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1.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(5): 389-401, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency department visits for a psychiatric reason in the post-partum period represent an acute need for mental health care at a crucial time, but little is known about the extent of timely outpatient follow-up after these visits or how individual and intersecting social determinants of health influence this outcome. This study aimed to examine outpatient mental health care follow-up by a physician in the 30 days after an individual attended the emergency department for a psychiatric reason in the post-partum period and understand how social determinants of health affect who receives follow-up care. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, routinely collected health data from Ontario, Canada were accessed through ICES to identify all post-partum individuals whose sex was listed as female on their health card and who had attended an emergency department in Ontario before the COVID-19 pandemic for a psychiatric reason. Individuals admitted to hospital at the time of the emergency department visit, who died during the visit, or who left without being seen were excluded from the study. Ethnicity data for individuals were not collected. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals with any outpatient physician (psychiatrist or family physician) visit for a mental health reason within 30 days of the index emergency department visit. Family physician mental health visits were identified using a validated algorithm for Ontario Health Insurance Plan-billed visits and mental health diagnostic codes for community health centre visits. We examined the associations between social determinants of health (age, neighbourhood income, community size, immigration, neighbourhood ethnic diversity) and who received an outpatient mental health visit. We used modified Poisson regression adjusting for the other social determinants of health, clinical, and health services characteristics to examine independent associations with follow-up, and conditional inference trees to explore how social determinants of health intersect with each other and with clinical and health services characteristics in relation to follow-up. FINDINGS: We analysed data collected between April 1, 2008, and March 10, 2020, after exclusions we identified 12 158 people who had attended the emergency department for a psychiatric reason in the post-partum period (mean age 26·9 years [SD 6·2]; range 13-47); 9848 individuals lived in an urban area, among these 1518 (15·5%) were immigrants and 2587 (26·3%) lived in areas with high ethnic diversity. 5442 (44·8%) of 12 158 individuals received 30-day follow-up. In modified Poisson regression models, younger age, lower neighbourhood income, smaller community size, and being an immigrant were associated with a lower likelihood of follow-up. In the CTREE, similar variables were important, with several intersections between social determinants of health and between social determinants of health and other variables. INTERPRETATION: Fewer than half of emergency department visits for a psychiatric reason in the post-partum period were followed by timely outpatient care, with social-determinants-of-health-based disparities in access to care. Improvements in equitable access to post-emergency department mental health care are urgently needed in this high-risk post-partum population. FUNDING: Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto; Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Postpartum Period
2.
JAMA health forum ; 3(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738058

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional analysis examines changes in health service use among community-dwelling persons with dementia, persons with Parkinson disease, and older adults without neurodegenerative disease during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Key Points Question Was the COVID-19 pandemic associated with changes in health service use and mortality among community-dwelling persons with dementia and Parkinson disease compared with older adults? Findings In this population-based repeated cross-sectional analysis, large declines in hospital use and nursing home admission were experienced across all cohorts. After the first wave, most services returned to historical levels, with physician visits elevated and mostly virtual, nursing home admissions reduced, and excess all-cause mortality. Meaning The pandemic was associated with meaningful health service disruptions for persons with dementia and Parkinson disease, highlighting that continued support for virtual care is needed to ensure optimal health outcomes. Importance Persons with dementia and Parkinson disease (PD) are vulnerable to disruptions in health care and services. Objective To examine changes in health service use among community-dwelling persons with dementia, persons with PD, and older adults without neurodegenerative disease during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants Repeated cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative data among community-dwelling persons with dementia, persons with PD, and adults 65 years and older at the start of each week from March 1 through the week of September 20, 2020 (pandemic period), and March 3 through the week of September 22, 2019 (historical period), in Ontario, Canada. Exposures COVID-19 pandemic as of March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures Main outcomes were weekly rates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing home admissions, home care, virtual and in-person physician visits, and all-cause mortality. Poisson regression models were used to calculate weekly rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs comparing pandemic weeks with historical levels. Results Among those living in the community as of March 1, 2020, persons with dementia (n = 131 466;mean [SD] age, 80.1 [10.1] years) were older than persons with PD (n = 30 606;73.7 [10.2] years) and older adults (n = 2 363 742;74.0 [7.1] years). While all services experienced declines, the largest drops occurred in nursing home admissions (RR for dementia: 0.10;95% CI, 0.07-0.15;RR for PD: 0.03;95% CI, 0.00-0.21;RR for older adults: 0.11;95% CI, 0.06-0.18) and emergency department visits (RR for dementia: 0.45;95% CI, 0.41-0.48;RR for PD: 0.40;95% CI, 0.34-0.48;RR for older adults: 0.45;95% CI, 0.44-0.47). After the first wave, most services returned to historical levels except physician visits, which remained elevated (RR for dementia: 1.07;95% CI, 1.05-1.09;RR for PD: 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06-1.13) and shifted toward virtual visits. Older adults continued to experience lower hospitalizations. All-cause mortality was elevated across cohorts. Conclusions and Relevance In this population-based repeated cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada, those with dementia, those with PD, and older adults sought hospital care far less than usual, were not admitted to nursing homes, and experienced excess mortality during the first wave of the pandemic. Most services returned to historical levels, but virtual physician visits remained a feature of care. While issues of equity and quality of care are still emerging among persons with neurodegenerative diseases, policies to support virtual care are necessary.

