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Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167263


BackgroundChildren have a low rate of COVID-19 and secondary severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) but present a high prevalence of symptomatic seasonal coronavirus infections.AimWe tested if prior infections by seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV) NL63, HKU1, 229E or OC43 as assessed by serology, provide cross-protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.MethodsWe set a cross-sectional observational multicentric study in pauci- or asymptomatic children hospitalised in Paris during the first wave for reasons other than COVID (hospitalised children (HOS), n = 739) plus children presenting with MIS (n = 36). SARS-CoV-2 antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein (N) and S1 and S2 domains of the spike (S) proteins were monitored by an in-house luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. We randomly selected 69 SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients (including 15 with MIS) and 115 matched SARS-CoV-2-seronegative patients (controls (CTL)). We measured antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV as evidence for prior corresponding infections and assessed if SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of infection and levels of antibody responses were shaped by prior seasonal coronavirus infections.ResultsPrevalence of HCoV infections were similar in HOS, MIS and CTL groups. Antibody levels against HCoV were not significantly different in the three groups and were not related to the level of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HOS and MIS groups. SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles were different between HOS and MIS children.ConclusionPrior infection by seasonal coronaviruses, as assessed by serology, does not interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related MIS in children.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Paris , Seasons , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Circulation ; 142(5): 429-436, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717431


BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury and myocarditis have been described in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is typically minimally symptomatic. We report a series of febrile pediatric patients with acute heart failure potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children as defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: Over a 2-month period, contemporary with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France and Switzerland, we retrospectively collected clinical, biological, therapeutic, and early outcomes data in children who were admitted to pediatric intensive care units in 14 centers for cardiogenic shock, left ventricular dysfunction, and severe inflammatory state. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were identified and included in the study. Median age at admission was 10 years (range, 2-16 years). Comorbidities were present in 28%, including asthma and overweight. Gastrointestinal symptoms were prominent. Left ventricular ejection fraction was <30% in one-third; 80% required inotropic support with 28% treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Inflammation markers were suggestive of cytokine storm (interleukin-6 median, 135 pg/mL) and macrophage activation (D-dimer median, 5284 ng/mL). Mean BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) was elevated (5743 pg/mL). Thirty-one of 35 patients (88%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab or serology. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, with adjunctive steroid therapy used in one-third. Left ventricular function was restored in the 25 of 35 of those discharged from the intensive care unit. No patient died, and all patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were successfully weaned. CONCLUSIONS: Children may experience an acute cardiac decompensation caused by severe inflammatory state after SARS-CoV-2 infection (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children). Treatment with immunoglobulin appears to be associated with recovery of left ventricular systolic function.

COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , Inflammation/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Left/immunology