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1.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3897191.v1

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluated the possibility of using quinoline derivative (an expired Moxifloxacin) as an inhibitor for copper corrosion in synthetic acid rain (SAR) solution. Weight reduction (WR) experiments, potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and AC impedance spectra (EIS) were employed to investigate corrosion inhibition (ƞ%) and inhibition rates. (ƞ%) increases by increasing the concentration of MOXI in all test methods. The PDP curves indicated that this expired medication exhibited mixed-type inhibitory activity. According to the EIS tests, the ƞ % was found to improve with raising the MOXI concentration and reached 94.05% at 600 ppm. On the other hand, the ƞ% was lowered by raising the temperature. The adsorbed MOXI molecules on copper obey Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) are employed to examine the surface of the copper sample. The results acquired experimentally were validated through the application of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular simulation (MC) in theoretical calculations. All the tests metthods gave similar results.

2.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245332

ABSTRACT

Large crowds in public transit stations and vehicles introduce obstacles for wayfinding, hygiene, and physical distancing. Public displays that currently provide on-site transit information could also provide critical crowdedness information. Therefore, we examined people's crowd perceptions and information preferences before and during the pandemic, and designs for visualizing crowdedness to passengers. We first report survey results with public transit users (n = 303), including the usability results of three crowdedness visualization concepts. Then, we present two animated crowd simulations on public displays that we evaluated in a field study (n = 44). We found that passengers react very positively to crowding information, especially before boarding a vehicle. Visualizing the exact physical spaces occupied on transit vehicles was most useful for avoiding crowded areas. However, visualizing the overall fullness of vehicles was the easiest to understand. We discuss design implications for communicating crowding information to support decision-making and promote a sense of safety. © 2023 ACM.

3.
Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal ; 7(22):9-13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-20230993

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the impact of COVID-19 on the standard of living of B40, which involves issues of income, expenditure, and saving between the urban and rural parts of the Klang Valley. This study uses a cross-sectional survey research design. Six hundred fifty respondents from B40 households were selected to answer the questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U inference test statistics. The results found no significant difference between those from urban and rural areas of the B40 group on the impact of living standards during the implementation of the Movement Control Order (MCO).

4.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 77(Supplement 5):30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315818

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Elective surgeries were suspended during the national lockdown implemented in March 2020 to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on national cataract surgical rates. Method(s): We conducted an interrupted time series analysis of cataract surgeries from 2017 to 2021 in Malaysia to evaluate the change in cataract surgical rates before and after the lockdown. Incidence rate ratios were estimated using a seasonally adjusted Poisson regression model. Stratified analyses were performed to establish whether the effect of the lockdown varied by COVID- 19 status of the hospital, sex, and age groups. Result(s): The mean monthly cataract surgical rates before lockdown was 14.1 per 100,000 population with an underlying trend of a 1.0% increase per month. The lockdown was associated with an abrupt 54.0% reduction in monthly rates (95%CI: 0.36-0.60;p<0.001). In May 2020, we observed a gradual recovery in the rates with a peak at 13.8 per 100,000 population in September 2020 although it has not rebounded to its pre-lockdown rate in December 2021. There was no evidence that the effect of the lockdown differed by COVID-status of the hospital, sex, or age groups. Conclusion(s): The initial lockdown period in March 2020 was associated with an immediate reduction in cataract surgical rates to nearly half of its baseline rate. Although cataract surgical rates have marginally trended upward after restrictions were eased, efforts should be taken to restore the delivery of cataract services to its pre-pandemic level to mitigate the negative effects caused by service disruption.

