Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
2.
BMJ Med ; 2(1): e000187, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298477

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine sociodemographic inequalities in people with SARS-CoV-2 during the second (alpha) and third (delta) waves of the covid-19 pandemic. Design: Retrospective, population based cohort study. Setting: Resident population of England. Participants: 39 006 194 people aged 10 years and older who were enumerated in the 2011 census, registered with the NHS, and alive on 1 September 2020. Main outcome measures: Age standardised SARS-CoV-2 case rates (ie, the number of people who received a positive test result per 100 000 person weeks at risk) during the second wave (1 September 2020 to 22 May 2021) or third wave (23 May to 10 December 2021) of the pandemic. Age standardised rates were calculated by sociodemographic characteristics and adjusted rate ratios were estimated using generalised linear regression models with a Poisson distribution (models were adjusted for covariates including sex, age, geographical variables, and sociodemographic characteristics). Results: During the study period, 5 767 584 people (14.8% of the study population) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the second wave, the fully adjusted relative risks of having a positive test were highest for the Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic groups compared with the white British group, with rate ratios of 1.75 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 1.77) and 1.69 (1.68 to 1.70), respectively. Muslim and Sikh religious groups had fully adjusted rate ratios of 1.51 (1.50 to 1.51) and 1.64 (1.63 to 1.66), respectively, compared with the Christian group. Greater area deprivation, disadvantaged socioeconomic position, living in a care home, and low English language proficiency were also associated with higher relative risk of having a positive test. However, the inequalities among groups varied over time. Being Christian, white British, without a disability, and from a more advantaged socioeconomic position were associated with increased relative risk of testing positive during the third wave. Conclusion: Research is urgently needed to understand the large sociodemographic inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 case rates in order to inform policy interventions in future waves or pandemics.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although most adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 fully recover, a proportion have ongoing symptoms, or post-COVID conditions (PCC), after infection. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the number of US adults with activity-limiting PCC on November 1, 2021. METHODS: We modeled the prevalence of PCC using reported infections occurring from February 1, 2020 - September 30, 2021, and population-based, household survey data on new activity-limiting symptoms ≥1 month following SARS-CoV-2 infection. From these data sources, we estimated the number and proportion of US adults with activity-limiting PCC on November 1, 2021, as 95% uncertainty intervals, stratified by sex and age. Sensitivity analyses adjusted for under-ascertainment of infections and uncertainty about symptom duration. RESULTS: On November 1, 2021, at least 3.0-5.0 million US adults were estimated to have activity-limiting PCC of ≥1 month duration, or 1.2%-1.9% of US adults. Population prevalence was higher in females (1.4%-2.2%) than males. The estimated prevalence after adjusting for under-ascertainment of infections was 1.7%-3.8%. CONCLUSION: Millions of US adults were estimated to have activity-limiting PCC. These estimates can support future efforts to address the impact of PCC on the U.S. population.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228089

ABSTRACT

Estimating real-world vaccine effectiveness is vital to assess the COVID-19 vaccination programme and to inform the ongoing policy response. However, estimating vaccine effectiveness using observational data is inherently challenging because of the non-randomised design and potential for unmeasured confounding. We used a Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) to estimate vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 mortality in England using. the fact that people aged 80 or over were prioritised for the vaccine roll-out. The prioritisation led to a large discrepancy in vaccination rates in people 80-84 compared to those 75-79 at the beginning of the vaccination campaign. We found a corresponding difference in COVID-19 mortality, but not in non-COVID-19 mortality, suggesting that our approach appropriately addresses the issue of unmeasured confounding factors. Our results suggest that the first vaccine dose reduced the risk of COVID-19 death by 52.6% (95% Cl 26.6-84.2) in those aged 80, supporting existing evidence that a first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine has a strong protective effect against COVID-19 mortality in older adults. The RDD estimate of vaccine effectiveness is only slightly lower to previously published studies using different methods, suggesting that these estimates are unlikely to be substantially affected by unmeasured confounding factors.