3.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ; 69(12):3377-3388, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1717187

ABSTRACT

Background: While individuals living in long-term care (LTC) homes have experienced adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, few studies have examined a broad range of predictors of 30-day mortality in this population. Methods: We studied residents living in LTC homes in Ontario, Canada, who underwent PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 1 to August 31, 2020, and examined predictors of all-cause death within 30 days after a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. We examined a broad range of risk factor categories including demographics, comorbidities, functional status, laboratory tests, and characteristics of the LTC facility and surrounding community were examined. In total, 304 potential predictors were evaluated for their association with mortality using machine learning (Random Forest). Results: A total of 64,733 residents of LTC, median age 86 (78, 91) years (31.8% men), underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, of whom 5029 (7.8%) tested positive. Thirty-day mortality rates were 28.7% (1442 deaths) after a positive test. Of 59,702 residents who tested negative, 2652 (4.4%) died within 30 days of testing. Predictors of mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection included age, functional status (e.g., activity of daily living score and pressure ulcer risk), male sex, undernutrition, dehydration risk, prior hospital contacts for respiratory illness, and duration of comorbidities (e.g., heart failure, COPD). Lower GFR, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and serum albumin were associated with higher mortality. After combining all covariates to generate a risk index, mortality rate in the highest risk quartile was 48.3% compared with 7% in the first quartile (odds ratio 12.42, 95%CI: 6.67, 22.80, p < 0.001). Deaths continued to increase rapidly for 15 days after the positive test. Conclusions: LTC residents, particularly those with reduced functional status, comorbidities, and abnormalities on routine laboratory tests, are at high risk for mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognizing high-risk residents in LTC may enhance institution of appropriate preventative measures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(3): 379-385, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671571

