidney biopsy in the Paris and its metropolitan area. Forty-seven patients (80.9% men) with COVID-19 who underwent a kidney biopsy between March 08 and May 19, 2020 were included. Median age was 63 years IQR [52-69]. Comorbidities included hypertension (66.0%), diabetes mellitus (27.7%), obesity (27.7%), history of chronic kidney (25.5%), cardiac (38.6%) and respiratory (27.3%) diseases. Initial symptoms were fever (85.1%), cough (63.8%), shortness of breath (55.3%), and diarrhea (23.4%). Almost all patients developed acute kidney injury (97.9%) and 63.8% required renal replacement therapy. Kidney biopsy showed two main histopathological patterns, including acute tubular injury in 20 (42.6%) patients, and glomerular injury consisting of collapsing glomerulopathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 17 (36.2%) patients. Two (4.3%) patients had acute vascular nephropathy, while eight (17%) had alternative diagnosis most likely unrelated to COVID-19. Acute tubular injury occurred almost invariably in the setting of severe forms of COVID-19, whereas patients with glomerular injury had various profiles of COVID-19 severity and collapsing glomerulopathy was only observed in patients harboring a combination of APOL1 risk variants. At last follow-up, 16 of the 30 patients who initially required dialysis were still on dialysis, and 9 died. The present study describes the spectrum of kidney lesions in patients with COVID-19. While acute tubular injury is correlated with COVID-19 severity, the pattern of glomerular injury is intimately associated with the expression of APOL1 risk variants.

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