5.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 13, 2023 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority groups in England have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and have lower vaccination rates than the White British population. We examined whether ethnic differences in COVID-19 mortality in England have continued since the vaccine rollout and to what extent differences in vaccination rates contributed to excess COVID-19 mortality after accounting for other risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of 28.8 million adults aged 30-100 years in England. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the 2011 Census. The outcome was death involving COVID-19 during the second (8 December 2020 to 12 June 2021) and third wave (13 June 2021 to 1 December 2021). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for death involving COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for age, residence type, geographical factors, sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic health, and vaccination status. RESULTS: Age-adjusted HRs of death involving COVID-19 were elevated for most ethnic minority groups during both waves, particularly for groups with lowest vaccination rates (Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Black African, and Black Caribbean). HRs were attenuated after adjusting for geographical factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and pre-pandemic health. Further adjusting for vaccination status substantially reduced residual HRs for Black African, Black Caribbean, and Pakistani groups in the third wave. Fully adjusted HRs only remained elevated for the Bangladeshi group (men: 2.19 [95% CI 1.72-2.78]; women: 2.12 [1.58-2.86]) and Pakistani men (1.24 [1.06-1.46]). CONCLUSIONS: Lower COVID-19 vaccination uptake in several ethnic minority groups may drive some of the differences in COVID-19 mortality compared to White British. Public health strategies to increase vaccination uptake in ethnic minority groups would help reduce inequalities in COVID-19 mortality, which have remained substantial since the start of the vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Minority Groups , England/epidemiology
6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 55: 101762, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130639

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to systematically synthesise the global evidence on the prevalence of persistent symptoms in a general post COVID-19 population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and medRxiv) until January 2022. Studies with at least 100 people with confirmed or self-reported COVID-19 symptoms at ≥28 days following infection onset were included. Patient-reported outcome measures and clinical investigations were both assessed. Results were analysed descriptively, and meta-analyses were conducted to derive prevalence estimates. This study was pre-registered (PROSPERO-ID: CRD42021238247). Findings: 194 studies totalling 735,006 participants were included, with five studies conducted in those <18 years of age. Most studies were conducted in Europe (n = 106) or Asia (n = 49), and the time to follow-up ranged from ≥28 days to 387 days. 122 studies reported data on hospitalised patients, 18 on non-hospitalised, and 54 on hospitalised and non-hospitalised combined (mixed). On average, at least 45% of COVID-19 survivors, regardless of hospitalisation status, went on to experience at least one unresolved symptom (mean follow-up 126 days). Fatigue was frequently reported across hospitalised (28.4%; 95% CI 24.7%-32.5%), non-hospitalised (34.8%; 95% CI 17.6%-57.2%), and mixed (25.2%; 95% CI 17.7%-34.6%) cohorts. Amongst the hospitalised cohort, abnormal CT patterns/x-rays were frequently reported (45.3%; 95% CI 35.3%-55.7%), alongside ground glass opacification (41.1%; 95% CI 25.7%-58.5%), and impaired diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (31.7%; 95% CI 25.8%-3.2%). Interpretation: Our work shows that 45% of COVID-19 survivors, regardless of hospitalisation status, were experiencing a range of unresolved symptoms at ∼ 4 months. Current understanding is limited by heterogeneous study design, follow-up durations, and measurement methods. Definition of subtypes of Long Covid is unclear, subsequently hampering effective treatment/management strategies. Funding: No funding.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac464, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042636

ABSTRACT

We investigated long COVID incidence by vaccination status in a random sample of UK adults from April 2020 to November 2021. Persistent symptoms were reported by 9.5% of 3090 breakthrough severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections and 14.6% of unvaccinated controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59 [95% confidence interval, .50-.69]), emphasizing the need for public health initiatives to increase population-level vaccine uptake.