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) are more transmissible and may have the potential for increased disease severity and decreased vaccine effectiveness. We estimated the effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty), mRNA-1273 (Moderna Spikevax) and ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca Vaxzevria) vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization or death caused by the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2) VOC in Ontario, Canada, using a test-negative design study. We identified 682,071 symptomatic community-dwelling individuals who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 15,269 individuals with a COVID-19 hospitalization or death. Effectiveness against symptomatic infection ≥7 d after two doses was 89-92% against Alpha, 87% against Beta, 88% against Gamma, 82-89% against Beta/Gamma and 87-95% against Delta across vaccine products. The corresponding estimates ≥14 d after one dose were lower. Effectiveness estimates against hospitalization or death were similar to or higher than against symptomatic infection. Effectiveness against symptomatic infection was generally lower for older adults (≥60 years) than for younger adults (<60 years) for most of the VOC-vaccine combinations. Our findings suggest that jurisdictions facing vaccine supply constraints may benefit from delaying the second dose in younger individuals to more rapidly achieve greater overall population protection; however, older adults would likely benefit most from minimizing the delay in receiving the second dose to achieve adequate protection against VOC.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , /genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
6.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 6: 100146, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov-2 infection rates are high among residents of long-term care (LTC) homes. We used machine learning to identify resident and community characteristics predictive of SARS-Cov-2 infection. METHODS: We linked 26 population-based health and administrative databases to identify the population of all LTC residents tested for SARS-Cov-2 infection in Ontario, Canada. Using ensemble-based algorithms, we examined 484 factors, including individual-level demographics, healthcare use, comorbidities, functional status, and laboratory results; and community-level characteristics to identify factors predictive of infection. Analyses were performed separately for January to April (early wave 1) and May to August (late wave 1). FINDINGS: Among 80,784 LTC residents, 64,757 (80.2%) were tested for SARS-Cov-2 (median age 86 (78-91) years, 30.6% male), of whom 10.2% of 33,519 and 5.2% of 31,238 tested positive in early and late wave 1, respectively. In the late phase (when restriction of visitors, closure of communal spaces, and universal masking in LTC were routine), regional-level characteristics comprised 33 of the top 50 factors associated with testing positive, while laboratory values and comorbidities were also predictive. The c-index of the final model was 0.934, and sensitivity was 0.887. In the highest versus lowest risk quartiles, the odds ratio for infection was 114.3 (95% CI 38.6-557.3). LTC-related geographic variations existed in the distribution of observed infection rates and the proportion of residents at highest risk. INTERPRETATION: Machine learning informed evaluation of predicted and observed risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection at the resident and LTC levels, and may inform initiatives to improve care quality in this setting. FUNDING: Funded by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research, COVID-19 Rapid Research Funding Opportunity grant (# VR4 172736) and a Peter Munk Cardiac Centre Innovation Grant. Dr. D. Lee is the Ted Rogers Chair in Heart Function Outcomes, University Health Network, University of Toronto. Dr. Austin is supported by a Mid-Career investigator award from the Heart and Stroke Foundation. Dr. McAlister is supported by an Alberta Health Services Chair in Cardiovascular Outcomes Research. Dr. Kaul is the CIHR Sex and Gender Science Chair and the Heart & Stroke Chair in Cardiovascular Research. Dr. Rochon holds the RTO/ERO Chair in Geriatric Medicine from the University of Toronto. Dr. B. Wang holds a CIFAR AI chair at the Vector Institute.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143144, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620075

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic era (April 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021), relative to the 2 years preceding the pandemic (March 1, 2018 to February 28, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters or hospitalizations for self-harm or overdose. A secondary outcome was self-harm, overdose, or all-cause mortality. Cause-specific hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were used for the primary outcome. Follow-up started at March 1, 2018, or the individual's 14th birthday, whichever was later, and age was used as the time scale. Results: In this study, 1 690 733 adolescents and young adults (823 904 [51.3%] female participants) were included with a median (IQR) age of 17.7 (14.1-21.4) years at start of follow-up. After 4 110 903 person-years of follow-up, 6224 adolescents and young adults experienced the primary outcome of self-harm or overdose during the pandemic (39.7 per 10 000 person-years) vs 12 970 (51.0 per 10 000 person-years) prepandemic, with an HR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.80). The risk of self-harm, overdose, or death was also lower during than before the pandemic (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81), but not all-cause mortality (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults, the initial 15-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a relative decline in hospital care for self-harm or overdose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
9.
Alzheimer's & Dementia ; 17(S10):e055623, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1589222

ABSTRACT

Background Little has been quantified, at a population-level, about the magnitude of heath service disruption to persons living with dementia in community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustained access to health care services is particularly important for persons with dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases as they are vulnerable to decline. Method Health administrative data from Ontario, Canada were used to examine patterns of health service use among all persons with Alzheimer disease and related dementias (dementia) who were alive and living in the community. This cohort was compared to persons with Parkinson?s disease (PD) as well as all older adults (age 65+ years) without neurodegenerative diseases. Rates of all-cause hospital admissions, emergency department visits, primary care and specialist physician visits and home care visits were analyzed for all individuals alive and eligible for provincial health insurance at the start of each weekly period from March 1, 2020 to September 20, 2020 (pandemic period) and from March 3, 2019 to September 22, 2019 (pre-pandemic period). Rates of health service use during specific weeks in the pandemic period (i.e., lowest week, last available week) were compared to corresponding weeks in the pre-pandemic period within each cohort using percent changes. Results On March 1, 2020, 128,696 persons with dementia, 30,099 with PD and 2,460,358 older adults were eligible for provincial health services. Across cohorts and services, dramatic declines in use of health services were observed at the lowest week: hospitalization (-38.7% dementia, -72.3% PD, -44.2% older adults);emergency department (-54.9% dementia, -57.7% PD, -53.6% older adults);home care (-14.8% dementia, -19.4% PD, -7.4% older adults). Health services varied in how quickly they rebounded to pre-pandemic levels within cohorts;notably, by the end of the study period, emergency department visits had increased to a level higher than corresponding 2019 weekly rates (24.2% dementia, 15.2% PD, 7.4% older adults). Conclusions The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic meaningfully and immediately disrupted use of health care services for persons living with dementia and PD and may have resulted in long-term consequences that should be monitored.

