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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 244, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae in adults and children were performed in the absence of an agreed definition. We investigated prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) (WHO definition), at 6- and 12-months follow-up, amongst previously hospitalised adults and children and assessed risk factors. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of children and adults with confirmed COVID-19 in Moscow, hospitalised between April and August, 2020. Two follow-up telephone interviews, using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium survey, were performed at 6 and 12 months after discharge. RESULTS: One thousand thirteen of 2509 (40%) of adults and 360 of 849 (42%) of children discharged participated in both the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. PCC prevalence was 50% (95% CI 47-53) in adults and 20% (95% CI 16-24) in children at 6 months, with decline to 34% (95% CI 31-37) and 11% (95% CI 8-14), respectively, at 12 months. In adults, female sex was associated with PCC at 6- and 12-month follow-up (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.65) and (OR 2.04, 1.54 to 2.69), respectively. Pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.42, 1.04 to 1.94) was associated with post-COVID-19 condition at 12 months. In children, neurological comorbidities were associated with PCC both at 6 months (OR 4.38, 1.36 to 15.67) and 12 months (OR 8.96, 2.55 to 34.82) while allergic respiratory diseases were associated at 12 months (OR 2.66, 1.04 to 6.47). CONCLUSIONS: Although prevalence of PCC declined one year after discharge, one in three adults and one in ten children experienced ongoing sequelae. In adults, females and persons with pre-existing hypertension, and in children, persons with neurological comorbidities or allergic respiratory diseases are at higher risk of PCC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Moscow/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(5)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855795

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health challenge with understudied effects on antimicrobial usage. We aimed to analyze antimicrobial prescribing patterns in COVID-19 patients in Russian multi-field hospitals by means of the Global-PPS Project developed by the University of Antwerp. Out of 999 patients in COVID-19 wards in six hospitals surveyed in 2021, 51.3% received antimicrobials (79% in intensive care, 47.5% in medical wards). Systemic antivirals and antibiotics were prescribed to 31% and 35.1% of patients, respectively, and a combination of both to 14.1% of patients. The top antivirals administered were favipiravir (65%), remdesivir (19.2%), and umifenovir (15.8%); the top antibiotics were ceftriaxone (29.7%), levofloxacin (18%), and cefoperazone/sulbactam (10.4%). The vast majority of antibiotics was prescribed for treatment of pneumonia or COVID-19 infection (59.3% and 25.1%, respectively). Treatment was based on biomarker data in 42.7% of patients but was targeted only in 29.6% (6.7% for antibiotics). The rate of non-compliance with guidelines reached 16.6%. Antimicrobial prescribing patterns varied considerably in COVID-19 wards in Russian hospitals with groundlessly high rates of systemic antibiotics. Antimicrobial usage surveillance and stewardship should be applied to inpatient care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 59, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the lung respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in the time course of COVID-19-associated respiratory failure is limited. This study aimed to explore respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, the lung recruitability and risk of overdistension during the time course of mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients (n = 116) with COVID-19 admitted into Intensive Care Units of Sechenov University. The primary endpoints were: «optimum¼ positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level balanced between the lowest driving pressure and the highest SpO2 and number of patients with recruitable lung on Days 1 and 7 of mechanical ventilation. We measured driving pressure at different levels of PEEP (14, 12, 10 and 8 cmH2O) with preset tidal volume, and with the increase of tidal volume by 100 ml and 200 ml at preset PEEP level, and calculated static respiratory system compliance (CRS), PaO2/FiO2, alveolar dead space and ventilatory ratio on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21. RESULTS: The «optimum¼ PEEP levels on Day 1 were 11.0 (10.0-12.8) cmH2O and 10.0 (9.0-12.0) cmH2O on Day 7. Positive response to recruitment was observed on Day 1 in 27.6% and on Day 7 in 9.2% of patients. PEEP increase from 10 to 14 cmH2O and VT increase by 100 and 200 ml led to a significant decrease in CRS from Day 1 to Day 14 (p < 0.05). Ventilatory ratio was 2.2 (1.7-2,7) in non-survivors and in 1.9 (1.6-2.6) survivors on Day 1 and decreased on Day 7 in survivors only (p < 0.01). PaO2/FiO2 was 105.5 (76.2-141.7) mmHg in non-survivors on Day 1 and 136.6 (106.7-160.8) in survivors (p = 0.002). In survivors, PaO2/FiO2 rose on Day 3 (p = 0.008) and then between Days 7 and 10 (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Lung recruitability was low in COVID-19 and decreased during the course of the disease, but lung overdistension occurred at «intermediate¼ PEEP and VT levels. In survivors gas exchange improvements after Day 7 mismatched CRS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04445961 . Registered 24 June 2020-Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Mechanics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Tidal Volume , Treatment Failure
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 50, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial portion of people with COVID-19 subsequently experience lasting symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, and neurological complaints such as cognitive dysfunction many months after acute infection. Emerging evidence suggests that this condition, commonly referred to as long COVID but also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post-COVID-19 condition, could become a significant global health burden. MAIN TEXT: While the number of studies investigating the post-COVID-19 condition is increasing, there is no agreement on how this new disease should be defined and diagnosed in clinical practice and what relevant outcomes to measure. There is an urgent need to optimise and standardise outcome measures for this important patient group both for clinical services and for research and to allow comparing and pooling of data. CONCLUSIONS: A Core Outcome Set for post-COVID-19 condition should be developed in the shortest time frame possible, for improvement in data quality, harmonisation, and comparability between different geographical locations. We call for a global initiative, involving all relevant partners, including, but not limited to, healthcare professionals, researchers, methodologists, patients, and caregivers. We urge coordinated actions aiming to develop a Core Outcome Set (COS) for post-COVID-19 condition in both the adult and paediatric populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324569