8.
BMJ ; 378: e070695, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of covid-19 death after infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta (B.1.617.2). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: England, United Kingdom, from 1 December 2021 to 30 December 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 1 035 149 people aged 18-100 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 under the national surveillance programme and had an infection identified as omicron BA.1 or delta compatible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was covid-19 death as identified from death certification records. The exposure of interest was the SARS-CoV-2 variant identified from NHS Test and Trace PCR positive tests taken in the community (pillar 2) and analysed by Lighthouse laboratories. Cause specific Cox proportional hazard regression models (censoring non-covid-19 deaths) were adjusted for sex, age, vaccination status, previous infection, calendar time, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation rank, household deprivation, university degree, keyworker status, country of birth, main language, region, disability, and comorbidities. Interactions between variant and sex, age, vaccination status, and comorbidities were also investigated. RESULTS: The risk of covid-19 death was 66% lower (95% confidence interval 54% to 75%) for omicron BA.1 compared with delta after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. The reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for omicron compared with delta was more pronounced in people aged 18-59 years (number of deaths: delta=46, omicron=11; hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.27) than in those aged ≥70 years (number of deaths: delta=113, omicron=135; hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.61, P<0.0001). No evidence of a difference in risk was found between variant and number of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The results support earlier studies showing a reduction in severity of infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta in terms of hospital admission. This study extends the research to also show a reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for the omicron variant compared with the delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
BMJ ; 377: e069676, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate associations between covid-19 vaccination and long covid symptoms in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Community dwelling population, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 28 356 participants in the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey aged 18-69 years who received at least one dose of an adenovirus vector or mRNA covid-19 vaccine after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of long covid symptoms at least 12 weeks after infection over the follow-up period 3 February to 5 September 2021. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 46 years, 55.6% (n=15 760) were women, and 88.7% (n=25 141) were of white ethnicity. Median follow-up was 141 days from first vaccination (among all participants) and 67 days from second vaccination (83.8% of participants). 6729 participants (23.7%) reported long covid symptoms of any severity at least once during follow-up. A first vaccine dose was associated with an initial 12.8% decrease (95% confidence interval -18.6% to -6.6%, P<0.001) in the odds of long covid, with subsequent data compatible with both increases and decreases in the trajectory (0.3% per week, 95% confidence interval -0.6% to 1.2% per week, P=0.51). A second dose was associated with an initial 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval -14.1% to -3.1%, P=0.003) in the odds of long covid, with a subsequent decrease by 0.8% per week (-1.2% to -0.4% per week, P<0.001). Heterogeneity was not found in associations between vaccination and long covid by sociodemographic characteristics, health status, hospital admission with acute covid-19, vaccine type (adenovirus vector or mRNA), or duration from SARS-CoV-2 infection to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of long covid symptoms was observed to decrease after covid-19 vaccination and evidence suggested sustained improvement after a second dose, at least over the median follow-up of 67 days. Vaccination may contribute to a reduction in the population health burden of long covid, although longer follow-up is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843004

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo examine inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination rates among elderly adults in England.DesignCohort study.SettingPeople living in private households and communal establishments in England.Participants6 655 672 adults aged ≥70 years (mean 78.8 years, 55.2% women) who were alive on 15 March 2021.Main outcome measuresHaving received the first dose of a vaccine against COVID-19 by 15 March 2021. We calculated vaccination rates and estimated unadjusted and adjusted ORs using logistic regression models.ResultsBy 15 March 2021, 93.2% of people living in England aged 70 years and over had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. While vaccination rates differed across all factors considered apart from sex, the greatest disparities were seen between ethnic and religious groups. The lowest rates were in people of black African and black Caribbean ethnic backgrounds, where only 67.2% and 73.8% had received a vaccine, with adjusted odds of not being vaccinated at 5.01 (95% CI 4.86 to 5.16) and 4.85 (4.75 to 4.96) times greater than the white British group. The proportion of individuals self-identifying as Muslim and Buddhist who had received a vaccine was 79.1% and 84.1%, respectively. Older age, greater area deprivation, less advantaged socioeconomic position (proxied by living in a rented home), being disabled and living either alone or in a multigenerational household were also associated with higher odds of not having received the vaccine.ConclusionResearch is now urgently needed to understand why disparities exist in these groups and how they can best be addressed through public health policy and community engagement.