10.
Thromb Res ; 211: 114-122, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569092

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation may improve outcomes in patients with COVID-19 when started early in the course of illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using linked administrative datasets of outpatients aged ≥65 years old testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 between January 1 and December 31, 2020 in Ontario, Canada. The key exposure was anticoagulation with warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants before COVID-19 diagnosis. We calculated propensity scores and used matching weights (MWs) to reduce baseline differences between anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated patients. The primary outcome was a composite of death or hospitalization within 60 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and cumulative incidence functions to estimate risk of the primary and component outcomes at 60 days. RESULTS: We studied 23,159 outpatients (mean age 78.5 years; 13,474 [58.2%] female), among whom 3200 (13.8%) deaths and 3183 (13.7%) hospitalizations occurred within 60 days of the SARS-CoV-2 test. After application of MWs, the 60-day risk of death or hospitalization was 29.2% (95% CI 27.4%-31.2%) for anticoagulated individuals and 32.1% (95% CI 30.7%-33.5%) without anticoagulation (absolute risk difference [ARD], -2.9%; p = 0.005). Anticoagulation was also associated with a lower risk of death: 18.6% (95% CI 17.0%-20.2%) with anticoagulation and 20.9% (95% CI 19.7%-22.2%) in non-anticoagulated patients (ARD -2.3%; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients aged ≥65 years, oral anticoagulation at the time of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test was associated with a lower risk of a composite of death or hospitalization within 60 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Outpatients
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049389, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic wearing a mask in public has been recommended in some settings and mandated in others. How often this advice is followed, how well, and whether it inadvertently leads to more disease transmission opportunities due to a combination of improper use and physical distancing lapses is unknown. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study performed in June-August 2020. SETTING: Eleven outdoor and indoor public settings (some with mandated mask use, some without) each in Toronto, Ontario, and in Portland, Oregon. PARTICIPANTS: All passers-by in the study settings. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mask use, incorrect mask use, and number of breaches (ie, coming within 2 m of someone else where both parties were not properly masked). RESULTS: We observed 36 808 persons, the majority of whom were estimated to be aged 31-65 years (49%). Two-thirds (66.7%) were wearing a mask and 13.6% of mask-wearers wore them incorrectly. Mandatory mask-use settings were overwhelmingly associated with mask use (adjusted OR 79.2; 95% CI 47.4 to 135.1). Younger age, male sex, Torontonians, and public transit or airport settings (vs in a store) were associated with lower adjusted odds of wearing a mask. Mandatory mask-use settings were associated with lower adjusted odds of mask error (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.73), along with female sex and Portland subjects. Subjects aged 81+ years (vs 31-65 years) and those on public transit and at the airport (vs stores) had higher odds of mask errors. Mask-wearers had a large reduction in adjusted mean number of breaches (rate ratio (RR) 0.19; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.20). The 81+ age group had the largest association with breaches (RR 7.77; 95% CI 5.32 to 11.34). CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory mask use was associated with a large increase in mask-wearing. Despite 14% of them wearing their masks incorrectly, mask users had a large reduction in the mean number of breaches (disease transmission opportunities). The elderly and transit users may warrant public health interventions aimed at improving mask use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e022330, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484156