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on the lung respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in the time course of COVID-19-associated respiratory failure is limited. This study aimed to explore respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, the lung recruitability and risk of overdistension during the time course of mechanical ventilation. Methods: : This was a prospective observational study in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients (n=116) with COVID-19 admitted into Intensive Care Units of Sechenov University. The primary endpoints were: «optimum» positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level balanced between the lowest driving pressure and the highest SpO 2 and number of patients with recruitable lung on Days 1 and 7 of mechanical ventilation. We measured driving pressure at different levels of PEEP (14, 12, 10 and 8 cmH 2 O) with preset tidal volume, and with the increase of tidal volume by 100 ml and 200 ml at preset PEEP level, and calculated static respiratory system compliance (C RS ), PaO 2 /FiO 2 , alveolar dead space and ventilatory ratio on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21. Results: : The «optimum» PEEP levels on Day 1 were 11.0 (10.0-12.8) cmH 2 O and 10.0 (9.0-12.0) cmH 2 O on Day 7. Positive response to recruitment was observed on Day 1 in 27.6% and on Day 7 in 9.2% of patients. PEEP increase from 10 to 14 cmH 2 O and VT increase by 100 and 200 ml led to a significant decrease in C RS from Day 1 to Day 14 (p<0.05). Ventilatory ratio was 2.2 (1.7-2,7) in non-survivors and in 1.9 (1.6-2.6) survivors on Day 1 and decreased on Day 7 in survivors only (p<0.01). PaO 2 /FiO 2 was 105.5 (76.2-141.7) mmHg in non-survivors on Day 1 and 136.6 (106.7-160.8) in survivors (p=0.002). In survivors, PaO 2 /FiO 2 rose on Day 3 (p=0.008) and then between Days 7 and 10 (p=0.046). Conclusion: Lung recruitability was low in COVID-19 and decreased during the course of the disease, but lung overdistension occurred at «intermediate» PEEP and VT levels. In survivors gas exchange improvements after Day 7 mismatched C RS . Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04445961. Registered 24 June 2020 - Retrospectively registered, http://https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04445961?cond=COVID-19&cntry=RU&city=Moscow&draw=3&rank=23

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317269

ABSTRACT

This non-randomized controlled study aimed to assess the efficacy of tofacitinib in reducing the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation or death in patients with COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 associated with reduced oxygen saturation, increased C-reactive protein (≥50 mg/L), and/or persisting fever were recruited. Tofacitinib was administered in addition to standard of care therapy. Study outcomes were evaluated separately in the groups of patients with oxygen saturation at rest ≤93% and >93%. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for inverse propensity score weighting. Overall, 384 patients with COVID-19 (212 males;median age 60 years) were included in our study and were treated with tofactinib (n=131) or standard of care alone (n=253). The percentages of patients who started mechanical ventilation or died during hospitalization in the tofacitinib and control groups were 12.5% (9/72) vs. 14.1% (26/185) among patients who required respiratory support (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.33-2.56), and 1.7% (1/59) vs. 4.4% (3/68) in those with normal oxygen saturation (HR 0.83;95 CI 0.07-9.44). Tofacitinib did not reduce the risk of invasive mechanical ventilation or death in patients with COVID-19, although the analysis of these outcomes favored tofacitinib.

