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Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244573


Sporadic clusters of healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred despite intense rostered routine surveillance and a highly vaccinated healthcare worker (HCW) population, during a community surge of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.617.2 δ (delta) variant. Genomic analysis facilitated timely cluster detection and uncovered additional linkages via HCWs moving between clinical areas and among HCWs sharing a common lunch area, enabling early intervention.

Infect Dis Health ; 28(2): 81-87, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286441


BACKGROUND: Increased transmissibility of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2) variants, such as the Omicron-variant, presents an infection-control challenge. We contrasted nosocomial transmission amongst hospitalized inpatients across successive pandemic waves attributed to the Delta- and Omicron variants, over a 9-month period in which enhanced-infection-prevention-measures were constantly maintained. METHODS: Enhanced-infection-prevention-measures in-place at a large tertiary hospital included universal N95-usage, routine-rostered-testing (RRT) for all inpatient/healthcare-workers (HCWs), rapid-antigen-testing (RAT) for visitors, and outbreak-investigation coupled with enhanced-surveillance (daily-testing) of exposed patients. The study-period lasted from 21st June 2021-21st March 2022. Chi-square test and multivariate-logistic-regression was utilized to identify factors associated with onward transmission and 28d-mortality amongst inpatient cases of hospital-onset COVID-19. RESULTS: During the Delta-wave, hospital-onset cases formed 2.7% (47/1727) of all COVID-19 cases requiring hospitalisation; in contrast, hospital onset-cases formed a greater proportion (17.7%, 265/1483; odds-ratio, OR = 7.78, 95%CI = 5.65-10.70) during the Omicron-wave, despite universal N95-usage and other enhanced infection-prevention measures that remained unchanged. The odds of 28d-mortality were higher during the Delta-wave compared to the Omicron-wave (27.7%, 13/47, vs. 10.6%, 28/265, adjusted-odds-ratio, aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.02-7.69). Onward-transmission occurred in 21.2% (66/312) of hospital-onset cases; being on enhanced-surveillance (daily-testing) was independently associated with lower odds of onward-transmission (aOR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.09-0.38). Costs amounted to $USD7141 per-hospital-onset COVID-19 case. CONCLUSION: A surge of hospital-onset COVID-19 cases was encountered during the Omicron-wave, despite continuation of enhanced infection-prevention measures; mortality amongst hospital-onset cases was reduced. The Omicron variant poses an infection-control challenge in contrast to Delta; surveillance is important especially in settings where infrastructural limitations make room-sharing unavoidable, despite the high risk of transmission.

COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers
Am J Infect Control ; 50(4): 465-468, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653966


Sporadic clusters of health care-associated COVID-19 infection occurred in a highly vaccinated health care-workers and patient population, over a 3-month period during ongoing community transmission of the B.1.617.2 variant. Enhanced infection-prevention measures and robust surveillance systems, including routine-rostered-testing of all inpatients and staff and usage of N95-respirators in all clinical areas, were insufficient in achieving zero health care-associated transmission. The unvaccinated and immunocompromised remain at-risk and should be prioritized for enhanced surveillance.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2