11.
J R Soc Med ; 115(4): 138-144, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between household size and risk of non-severe or severe COVID-19. DESIGN: A longitudinal observational study. SETTING: This study utilised UK Biobank linked to national SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test data. PARTICIPANTS: 401,910 individuals with available data on household size in UK Biobank. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Household size was categorised as single occupancy, two-person households and households of three or more. Severe COVID-19 was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test on hospital admission or death with COVID-19 recorded as the underlying cause; and non-severe COVID-19 as a positive test from a community setting. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess associations, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 401,910 individuals, 3612 (1%) were identified as having suffered from a severe COVID-19 infection and 11,264 (2.8%) from a non-severe infection, between 16 March 2020 and 16 March 2021. Overall, the odds of severe COVID-19 was significantly higher among individuals living alone (adjusted odds ratio: 1.24 [95% confidence interval: 1.14 to 1.36], or living in a household of three or more individuals (adjusted odds ratio: 1.28 [1.17 to 1.39], when compared to individuals living in a household of two. For non-severe COVID-19 infection, individuals living in a single-occupancy household had lower odds compared to those living in a household of two (adjusted odds ratio: 0.88 [0.82 to 0.93]. CONCLUSIONS: Odds of severe or non-severe COVID-19 infection were associated with household size. Increasing understanding of why certain households are more at risk is important for limiting spread of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 79(7): 433-441, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate occupational differences in COVID-19 mortality and test whether these are confounded by factors such as regional differences, ethnicity and education or due to non-workplace factors, such as deprivation or prepandemic health. METHODS: Using a cohort study of over 14 million people aged 40-64 years living in England, we analysed occupational differences in death involving COVID-19, assessed between 24 January 2020 and 28 December 2020.We estimated age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 person-years at risk stratified by sex and occupation. We estimated the effect of occupation on COVID-19 mortality using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for confounding factors. We further adjusted for non-workplace factors and interpreted the residual effects of occupation as being due to workplace exposures to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: In men, the ASMRs were highest among those working as taxi and cab drivers or chauffeurs at 119.7 deaths per 100 000 (95% CI 98.0 to 141.4), followed by other elementary occupations at 106.5 (84.5 to 132.4) and care workers and home carers at 99.2 (74.5 to 129.4). Adjusting for confounding factors strongly attenuated the HRs for many occupations, but many remained at elevated risk. Adjusting for living conditions reduced further the HRs, and many occupations were no longer at excess risk. For most occupations, confounding factors and mediators other than workplace exposure to SARS-CoV-2 explained 70%-80% of the excess age-adjusted occupational differences. CONCLUSIONS: Working conditions play a role in COVID-19 mortality, particularly in occupations involving contact with patients or the public. However, there is also a substantial contribution from non-workplace factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Occupations , SARS-CoV-2 , Semantic Web
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(11): e817-e825, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with learning disabilities are at substantially increased risk of COVID-19 mortality, but evidence on risks of COVID-19 mortality for disabled people more generally is limited. We aimed to use population-level data to estimate the association between self-reported disability and death involving COVID-19 during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of adults aged 30-100 years living in private households or communal establishments in England, using data from the Office for National Statistics Public Health Data Asset. Participants were present at the 2011 Census and alive on Jan 24, 2020. Participants reported being limited a lot in their daily activities, limited a little, or not limited at all, in response to a question from the 2011 Census. The outcome was death involving COVID-19, occurring between Jan 24, 2020, and Feb 28, 2021. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between disability and death involving COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for age, residence type (private household, care home, or other communal establishment), geographical characteristics (local authority district and population density), sociodemographic characteristics (ethnicity, highest qualification, Index of Multiple Deprivation decile, household characteristics [National Statistics Socio-economic Classification of the household reference person, tenure of household, household size, family status, household composition, and key worker in household], key worker type, individual and household exposure to disease, and individual and household proximity to others), and health status (pre-existing health conditions, body-mass index, and number of admissions to hospital and days spent in hospital over the previous 3 years). FINDINGS: 29 293 845 adults were included in the study (13 806 623 [47%] men, 15 487 222 [53%] women), of whom 3 038 772 (10%) reported being limited a little and 2 011 576 (7%) reported being limited a lot. During follow-up, 105 213 people died from causes involving COVID-19 in England, 61 416 (58%) of whom were disabled. Age-adjusted analyses showed higher mortality involving COVID-19 among disabled people who were limited a lot (HR 3·05 [95% CI 2·98-3·11] for men; 3·48 [3·41-3·56] for women) and disabled people who were limited a little (HR 1·88 [1·84-1·92] for men; 2·03 [1·98-2·08] for women) than among non-disabled people. Adjustment for residence type, geography, sociodemographics, and health conditions reduced but did not eliminate the associations between disability and death involving COVID-19 (HR 1·35 [1·32-1·38] for men who were limited a lot; 1·21 [1·18-1·23] for men who were limited a little; 1·55 [1·51-1·59] for women who were limited a lot; and 1·28 [1·25-1·31] for women who were limited a little). INTERPRETATION: Given the association between disability and mortality involving COVID-19, verification of these findings and consideration of recommendations for protective measures are now required. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Self Report
15.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 78(Suppl 1):A151, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480284