10.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1107-1120, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequalae of COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. We assessed persistent symptoms in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and assessed potential risk factors. METHODS: Data were collected from patients discharged from 4 hospitals in Moscow, Russia between 8 April and 10 July 2020. Participants were interviewed via telephone using an ISARIC Long-term Follow-up Study questionnaire. RESULTS: 2,649 of 4755 (56%) discharged patients were successfully evaluated, at median 218 (IQR 200, 236) days post-discharge. COVID-19 diagnosis was clinical in 1291 and molecular in 1358. Most cases were mild, but 902 (34%) required supplemental oxygen and 68 (2.6%) needed ventilatory support. Median age was 56 years (IQR 46, 66) and 1,353 (51.1%) were women. Persistent symptoms were reported by 1247 (47.1%) participants, with fatigue (21.2%), shortness of breath (14.5%) and forgetfulness (9.1%) the most common symptoms and chronic fatigue (25%) and respiratory (17.2%) the most common symptom categories. Female sex was associated with any persistent symptom category OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.17) with association being strongest for dermatological (3.26, 2.36 to 4.57) symptoms. Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease were not associated with persistent symptoms overall, but asthma was associated with neurological (1.95, 1.25 to 2.98) and mood and behavioural changes (2.02, 1.24 to 3.18), and chronic pulmonary disease was associated with chronic fatigue (1.68, 1.21 to 2.32). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of adults admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 reported persistent symptoms 6 to 8 months after discharge. Fatigue and respiratory symptoms were most common, and female sex was associated with persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology
16.
Cytokine ; 146: 155627, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the severe course of COVID-19 is the hyper-inflammatory syndrome associated with progressive damage of lung tissue and multi-organ dysfunction. IL-17 has been suggested to be involved in hyper-inflammatory syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the IL-17 inhibitor netakimab in patients with severe COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: In our retrospective case-control study we evaluated the efficacy of netakimab in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients in the experimental group were treated with standard of care therapy and netakimab at a dose of 120 mg subcutaneously. RESULTS: 171 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in our study, and 88 of them received netakimab. On the 3 day of therapy, body temperature, SpO2/FiO2, NEWS2 score, and CRP improved significantly in the netakimab group compared to the control group. Other clinical outcomes such as transfer to ICU (11.4% vs 9.6%), need for mechanical ventilation (10.2% vs 9.6%), 28-day mortality (10.2% vs 8.4%), did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, anti-IL-17 therapy might mitigate the inflammatory response and improve oxygenation, but do not affect the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Dyspnea/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-17/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): 1-11, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Russian population are unknown. Information on the differences between laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 in real-life settings is lacking. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical records of adult patients who were consecutively admitted for suspected COVID-19 infection in Moscow between 8 April and 28 May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 4261 patients hospitalized for suspected COVID-19, outcomes were available for 3480 patients (median age, 56 years; interquartile range, 45-66). The most common comorbidities were hypertension, obesity, chronic cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Half of the patients (n = 1728) had a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while 1748 had a negative RT-PCR but had clinical symptoms and characteristic computed tomography signs suggestive of COVID-19. No significant differences in frequency of symptoms, laboratory test results, and risk factors for in-hospital mortality were found between those exclusively clinically diagnosed or with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR. In a multivariable logistic regression model the following were associated with in-hospital mortality: older age (per 1-year increase; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.06), male sex (1.71; 1.24-2.37), chronic kidney disease (2.99; 1.89-4.64), diabetes (2.1; 1.46-2.99), chronic cardiovascular disease (1.78; 1.24-2.57), and dementia (2.73; 1.34-5.47). CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, and chronic comorbidities were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The combination of clinical features was sufficient to diagnose COVID-19 infection, indicating that laboratory testing is not critical in real-life clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Moscow , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Respir Med ; 185: 106489, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have investigated the use of nebulized surfactant as a potential therapeutic option for the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) undergoing non-invasive ventilation. METHODS: The patients were divided into 2 groups: surfactant (n = 33) and control (n = 32). The subjects in the surfactant group received the inhaled surfactant at daily dose of 150-300 mg. The oxygenation parameters and several clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: On the 5 day of therapy, PaO2/FiO2 improved significantly in the surfactant group compared to the control group (184 (155-212) mmHg vs 150 (91-173) mmHg, p = 0.02). The inhaled surfactant significantly reduced the need for transfer of patients to intensive care units (24.2% vs 46.9%, p = 0.05) and invasive mechanical ventilation (18.2% vs 40.6%, p = 0.04). Even more, the nebulized surfactant shortened the length of non-invasive ventilation (7 (3-13) days vs 11 (5-22) days, p = 0.02) and time spent in hospital (18 (16-27) days vs 26 (21-31) days, p = 0.003) in patients suffering from COVID-19-linked ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data provided indications that inhaled surfactant therapy may represent a promising option for patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. However, larger clinical trials are crucially needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
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