5.
2022 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing, and Technologies, 3ICT 2022 ; : 138-143, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213127

ABSTRACT

Umrah is an Islamic pilgrimage that Muslims can perform at any time. Umrah will take place at the holy place, Mecca. Usually, before performing the umrah, the pilgrims will attend umrah courses to learn how to practice step-by-step procedures. However, the Covid-19 outbreak stopped the pilgrims from attending the live umrah course. This scenario causes difficulty for pilgrims to visualize the umrah practice. Therefore, we have developed a Non-Immersive Virtual Reality Umrah Simulation (NIVRUS) to help the pilgrimage visualize the umrah practice. This study has implemented a Waterfall Model as a development methodology in which phases are divided into sequential phases. Each phase must be completed before proceeding to the next phase. In this present study, the focus is on evaluating NIVRUS through a functionality test. The findings indicate that all the functions in NIVRUS properly function as expected. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences ; 15(4):553-559, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2207154

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused severe health problems, and reached more than 220 countries. The viral genome is prone to mutations leading to the appearance of new variants that might be more infectious. Many new genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 are uploaded to the public database;monitoring these sequences for possible variations can significantly help in the process of vaccine development and prevention plans. This study aimed to explore whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 that are recently submitted to global databases from different geographical areas for possible new mutations. For this purpose, forty complete genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from 20 countries were downloaded from GISAID (12 Dec 2020 -20 Mar 2021) and converted to their corresponding amino acid sequences using Expasy online software. Both the DNA and amino acid sequences were aligned with the reference genome (Accession number;NC_045512) by the multiplesequence alignment tool Clustal Omega. The aligned sequences were then examined for any change compared to the reference genome. The results showed a total of 1264 nucleotide variations;93.43% were SNPs, 6.49% deletions, and 0.08% insertions. About 59% were non-synonymous mutations and 41% were synonymous mutations. Most of the non-synonymous mutations that lead to amino acid changes were in the Spike (36.63%) and Nucleocapsid (15.60%) genes. Among these changes 24 unique amino acid variations were repeated more than five times, dispersed among the following proteins NSP3, NSP6, NSP12, Spike, ORF3a, and Nucleocapsid. The analysis in this study revealed an increase in the number of variations accumulated throughout the pandemic, and most of the non-synonymous mutations were in the Spike and Nucleocapsid genes. Sustained molecular surveillance of SARSCoV-2 is essential to identify new variants and their impact on control measures of the pandemic and also important in the process of vaccine production. © 2022,Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. All Rights Reserved.

7.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(10):731-734, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207086

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the public and private sector medical and dental institutions' management of online education amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan and to understand whether their respective modes derived satisfaction of e-learning from students. Method(s): We conducted a survey of 371 students of various public and private sector medical and dental institutions across Pakistan, investigating their experience, confidence, and satisfaction regarding e-learning. The survey was carried out using 'Google Forms', which was sent via email to students. Result(s): In total, 371 responses were received. Despite the differences in resources and facilities, students of both sectors had not been confident in taking professional exams after the shift to online education: public (81.3%) and private (74.4%);very few students felt confident about their knowledge of basic medical sciences without labs/ practical work: public (10.8%) and private (10.3%);and more than 80% from both sectors also held the belief that e-learning is not sufficient to support academics. Conclusion(s): Private medical and dental institutes in Pakistan have better funding but students still felt under-confident. Public sector institutes lacked a developed IT department and had an irregular and erratic schedule of online lectures with limited engagement from professors. Many felt that online and traditional learning can be blended to bring forth a form of learning known as "blended learning". Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

8.
HIV Nursing ; 23(1):176-179, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205823

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to determination Synaptopodin and Nephrin levels and Number of Biochemical variable in Men with COVID-19. The The study groups included 30 patient men infected with COVID-19, 30 men who recovered and 30 healthy men as a control group. Protein and biochemical assays include: Synaptopodin, Nephrin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium.The results was a significant increase at (P > 0.05) in levels of Synaptopodin, blood nitrogen urea, creatinine in infected patients compare with control group and recovery group, while Nephrin showed significant decrease at (P> 0.05) in infected men group compare with control group and recovery group, calcium levels didn't show any significant differences between groups. © 2023, ResearchTrentz Academy Publishing Education Services. All rights reserved.

