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1.
Analyst ; 147(6): 1213-1221, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713220

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused millions of cases and deaths all over the world since late 2019. Rapid detection of the virus is crucial for controlling its spread through a population. COVID-19 is currently detected by nucleic acid-based tests and serological tests. However, these methods have limitations such as the requirement of high-cost reagents, false negative results and being time consuming. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is a powerful technique that enhances the Raman signals of molecules using plasmonic nanostructures, can overcome these disadvantages. In this study, we developed a virus-infected cell model and analyzed this model by SERS combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 via polyethyleneimine (PEI). Non-plasmid transfected HEK293 cells were used as the control group. Cellular uptake was optimized with green fluorescence protein (GFP) plasmids and evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The transfection efficiency was found to be around 60%. The expression of M, N, and E proteins was demonstrated by western blotting. The SERS spectra of the total proteins of transfected cells were obtained using a gold nanoparticle-based SERS substrate. Proteins of the transfected cells have peak positions at 646, 680, 713, 768, 780, 953, 1014, 1046, 1213, 1243, 1424, 2102, and 2124 cm-1. To reveal spectral differences between plasmid transfected cells and non-transfected control cells, PCA was applied to the spectra. The results demonstrated that SERS coupled with PCA might be a favorable and reliable way to develop a rapid, low-cost, and promising technique for the detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Multivariate Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308575

ABSTRACT

Over the past year, the world's attention has focused on combating COVID-19 disease, but the other threat waiting at the door - antimicrobial resistance should not be forgotten. Although making the diagnosis rapidly and accurately is crucial in preventing antibiotic resistance development, bacterial identification techniques include some challenging processes. To address this challenge, we proposed a deep neural network (DNN) that can discriminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stacked autoencoder (SAE)-based DNN was used for the rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) bacteria using a label-free SERS technique. The performance of the DNN was compared with other traditional classifiers. Since the SERS technique provides high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, some subtle differences were found between MRSA and MSSA in relative band intensities. SAE-based DNN can learn features from raw data and classify them with an accuracy of 97.66%. Moreover, the model discriminates bacteria with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.99. Compared with other traditional classifiers, SAE-based DNN was found superior in accuracy and AUC values. The obtained results are also supported by statistical analysis. These results demonstrate that deep learning has great potential to characterize and detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria by using SERS spectral data. The proposed method is a label-free, easy implemented, and reliable technique with high sensitivity for clinical use.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18444, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415956

ABSTRACT

Over the past year, the world's attention has focused on combating COVID-19 disease, but the other threat waiting at the door-antimicrobial resistance should not be forgotten. Although making the diagnosis rapidly and accurately is crucial in preventing antibiotic resistance development, bacterial identification techniques include some challenging processes. To address this challenge, we proposed a deep neural network (DNN) that can discriminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stacked autoencoder (SAE)-based DNN was used for the rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) bacteria using a label-free SERS technique. The performance of the DNN was compared with traditional classifiers. Since the SERS technique provides high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, some subtle differences were found between MRSA and MSSA in relative band intensities. SAE-based DNN can learn features from raw data and classify them with an accuracy of 97.66%. Moreover, the model discriminates bacteria with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.99. Compared to traditional classifiers, SAE-based DNN was found superior in accuracy and AUC values. The obtained results are also supported by statistical analysis. These results demonstrate that deep learning has great potential to characterize and detect antibiotic-resistant bacteria by using SERS spectral data.


Subject(s)
Methicillin Resistance , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Deep Learning , Discriminant Analysis , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Neural Networks, Computer , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Silver/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Support Vector Machine
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