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Cureus ; 13(2): e13080, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120594


Background  As of January 19, 2021, around two million fatalities and 68 million recoveries from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported around the globe. The past pandemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) hint toward a risk of occurrence of "Long-COVID" syndrome, i.e., the persistence of post-discharge symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. With the scarcity of literature addressing post-COVID-19 manifestations and little regard for the stigma associated with this disease, survivors' rehabilitation remains widely neglected. The current study aims to assess the prevalence and characteristics of post-COVID-19 manifestations and their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 recovered individuals. We have also analyzed the relationship of time since the recovery of COVID-19 and its severity with the post-discharge symptoms. The stigma affiliated with the infection of SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has also been highlighted. Methodology A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from September 2020 to December 2020 among 158 COVID-19 recovered patients, whose information was obtained from Dow Diagnostic Laboratory, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: sociodemographic data, post-COVID-19 manifestations, questions relating to the stigma, and the QoL of the recovered COVID-19 patients. We used the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire to assess the QoL, while the modified BG Prasad Socioeconomic Classification updated for 2019 was employed to determine the socioeconomic status of the participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Data were presented in the form of frequencies and percentages. Results An overwhelming majority (94.9%) experienced at least one post-COVID-19 symptom, with fatigue (82.9%) being the most prevalent post-discharge manifestation. We observed a significant correlation of post-COVID-19 symptoms with gender, age, and time since recovery. COVID-19 severity was found to be significantly related to the five dimensions of the QoL. A significant difference in EuroQol Visual Analog Scale health score was observed between the participants with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). Besides, the associated stigma with SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be more prevalent in the participants belonging to the upper class as compared to the other classes (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, we also observed a significant association of disease severity with post-COVID-19 manifestations and pre-existing comorbidities. Conclusions The long-COVID syndrome is similar to the post-discharge manifestations of the survivors of prior pandemics of SARS and MERS. Multi-disciplinary rehabilitation teams, healthcare workers, and the general population should recognize the need for systematic assessment of their recovery and further rehabilitation.

Cureus ; 12(10): e10923, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895708


Background The current pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health challenge. Pulmonary dysfunction is the main outcome of COVID-19 infection. In critically ill patients, however, liver complications have also been reported. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to draw generalized conclusions regarding impaired liver biochemistry and its potential relationship with COVID-19 disease severity. Materials and Methods We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for all the related literature published up to June 20, 2020. The data were analyzed using R statistical software. A random-effects model was employed for pooling the data. The risk of bias and quality of included studies was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies. Results The present meta-analysis comprises 10 retrospective and two prospective studies (6,976 COVID-19 patients). The serum analysis revealed significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferases and aspartate aminotransferases and significantly lower albumin levels. Moreover, insignificant increases in serum levels of total bilirubin were observed. Upon subgroup analysis of six studies (severe cases, n=131; non-severe cases, n=334) stratified on the basis of disease severity, we found that these abnormalities were relatively higher in severe cases of COVID-19 (albumin [weighted mean difference (WMD), 34.03 g/L; 95% CI, 27.42 to 40.63; p<0.0001; I2=96.83%); alanine transaminase (ALT) [WMD, 31.66 U/L; 95% CI, 25.07 to 38.25; p<0.0001; I2=55.64%]; aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [WMD, 41.79 U/L; 95% CI, 32.85 to 50.72; p<0.0001; I2=51.43%]; total bilirubin [WMD, 9.97 µmol/L; 95% CI, 8.46 to 11.48; p<0.0001; I2=98%]) than in non-severe cases. Conclusion Deranged liver enzymes serve as prognostic factors to assess the severity of COVID-19. Liver markers should, therefore, be observed and monitored continuously.

Cureus ; 12(6): e8790, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618625


First identified in November 2019 in Hubei Province, the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 soon spread worldwide to become a global health pandemic. The COVID-19 preferentially damages the respiratory system that produces symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. However, the infection often tends to disseminate to involve various organ systems. Recent evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can cause significant neurological damage and resultant neurological symptoms and complications. Here, we provide a comprehensive and thorough review of original articles, case reports, and case series to delineate the possible mechanisms of nervous system invasion and damage by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent consequences. We divided the neurological manifestations into three categories: (1) Central Nervous System involvement, (2) Peripheral Nervous System manifestations, and (3) Skeletal Muscle Injury. Headache and dizziness were found to be the most prevalent symptoms followed by impaired consciousness. Among the symptoms indicating peripheral nervous system invasion, anosmia and dysgeusia were commonly reported. Skeletal muscle injury predominantly presents as myalgia. In addition, encephalitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and Miller Fischer syndrome were among the commonly noted complications. We also emphasized the association of pre-existing comorbidities with neurological manifestations. The aim of this review is to provide a deeper understanding of the potential neurological implications to help neurologists have a high index of clinical suspicion allowing them to manage the patient appropriately.