ABSTRACT

Background Small observational studies have suggested that statin users have a lower risk of dying with COVID-19. We tested this hypothesis in a large, population-based cohort of adults in 2 of Canada's most populous provinces: Ontario and Alberta. Methods and Results We examined reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction swab positivity rates for SARS-CoV-2 in adults using statins compared with nonusers. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, we compared 30-day risk of all-cause emergency department visit, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, or death in statin users versus nonusers, adjusting for baseline differences in demographics, clinical comorbidities, and prior health care use, as well as propensity for statin use. Between January and June 2020, 2.4% of 226 142 tested individuals aged 18 to 65 years, 2.7% of 88 387 people aged 66 to 75 years, and 4.1% of 154 950 people older than 75 years had a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction swab for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with 353 878 nonusers, the 115 871 statin users were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.6% versus 2.8%, P<0.001), but this difference was not significant after adjustment for baseline differences and propensity for statin use in each age stratum (adjusted odds ratio 1.00 [95% CI, 0.88-1.14], 1.00 [0.91-1.09], and 1.06 [0.82-1.38], respectively). In individuals younger than 75 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection, statin users were more likely to visit an emergency department, be hospitalized, be admitted to the intensive care unit, or to die of any cause within 30 days of their positive swab result than nonusers, but none of these associations were significant after multivariable adjustment. In individuals older than 75 years with SARS-CoV-2, statin users were more likely to visit an emergency department (28.2% versus 17.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.41 [1.23-1.61]) or be hospitalized (32.7% versus 21.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.19 [1.05-1.36]), but were less likely to die (26.9% versus 31.3%, adjusted odds ratio 0.76 [0.67-0.86]) of any cause within 30 days of their positive swab result than nonusers. Conclusions Compared with statin nonusers, patients taking statins exhibit the same risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and those younger than 75 years exhibit similar outcomes within 30 days of a positive test. Patients older than 75 years with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and who were taking statins had more emergency department visits and hospitalizations, but exhibited lower 30-day all-cause mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alberta/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
13.
CJC Open ; 3(10): 1230-1237, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not known if initial reductions in hospitalization for stroke and myocardial infarction early during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic were followed by subsequent increases. We describe the rates of emergency department visits for stroke and myocardial infarction through the pandemic phases. METHODS: We used linked administrative data to compare the weekly age- and sex-standardized rates of visits for stroke and myocardial infarction in Ontario, Canada in the first 9 months of 2020 to the mean baseline rates (2015-2019) using rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We compared care and outcomes by pandemic phases (pre-pandemic was January-March, lockdown was March-May, early reopening was May-July, and late reopening was July-September). RESULTS: We identified 15,682 visits in 2020 for ischemic stroke (59.2%; n = 9279), intracerebral hemorrhage (12.2%; n = 1912), or myocardial infarction (28.6%; n = 4491). The weekly rates for stroke visits in 2020 were lower during the lockdown and early reopening than at baseline (RR 0.76, 95% CI [0.66, 0.87] for the largest weekly decrease). The weekly rates for myocardial infarction visits were lower during the lockdown only (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.46, 0.77] for the largest weekly decrease), and there was a compensatory increase in visits following reopening. Ischemic stroke 30-day mortality was increased during the lockdown phase (11.5% pre-coronavirus disease; 12.2% during lockdown; 9.2% during early reopening; and 10.6% during late reopening, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: After an initial reduction in visits for stroke and myocardial infarction, there was a compensatory increase in visits for myocardial infarction. The death rate after ischemic stroke was higher during the lockdown than in other phases.


CONTEXTE: Nous ignorons si les réductions des taux d'hospitalisations pour un AVC et un infarctus du myocarde observées au début de la pandémie de coronavirus de 2019 ont été suivies d'une hausse de ces taux. Nous décrivons ici les taux de visites aux services des urgences pour un AVC et un infarctus du myocarde pendant toutes les phases de la pandémie. MÉTHODES: À partir de données administratives couplées, nous comparons les taux hebdomadaires de visites pour un AVC et un infarctus du myocarde, normalisés en fonction de l'âge et du sexe, en Ontario, au Canada, effectuées pendant les neuf premiers mois de 2020, avec les taux moyens de base (2015-2019), en utilisant des ratios des taux (RR) et des intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 %. Nous avons comparé les soins et les issues selon les phases de la pandémie (avant la pandémie : de janvier à mars; confinement : de mars à mai; début de la réouverture : de mai à juillet; phase tardive de la réouverture : de juillet à septembre). RÉSULTATS: Nous avons répertorié 15 682 visites effectuées en 2020 pour un AVC ischémique (59,2 %; n = 9 279), une hémorragie intracérébrale (12,2 %; n = 1 912) ou un infarctus du myocarde (28,6 %; n = 4 491). Les taux hebdomadaires de visites pour un AVC effectuées en 2020 étaient inférieurs pendant la période de confinement et le début de la réouverture comparativement à la période de base (RR : 0,76; IC à 95 % : 0,66-0,87 pour la plus grande baisse hebdomadaire). Les taux hebdomadaires de visites pour un infarctus du myocarde étaient inférieurs pendant la période de confinement seulement (RR : 0,61; IC à 95 % : 0,46-0,77 pour la baisse hebdomadaire la plus importante); une hausse compensatrice du nombre de visites a été notée après la réouverture. Le taux de mortalité à 30 jours des suites d'un AVC ischémique était plus élevé pendant la période de confinement (11,5 % avant la pandémie de coronavirus; 12,2 % pendant le confinement; 9,2 % au début de la période de réouverture; 10,6 % pendant la phase tardive de la réouverture, p = 0,015). CONCLUSION: Après une réduction initiale du nombre de visites motivées par un AVC et un infarctus du myocarde, on a noté une hausse compensatrice du nombre de visites motivées par un infarctus du myocarde. Le taux de mortalité des suites d'un AVC ischémique était plus élevé pendant la période de confinement que pendant les autres périodes.

