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1.
Pak J Med Sci ; 38(5): 1401-1408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879651

ABSTRACT

Background & Objective: This study aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate (200 mg orally 8 hourlies thrice a day for 5 days), oseltamivir (75 mg orally twice a day for 5 days), and Azithromycin (500 mg orally daily on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally twice a day on days 2-5) alone and in combination (in seven groups). Methods & Analysis: An adaptive design is deployed, set within a comprehensive cohort study, to permit flexibility in fast-changing clinical and public health scenario. Primary outcomes include turning the test negative for coronavirus nucliec acid and in bringing about clinical improvement on day 7 of follow-up on a seven-point ordinal scale. The randomized study will recruit participants of either gender above 18 years of age who will test positive for SARS-CoV-2 on Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Pregnant or lactating females, and those with severe respiratory distress, or with serious comorbidities will be excluded. Randomization will be done maintaining concealment of allocation sequence using a computer-generated random number list. The sample size will be subjected to periodic reviews by National Data Safety and Monitoring Board. Ethics and Dissemination: The trial is approved by the National Bioethics Committee (No.4-87/NBC-471-COVID-19-05/20/) and institutional Ethical Review Committee. This clinical trial conducted under Good Clinical Practice is expected to inform patients clinical guidelines for the use of these drugs in newly diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. Trial Registration: The trial was prospectively registered on April 08, 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov with ID: NCT04338698.

3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(7): 665-671, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under-5 mortality remains high in developing nations despite decades of multilateral cooperation to reduce it. Diarrhoea contributes up to 15% of all mortality in this age group. Frequently reported barriers include poor hygiene, lack of sanitation facilities, and negligible public health education on the issue. Interventions such as Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) could complement modern public health approaches with renewed vigour in wake of SARS-CoV-II (COVID-19). AIMS: We sought to assess maternal hand hygiene and ability to prepare oral rehydration solution at home. METHODS: In addition to the ability to prepare oral rehydration solution at home, this cross-sectional study, carried out at the Sughra Shafi Medical Complex, Narowal during 2017, compared knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of mothers of children with diarrhoea to those shoes children did not have diarrhoea. RESULTS: 511 (48%) children < 5 years were diagnosed with diarrhoea irrespective of household location. Among 1065 accompanying mothers recruited for this study, only 130 (12%) were able to prepare ORS at home and 288 (27%) qualified as regular hand-washers according to the criteria. Just over half of the respondents consumed untreated water supplied via a nearby canal. Almost 80% of neighbourhoods lacked waste collection. CONCLUSION: These findings informed management of frequent child diarrhoea cases presented at the hospital with locally relevant preventive knowledge. They are also expected to be useful in educating mothers on regular handwashing and the preparation of ORS as home-based interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Female , Hospitals, Rural , Humans , Infant , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation , Self Report
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2349, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189222

ABSTRACT

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , International Cooperation , Odds Ratio , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 702, 2020 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate (200 mg orally 8 hourly thrice a day for 5 days), versus oseltamivir (75 mg orally twice a day for 5 days), and versus Azithromycin (500 mg orally daily on day 1, followed by 250 mg orally twice a day on days 2-5) alone and in combination (in all seven groups), in clearing the coronavirus (COVID-19) nucleic acid from throat and nasal swab and in bringing about clinical improvement on day 7 of follow-up (primary outcomes). TRIAL DESIGN: An adaptive design, set within a comprehensive cohort study, to permit flexibility in this fast-changing clinical and public health scenario. The randomized study will be a multicenter, multiarm, multistage, randomized controlled trial with a parallel design. An observation only cohort will emerge from those not consenting to randomization. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible will be newly diagnosed patients, either hospitalized or in self-isolation, without any comorbidities or with controlled chronic medical conditions like diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Participants of any gender or age group having tested positive for COVID-19 on Real-Time qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) will be invited to take part in study at twelve centers across eight cities in Pakistan. Those pregnant or lactating, severely dyspneic or with respiratory distress, already undergoing treatment, and with serious comorbidities like liver or kidney failure will be excluded. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There will be a total of seven comparator groups: Each drug (Hydroxychloroquine Phosphate/Sulfate, Oseltamivir and Azithromycin) given as monotherapy (three groups); combinations of each of two drugs (three groups); and a final group on triple drug regimen. MAIN OUTCOMES: The laboratory-based primary outcome will be turning the test negative for COVID-19 on qRT-PCR on day 7 of follow-up. The clinical primary outcome will be improvement from baseline of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale of clinical status on day 7 of follow-up. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized, maintaining concealment of allocation sequence, using a computer-generated random number list of variable block size into multiple intervention groups in the allocation ratio of 1:1 for all groups. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study, neither physician nor participants will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): This is an adaptive design and parameters for formal sample size calculation in a new disease of a previously unknown virus are not available. Thus, the final sample size will be subjected to periodic reviews at each stage of adaptive design and subsequent advice of National Data Safety & Management Board (NDSMB) notified by Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1.7 dated July 5, 2020. By July 03, 2020, the trial had recruited a total of about 470 participants across 12 centers after approval from the National Bioethics Committee and Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. Recruitment started on April 20, 2020. The recruitment is expected to continue for at least three months subject to review by the National Data Safety and Management Board (NDSMB) notified by Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered on 8 April 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04338698 The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file2).


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
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