9.
Padjadjaran Jurnal Ilmu Hukum ; 9(3):297-322, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2205085

ABSTRACT

Migrant workers are the most vulnerable groups during the Covid-19 outbreak. The study aims to discuss the current legal framework governing migrant workers in Malaysia during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The discussion covers the effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on migrant workers focusing on job termination and access to social security protection. It also makes recommendations on policy guidelines to ensure migrant worker's safety against job termination and zero access to social security during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The study employed a doctrinal approach. It used primary and secondary data that included desktop research, with a particular emphasis on journals, documents, and official reports. Policymakers tended to neglect migrant workers during the pandemic because the migrant workers had less access to adequate security, particularly in terms of job termination and living conditions. The Covid-19 pandemic and the Movement Control Order imposed in Malaysia have affected migrant workers in various ways. It puts workers who are unable to work and who want to work in vital services in jeopardy. In conclusion, a national approach policy is impractical for migrant workers because the workers are short of access to social security and urgent assistance. © 2022, Padjadjaran University. All rights reserved.

10.
Bioscience Research ; 19(3):1625-1631, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2168978

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus (COVID-19) a new member of the human coronavirus's family, was identified in 2019 as the causative agent of a new disease outbreak in China associated with severe medical complications and even death in some cases. The unavailability of a vaccine or other efficacious therapeutic option has required all the nations worldwide to combat the pandemic's spread. Several precautionary strategies, which include lockdown, social distancing, wearing facemasks, and travel limitations, have been applied to stop this pandemic. On December 11, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the emergency use of the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID- 19 vaccine and on February 15, 2021, the adenoviral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca-Ox- ford) were granted emergency use. To assess and compare the short-term side-effects of Pfizer/BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines among participants in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. It was conducted among people vaccinated with Pfizer or Astra- Zeneca. The respondents were asked about the signs and symptoms after the first and second doses of the vaccines. Data will be collected through the questionnaire that distributed among people in KSA, and Egypt. It was noticed that most of participants were vaccinated with (Pfizer/BioNTech) in KSA (77.4%) which is more than Egypt (45.7%). More symptoms were appeared after the first dose of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine and after the second dose of (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine in participants either from Egypt or KSA. Severe symptoms were observed in Egypt (31.8%) compared to Saudi Arabia (18.1%), while more than 60% of participants suffering from moderate symptoms that can treated with rest and few medications. Moreover, only a few patients needed to be admitted to the hospital due to vaccines' side effects on respiratory system. Fatigue and fever were significantly associated with Pfizer-BioNTech, compared to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Headache (47.4% & 38.7%) is the most common symptoms that appeared after vaccination.We can conclude that only a few patients needed to be admitted to the hospital due to vaccines' side effects on respiratory system. Fatigue and fever were significantly associated with Pfizer-BioNTech, compared to the Oxford- AstraZeneca vaccine. These side effects such as pain at the site of the injection, fever, and headache, and they are more common in those after the second dose of the vaccines. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccines in controlling COVID infection and assessment of long-term side effects.

11.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(5):575-579, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2144793

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been the resulted of massive human deaths since early 2020. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) as an inhibitor of RBD spike, helicase, Mpro, and RdRp activity of SARS-CoV-2 with an in silico approach. The samples were obtained from PubChem and RCSB PDB. Analysis of the similarity of the drug was carried out with the Swiss ADME on the basis of Lipinski rule of five. Prediction of antivirus probabilities was carried out using PASS Online. Molecular screening was performed using PyRx through molecular docking. Discovery Studio was used for visualization. The bioactive compounds with the highest antiviral potential were indicated with the lowest binding affinity to the targeted proteins RBD spike, helicase, Mpro, and RdRp of SARS-CoV-2. The results indicated that mangiferin has the greatest potential as a potential antiviral. However, more research is required to validate the results of these computational predictions. Copyright © 2022 Phcogj.Com.