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe coronavirus pandemic has been particularly severe in the UK, with high infection and death rates, including among working age population.ObjectiveTo estimate occupational differences in COVID-19 mortality, taking into account confounding factors, such as regional differences, ethnicity, education, deprivation and pre-pandemic health.MethodsWe used data on 14,295,900 individuals who completed the UK Census in 2011, who were alive on 24 January 2020, were employed and aged 31–55 years in 2011. Data were linked to death and other health records. We examined differences between occupational groups in the risk of COVID-19 death from 24 January to 28 December 2020. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk stratified by sex and occupations. To estimate the effect of occupation due to work-related exposures, we used Cox proportional hazard models to adjust for confounding factors.ResultsThere is wide variation between occupations in COVID-19 mortality. Several occupations, particularly those involving contact with patients or the public, show three- or four-fold risks. These elevated risks were greatly attenuated after adjustment for confounding and mediating factors. For example, the hazard ratio (HR) for men working as taxi and cab drivers or chauffeurs changed from 4.60 [95%CI 3.62–5.84] to 1.47 [1.14–1.89] after adjustment. The overall HR for men working in essential occupations compared with men in non-essential occupations changed from 1.45 [1.34 - 1.56] to 1.22 [1.13 - 1.32] after adjustment. For most occupations, confounding and other mediating factors explained about 70% to 80% of the age-adjusted hazard ratios.ConclusionsWorking conditions are likely to play a role in COVID-19 mortality, particularly in occupations involving contact with COVID-19 patients or the public. However, there is also a substantial contribution from non-workplace factors, including regional factors, socio-demographic factors, and pre-pandemic health.

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e053402, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination rates among elderly adults in England. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: People living in private households and communal establishments in England. PARTICIPANTS: 6 655 672 adults aged ≥70 years (mean 78.8 years, 55.2% women) who were alive on 15 March 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Having received the first dose of a vaccine against COVID-19 by 15 March 2021. We calculated vaccination rates and estimated unadjusted and adjusted ORs using logistic regression models. RESULTS: By 15 March 2021, 93.2% of people living in England aged 70 years and over had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. While vaccination rates differed across all factors considered apart from sex, the greatest disparities were seen between ethnic and religious groups. The lowest rates were in people of black African and black Caribbean ethnic backgrounds, where only 67.2% and 73.8% had received a vaccine, with adjusted odds of not being vaccinated at 5.01 (95% CI 4.86 to 5.16) and 4.85 (4.75 to 4.96) times greater than the white British group. The proportion of individuals self-identifying as Muslim and Buddhist who had received a vaccine was 79.1% and 84.1%, respectively. Older age, greater area deprivation, less advantaged socioeconomic position (proxied by living in a rented home), being disabled and living either alone or in a multigenerational household were also associated with higher odds of not having received the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Research is now urgently needed to understand why disparities exist in these groups and how they can best be addressed through public health policy and community engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Semantic Web , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
17.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1140-1149, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320232

ABSTRACT

We report that in a cohort of 45,965 adults, who were receiving either the ChAdOx1 or the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in those who had no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels after a single dose were lower in older individuals, especially in those aged >60 years. Two vaccine doses achieved high responses across all ages. Antibody levels increased more slowly and to lower levels with a single dose of ChAdOx1 compared with a single dose of BNT162b2, but waned following a single dose of BNT162b2 in older individuals. In descriptive latent class models, we identified four responder subgroups, including a 'low responder' group that more commonly consisted of people aged >75 years, males and individuals with long-term health conditions. Given our findings, we propose that available vaccines should be prioritized for those not previously infected and that second doses should be prioritized for individuals aged >60 years. Further data are needed to better understand the extent to which quantitative antibody responses are associated with vaccine-mediated protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom , Young Adult
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 605-617, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270521

