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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood
2.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
5.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(12): 4861-4867, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228713

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is one of the most encouraging treatments against SARS-CoV-2 infection. After intravenous infusion, RDV is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 1 h) within the cells to its active adenosine triphosphate analogue form (GS-443902) and then it can be found in plasma in its nucleoside analogue form (GS-441524). In this real-life study, we describe the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations at three time points in nine ICU patients, through a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The observed data confirmed the very rapid conversion of RDV to its metabolite and the quite long half-life of GS-441524. The mean Cmin , Cmax and AUC0-24 , were < 0.24 ng/mL and 122.3 ng/mL, 2637.3 ng/mL and 157.8 ng/mL, and 5171.2 ng*h/mL and 3676.5 ng*h/ml, respectively, for RDV and GS-441524. Three out of nine patients achieved a Cmax  > 2610 ng/mL and 140 ng/mL and AUC0-24  > 1560 ng*h/mL and 2230 ng*h/mL for RDV and GS-441524, respectively. The mean t1/2 value for GS-441524 was 26.3 h. Despite the low number of patients, these data can represent an interesting preliminary report on the variability of RDV and GS-441524 concentrations in a real-life ICU setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227007

ABSTRACT

Recently, large-scale screening for COVID-19 has presented a major challenge, limiting timely countermeasures. Therefore, the application of suitable rapid serological tests could provide useful information, however, little evidence regarding their robustness is currently available. In this work, we evaluated and compared the analytical performance of a rapid lateral-flow test (LFA) and a fast semiquantitative fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) for anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, with the reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay as the reference. In 222 patients, LFA showed poor sensitivity (55.9%) within two weeks from PCR, while later testing was more reliable (sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 93.1%). Moreover, in a subset of 100 patients, FIA showed high sensitivity (89.1%) and specificity (94.1%) after two weeks from PCR. The coupled application for the screening of 183 patients showed satisfactory concordance (K = 0.858). In conclusion, rapid serological tests were largely not useful for early diagnosis, but they showed good performance in later stages of infection. These could be useful for back-tracing and/or to identify potentially immune subjects.

7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(10): 2977-2980, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is a prodrug of the nucleoside analogue GS-441524 and is under evaluation for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in plasma, bronchoalveolar aspirate (BAS) and CSF in two critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Remdesivir was administered at 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 12 days of 100 mg in two critically ill patients. Blood samples were collected immediately after (C0) and at 1 (C1) and 24 h (C24) after intravenous administration on day 3 until day 9. BAS samples were collected on Days 4, 7 and 9 from both patients while one CSF on Day 7 was obtained in one patient. Remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations were measured in these samples using a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. RESULTS: We observed higher concentrations of remdesivir at C0 (6- to 7-fold higher than EC50 from in vitro studies) and a notable decay at C1. GS-441524 plasma concentrations reached a peak at C1 and persisted until the next administration. Higher concentrations of GS-441524 were observed in the patient with mild renal dysfunction. Mean BAS/plasma concentration ratios of GS-441524 were 2.3% and 6.4% in Patient 1 and Patient 2, respectively. The CSF concentration found in Patient 2 was 25.7% with respect to plasma. GS-441524 levels in lung and CNS suggest compartmental differences in drug exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of remdesivir and GS-441524 in recovered COVID-19 patients. Further study of the pharmacokinetic profile of remdesivir, GS-441524 and the intracellular triphosphate form are required.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(7): 1772-1777, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. OBJECTIVES: The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. METHODS: Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation, followed by dilution and injection into the QSight 220 UHPLC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. The method was validated using EMA and FDA guidelines. RESULTS: Analyte stability has been evaluated and described in detail. The method successfully fulfilled the validation process and it was demonstrated that, when possible, sample thermal inactivation could be a good choice in order to improve biosafety. CONCLUSIONS: This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Adenosine Triphosphate/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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