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Circ Res ; 132(10): 1338-1357, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312458


SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-associated myocarditis/myocardial injury should be evaluated in the contexts of COVID-19 infection, other types of viral myocarditis, and other vaccine-associated cardiac disorders. COVID-19 vaccine-associated myocardial injury can be caused by an inflammatory immune cell infiltrate, but other etiologies such as microvascular thrombosis are also possible. The clinical diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Endomyocardial biopsy is confirmatory for myocarditis, but may not show an inflammatory infiltrate because of rapid resolution or a non-inflammatory etiology. Myocarditis associated with SARS-COVID-19 vaccines occurs primarily with mRNA platform vaccines, which are also the most effective. In persons aged >16 or >12 years the myocarditis estimated crude incidences after the first 2 doses of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are approximately 1.9 and 3.5 per 100 000 individuals, respectively. These rates equate to excess incidences above control populations of approximately 1.2 (BNT162b2) and 1.9 (mRNA-1273) per 100 000 persons, which are lower than the myocarditis rate for smallpox but higher than that for influenza vaccines. In the studies that have included mRNA vaccine and SARS-COVID-19 myocarditis measured by the same methodology, the incidence rate was increased by 3.5-fold over control in COVID-19 compared with 1.5-fold for BNT162b2 and 6.2-fold for mRNA-1273. However, mortality and major morbidity are less and recovery is faster with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis compared to COVID-19 infection. The reasons for this include vaccine-associated myocarditis having a higher incidence in young adults and adolescents, typically no involvement of other organs in vaccine-associated myocarditis, and based on comparisons to non-COVID viral myocarditis an inherently more benign clinical course.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heart Injuries/etiology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(3): 327-333, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520991


BACKGROUND: Reports focused on adult heart transplant (HTx) recipients with COVID-19 suggest an increased risk of severe disease, however; it is unclear if this holds true for pediatric HTx patients, given the typically milder course of illness in children in general with COVID-19. We sought to rapidly implement a system for multi-center data collection on pediatric HTx candidates and recipients, with the aim of describing the patient population and infection related outcomes. METHODS: The Pediatric Heart Transplant Society (PHTS) is a multi-center collaboration that seeks to improve the outcomes of children who are listed and undergo HTx. The society consists of pediatric HTx centers in North America (n = 53), UK (n = 2), and Brazil (n = 1). In response to the pandemic, PHTS developed a web-based platform to collect COVID-19 specific data on pediatric HTx candidates and recipients. Non-PHTS centers were also invited to submit data. Data fields included pre-and post-HTx patient characteristics, presumed versus documented infection, need for hospitalization (including ICU and ventilator use), treatments administered, and 30-day outcome (resolution, death, sequelae, and or unresolved) RESULTS: Data collection was initiated on 4/30/20. As of 03/15/21 there were 225 patients [19 pre-HTx and 206 post-HTx, median age 14 years (IQR 7, 18)] reported from 41 centers. Hospitalization occurred in 42% (n = 8) of the pre-HTx and 21% (n=43) of the post-HTx patients. Among the patients listed for HTx, 21% (n = 4) required ICU and 10.5% (n = 2) were mechanically ventilated. Among post-HTx patients, 7% (n = 14) required ICU and 1% (n = 3) were mechanically ventilated. At 30 days, the majority of patients had resolution of symptoms (94.7% pre-HTx, 95.6% post-HTx). One death was reported in a post-HTx patient prior to 30 days from onset of COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the ability to rapidly adapt the PHTS data collection infrastructure in response to a novel infection and represent the first known multi-center report of characteristics and early outcomes for patients listed and following pediatric HTx with COVID-19. Hospitalization appears to be more common for both candidates and recipients due to COVID-19 than for the general pediatric population though stays were short and mortality minimal.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
American Journal of Transplantation ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1408329


Abstract While many adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have impaired antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, pediatric SOTRs? response has not been assessed.1-2 We report the immunogenicity and safety of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric SOTRs.