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1.
Viruses ; 14(9):1916, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2006227

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 induce a severe acute respiratory syndrome called COVID-19 and have led to more than six million deaths worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective preventative measure, and cellular and humoral immunity is crucial to developing individual protection. Here, we aim to investigate hybrid immunity against SARS-CoV-2 triggered by the ChAadOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a Brazilian cohort. We investigated the immune response from ChAadOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination in naïve (noCOVID-19) and previously infected individuals (COVID-19) by analyzing levels of D-dimers, total IgG, neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IFN-γ(interferon-γ) secretion, and immunophenotyping of memory lymphocytes. No significant differences in D-dimer levels were observed 7 or 15 days after vaccination (DAV). All vaccinated individuals presented higher levels of total IgG or Nabs with a positive correlation (R = 0.88). Individuals in the COVID-19 group showed higher levels of antibody and memory B cells, with a faster antibody response starting at 7 DAV compared to noCOVID-19 at 15 DAV. Further, ChAadOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination led to enhanced IFN-γproduction (15 DAV) and an increase in activated T CD4+ naïve cells in noCOVID-19 individuals in contrast with COVID-19 individuals. Hence, our data support that hybrid immunity triggered by ChAadOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination is associated with enhanced humoral response, together with a balanced cellular response.

2.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481024

ABSTRACT

Vaccines to prevent the impact of SARS-CoV-2 are now available, including for patients with autoimmune diseases. However, there is no information about how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment could impact the cellular and humoral immune responses. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses after vaccination with a two-dose schedule in a Crohn's disease patient treated with Infliximab (10 mg/kg); we included comparisons with a monozygotic twin. The results showed that the Crohn's disease's twin (twin 2) had no antibody detection and reduced activation of CD4+ T cell responses, unlike the twin without the autoimmune disease (twin 1). Twin 2 developed antigen-specific central memory CD8+ T-cells and IFNγ production after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, similar to twin 1. These findings elucidated the role of T-cell immunity after COVID-19 immunization on IBD patients despite the lack of antibody production. Finally, our observation supports the consensus recommendation for IBD patients to receive COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Twins, Monozygotic
3.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374306

ABSTRACT

The cellular immune response plays an important role in COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. This feature makes use of in vitro models' useful tools to evaluate vaccines and biopharmaceutical effects. Here, we developed a two-step model to evaluate the cellular immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced or spike protein stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both unexposed and COVID-19 (primo-infected) individuals (Step1). Moreover, the supernatants of these cultures were used to evaluate its effects on lung cell lines (A549) (Step2). When PBMC from the unexposed were infected by SARS-CoV-2, cytotoxic natural killer and nonclassical monocytes expressing inflammatory cytokines genes were raised. The supernatant of these cells can induce apoptosis of A549 cells (mock vs. Step2 [mean]: 6.4% × 17.7%). Meanwhile, PBMCs from primo-infected presented their memory CD4+ T cells activated with a high production of IFNG and antiviral genes. Supernatant from past COVID-19 subjects contributed to reduce apoptosis (mock vs. Step2 [ratio]: 7.2 × 1.4) and to elevate the antiviral activity (iNOS) of A549 cells (mock vs. Step2 [mean]: 31.5% × 55.7%). Our findings showed features of immune primary cells and lung cell lines response after SARS-CoV-2 or spike protein stimulation that can be used as an in vitro model to study the immunity effects after SARS-CoV-2 antigen exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Cellular , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Replication/physiology , Young Adult
4.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
5.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8827670, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999333

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), termed COVID-19, has been highlighted as the most important infectious disease of our time, without a vaccine and treatment available until this moment, with a big impact on health systems worldwide, and with high mortality rates associated with respiratory viral disease. The medical and scientific communities have also been confronted by an urgent need to better understand the mechanism of host-virus interaction aimed at developing therapies and vaccines. Since this viral disease can trigger a strong innate immune response, causing severe damage to the pulmonary tract, immunotherapies have also been explored as a means to verify the immunomodulatory effect and improve clinical outcomes, whilst the comprehensive COVID-19 immunology still remains under investigation. In this review, both cellular and molecular immunopathology as well as hemostatic disorders induced by SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. The immunotherapeutic approaches based on the most recent clinical and nonclinical studies, emphasizing their effects for the treatment of COVID-19, are also addressed. The information presented elucidates helpful insights aiming at filling the knowledge gaps around promising immunotherapies that attempt to control the dysfunction of host factors during the course of this infectious viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Cell Immunol ; 353: 104114, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133309

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe acute respiratory syndrome that is called COVID-19. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 include diarrhea, pneumonia, lymphopenia, exhausted lymphocytes, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Immunology is part of the process of clinical evolution, but there are some questions around immunity-based protection: (1) why some infected people have only mild symptoms of the disease or are asymptomatic; (2) why delayed and weak antibody responses are associated with severe outcomes; and (3) why positivity in molecular tests does not represent protective antibody IgG. Perhaps T cell responses may be the key to solving those questions. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells persist in peripheral blood and may be capable of providing effective information about protective immunity. The T cells studies can be helpful in elucidating the pathways for development of vaccines, therapies, and diagnostics for COVID-19 and for filling these immunology knowledge gaps.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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