14.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(12): 3377-3388, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While individuals living in long-term care (LTC) homes have experienced adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, few studies have examined a broad range of predictors of 30-day mortality in this population. METHODS: We studied residents living in LTC homes in Ontario, Canada, who underwent PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 1 to August 31, 2020, and examined predictors of all-cause death within 30 days after a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. We examined a broad range of risk factor categories including demographics, comorbidities, functional status, laboratory tests, and characteristics of the LTC facility and surrounding community were examined. In total, 304 potential predictors were evaluated for their association with mortality using machine learning (Random Forest). RESULTS: A total of 64,733 residents of LTC, median age 86 (78, 91) years (31.8% men), underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, of whom 5029 (7.8%) tested positive. Thirty-day mortality rates were 28.7% (1442 deaths) after a positive test. Of 59,702 residents who tested negative, 2652 (4.4%) died within 30 days of testing. Predictors of mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection included age, functional status (e.g., activity of daily living score and pressure ulcer risk), male sex, undernutrition, dehydration risk, prior hospital contacts for respiratory illness, and duration of comorbidities (e.g., heart failure, COPD). Lower GFR, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte count, and serum albumin were associated with higher mortality. After combining all covariates to generate a risk index, mortality rate in the highest risk quartile was 48.3% compared with 7% in the first quartile (odds ratio 12.42, 95%CI: 6.67, 22.80, p < 0.001). Deaths continued to increase rapidly for 15 days after the positive test. CONCLUSIONS: LTC residents, particularly those with reduced functional status, comorbidities, and abnormalities on routine laboratory tests, are at high risk for mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recognizing high-risk residents in LTC may enhance institution of appropriate preventative measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Long-Term Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Nursing Homes , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
16.
CMAJ ; 193(21): E753-E760, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reduced use of the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic may result in increased disease acuity when patients do seek health care services. We sought to evaluate emergency department visits for common abdominal and gynecologic conditions before and at the beginning of the pandemic to determine whether changes in emergency department attendance had serious consequences for patients. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis using administrative data to evaluate the weekly rate of emergency department visits pre-COVID-19 (Jan. 1-Mar. 10, 2020) and during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (Mar. 11-June 30, 2020), compared with a historical control period (Jan. 1-July 1, 2019). All residents of Ontario, Canada, presenting to the emergency department with appendicitis, cholecystitis, ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage were included. We evaluated weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of emergency department visits, management strategies and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Across all study periods, 39 691 emergency department visits met inclusion criteria (40.2 % appendicitis, 32.1% miscarriage, 21.3% cholecystitis, 6.4% ectopic pregnancy). Baseline characteristics of patients presenting to the emergency department did not vary across study periods. After an initial reduction in emergency department visits, presentations for cholecystitis and ectopic pregnancy quickly returned to expected levels. However, presentations for appendicitis and miscarriage showed sustained reductions (IRR 0.61-0.80), with 1087 and 984 fewer visits, respectively, after the start of the pandemic, relative to 2019. Management strategies, complications and mortality rates were similar across study periods for all conditions. INTERPRETATION: Although our study showed evidence of emergency department avoidance in Ontario during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, no adverse consequences were evident. Emergency care and outcomes for patients were similar before and during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Cholecystitis , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Genital Diseases, Female , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnosis , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/therapy , Adult , Aged , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cholecystitis/diagnosis , Cholecystitis/epidemiology , Cholecystitis/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Genital Diseases, Female/epidemiology , Genital Diseases, Female/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnosis , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Pregnancy, Ectopic/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
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