ABSTRACT

Ethnic minorities have experienced disproportionate COVID-19 mortality rates in the UK and many other countries. We compared the differences in the risk of COVID-19 related death between ethnic groups in the first and second waves the of COVID-19 pandemic in England. We also investigated whether the factors explaining differences in COVID-19 death between ethnic groups changed between the two waves. Using data from the Office for National Statistics Public Health Data Asset, a linked dataset combining the 2011 Census with primary care and hospital records and death registrations, we conducted an observational cohort study to examine differences in the risk of death involving COVID-19 between ethnic groups in the first wave (from 24th January 2020 until 31st August 2020) and the first part of the second wave (from 1st September to 28th December 2020). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) in the two waves stratified by ethnic groups and sex. We also estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for ethnic-minority groups compared with the White British population, adjusted for geographical factors, socio-demographic characteristics, and pre-pandemic health conditions. The study population included over 28.9 million individuals aged 30-100 years living in private households. In the first wave, all ethnic minority groups had a higher risk of COVID-19 related death compared to the White British population. In the second wave, the risk of COVID-19 death remained elevated for people from Pakistani (ASMR: 339.9 [95% CI: 303.7-376.2] and 166.8 [141.7-191.9] deaths per 100,000 population in men and women) and Bangladeshi (318.7 [247.4-390.1] and 127.1 [91.1-171.3] in men and women) background but not for people from Black ethnic groups. Adjustment for geographical factors explained a large proportion of the differences in COVID-19 mortality in the first wave but not in the second wave. Despite an attenuation of the elevated risk of COVID-19 mortality after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status, the risk was substantially higher in people from Bangladeshi and Pakistani background in both the first and the second waves. Between the first and second waves of the pandemic, the reduction in the difference in COVID-19 mortality between people from Black ethnic background and people from the White British group shows that ethnic inequalities in COVID-19 mortality can be addressed. The continued higher rate of mortality in people from Bangladeshi and Pakistani background is alarming and requires focused public health campaign and policy changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ ; 372: n693, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify rates of organ specific dysfunction in individuals with covid-19 after discharge from hospital compared with a matched control group from the general population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: 47 780 individuals (mean age 65, 55% men) in hospital with covid-19 and discharged alive by 31 August 2020, exactly matched to controls from a pool of about 50 million people in England for personal and clinical characteristics from 10 years of electronic health records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of hospital readmission (or any admission for controls), all cause mortality, and diagnoses of respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, kidney, and liver diseases until 30 September 2020. Variations in rate ratios by age, sex, and ethnicity. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 140 days, nearly a third of individuals who were discharged from hospital after acute covid-19 were readmitted (14 060 of 47 780) and more than 1 in 10 (5875) died after discharge, with these events occurring at rates four and eight times greater, respectively, than in the matched control group. Rates of respiratory disease (P<0.001), diabetes (P<0.001), and cardiovascular disease (P<0.001) were also significantly raised in patients with covid-19, with 770 (95% confidence interval 758 to 783), 127 (122 to 132), and 126 (121 to 131) diagnoses per 1000 person years, respectively. Rate ratios were greater for individuals aged less than 70 than for those aged 70 or older, and in ethnic minority groups compared with the white population, with the largest differences seen for respiratory disease (10.5 (95% confidence interval 9.7 to 11.4) for age less than 70 years v 4.6 (4.3 to 4.8) for age ≥70, and 11.4 (9.8 to 13.3) for non-white v 5.2 (5.0 to 5.5) for white individuals). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals discharged from hospital after covid-19 had increased rates of multiorgan dysfunction compared with the expected risk in the general population. The increase in risk was not confined to the elderly and was not uniform across ethnicities. The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of post-covid syndrome requires integrated rather than organ or disease specific approaches, and urgent research is needed to establish the risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
J R Soc Med ; 114(4): 182-211, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of ethnic inequalities explained by living in a multi-generational household. DESIGN: Causal mediation analysis. SETTING: Retrospective data from the 2011 Census linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (2017-2019) and death registration data (up to 30 November 2020). PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 years or over living in private households in England from 2 March 2020 until 30 November 2020 (n=10,078,568). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios were estimated for COVID-19 death for people living in a multi-generational household compared with people living with another older adult, adjusting for geographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics and pre-pandemic health. RESULTS: Living in a multi-generational household was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death. After adjusting for confounding factors, the hazard ratios for living in a multi-generational household with dependent children were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.38) for elderly men and women. The hazard ratios for living in a multi-generational household without dependent children were 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for elderly men and 1.17 (95% CI 1.07-1.25) for elderly women. Living in a multi-generational household explained about 11% of the elevated risk of COVID-19 death among elderly women from South Asian background, but very little for South Asian men or people in other ethnic minority groups. CONCLUSION: Elderly adults living with younger people are at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality, and this is a contributing factor to the excess risk experienced by older South Asian women compared to White women. Relevant public health interventions should be directed at communities where such multi-generational households are highly prevalent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Characteristics/ethnology , Housing , Mortality/ethnology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Asian People/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , England/epidemiology , Family , Female , Health Status Disparities , Housing/standards , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL