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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333480

ABSTRACT

Background: Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (PIMS-TS) is a rare life-threatening complication that typically occurs several weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young people (CYP). We used national and regional-level data from the COVID-19 pandemic wave in England to develop and optimise a model to predict PIMS-TS cases in subsequent waves. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 infections in CYP aged 0-15 years in England were estimated using the PHE-Cambridge real-time model. PIMS-TS cases were identified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit during the first pandemic wave (March-June 2020). Since November 2020, cases were identified through Secondary Uses Services (SUS), a national healthcare activity dataset. A predictive model was developed to estimate PIMS-TS risk and lag times after SARS-CoV-2 infection for the Alpha (weeks 1-10, 2021) and Delta (weeks 22-30, 2022) waves. Findings: During the Alpha wave, the model accurately predicted PIMS-TS cases (506 (95% CI: 491-531) vs 502 observed cases), with a median estimated the risk of 0·038% (IQR, 0·037-0·041%;38/100,000 infections) of paediatric SARS-CoV-2 infections. For the Delta wave, the median risk of PIMS-TS was significantly lower at 0·026% (IQR, 0·025-0·029%;27/100,000 infections) , with 212 observed PIMS-TS cases compared to 450 predicted by the model during June-October 2021. Interpretation: We developed a model that accurately predicted national and regional PIMS-TS cases in CYP during the Alpha wave. PIMS-TS cases were, however, 53% lower than predicted during the Delta wave. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of the observed lower risk with the Delta variant.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 3: 100075, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), first identified in April 2020, shares features of both Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). The surveillance describes the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of PIMS-TS in the United Kingdom and Ireland. METHODS: Public Health England initiated prospective national surveillance of PIMS-TS through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Paediatricians were contacted monthly to report PIMS-TS, KD and TSS cases electronically and complete a detailed clinical questionnaire. Cases with symptom onset between 01 March and 15 June 2020 were included. FINDINGS: There were 216 cases with features of PIMS-TS alone, 13 with features of both PIMS-TS and KD, 28 with features of PIMS-TS and TSS and 11 with features of PIMS-TS, KD and TSS, with differences in age, ethnicity, clinical presentation and disease severity between the phenotypic groups. There was a strong geographical and temporal association between SARS-CoV-2 infection rates and PIMS-TS cases. Of those tested, 14.8% (39/264) children had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, and 63.6% (75/118) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In total 44·0% (118/268) required intensive care, which was more common in cases with a TSS phenotype. Three of five children with cardiac arrest had TSS phenotype. Three children (1·1%) died. INTERPRETATION: The strong association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and PIMS-TS emphasises the importance of maintaining low community infection rates to reduce the risk of this rare but severe complication in children and adolescents. Close follow-up will be important to monitor long-term complications in children with PIMS-TS. FUNDING: PHE.

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