12.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(4):352-357, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056099

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the COVID-19 pandemic that infects humans and attacks the body's immune system. The purpose of the study was to identify the potential of bioactive compounds in purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and star anise (Illicium verum Hook) via a dual inhibitor mechanism against SARS-CoV-2 proteases with an in silico approach. The samples were obtained from PubChem and RSCB PDB. Antivirus probability prediction was performed on PASS Online. Virtual screening was performed with PyRx via molecular docking. Visualization was used by PyMol and Discovery Studio. Compounds with the best antiviral potential are indicated by the low binding affinity value to the target proteins, namely SARS-CoV-2 TMPRSS2 and PLpro. The results showed that purslane luteolin has the best antiviral potential. However, further studies are required to validate this computational prediction. © 2022 Phcogj.Com.

13.
Journal of Public Health Research ; 11(2), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005588

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to assess perceptions and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines among medical students. Methods: A consecutive convenient sample of 2100 university students representing the student's union network were included using an electronic self-administered questionnaire. About 12 items were used to assess attitudes and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. Results: A total of 2100 volunteers responded to the survey. All ages ranged from 18 to 25 years, 69% were females, and 57.3% were from urban residences. According to their willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, 49.7% accepted, 38.5% hesitated, and 11.8% refused vaccination. Out of 60 scales measuring their attitudes, a median total score of 46.0 (42.0-49.0) differed significantly in relation to genders, residence, and vaccine decision-making groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that participants who consented that COVID-19 mass vaccination could prevent the spread of infection in the community and stop the pandemic have 1.9 higher odds of accepting vaccination (p= 0.003). Additionally, the participants who believed that the vaccine had no severe infection or side effects were 3.1 and 2.8 higher folds for vaccine acceptance, respectively (p= 0.001). Moreover, participants who thought it was not too early for clinical trials were 4.3 times more likely to take the vaccine (p = 0.001). Individuals who agreed that information about vaccine side effects better to discuss openly with the authorities were 2.8 times more likely to accept vaccination than other hesitating/ refusing groups, p-value < 0.001. Conclusions: Understanding students' perspectives of the COVID-19 vaccine and supporting their health engagement and awareness may help plan an adequate response.

14.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry ; 64, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2002997
15.
Prace i Studia Geograficzne ; 67(1):109-130, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1995034

ABSTRACT

Environmental problems can be the public’s concern, and they also feel the ratio of dangerousness. Consequently, collecting their opinions and trying to get to know the way of their thinking regarding their environmental problem and solving them was an attractive case study for the authors of this article. In this research, the authors found the public’s opinion and attitude regarding environmental situations and issues in Kurdistan Region-Iraq throughout a public questionnaire/survey. Around 450 people randomly participated from various geographical locations/cities of the region proportioned to the population rate regarding different demography, gender, age, and academic background. The statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used to analyze their opinion. Also, the cross-tabulation method was used to understand the relationship between two or more variables. Gender, age, and educational background had effects on the participants’ attitudes toward environmental issues. Females, aged from 20 to 30, and Ph.D. degree holders were paying more attention to the environment. Geographically, the participation ratio for the Sulaimani, Erbil, Duhok, Halabja, and Kirkuk Provinces was 28.48 %, 21.95 %, 17.61%, 16.69%, and 15.00 %, respectively. High and low participation levels of the contributors are a reflection of the environmental awareness of the contributors, providing environmental facilities for the people, background, and culture of the community, and stability of political, economical, and social issues of the areas. Furthermore, COVID-19 affected the environment, and commonly it had a positive impact on the environment. © 2022 Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw. All rights reserved.

16.
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering ; 12(5):5375-5382, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988501

ABSTRACT

Gamification refers to transforming the environment to become more game-like to produce a positive experience. In this study, the researchers developed a gamification model, namely the GAMEBC model, to drive behavior change through a health awareness campaign in defeating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The GAMEBC model was developed based on the self-determination theory (SDT) and gamification design literature. The GAMEBC model in this study involves four elements: competence, relatedness, autonomy, and engagement. Each element includes criteria that drive behavior change in health awareness campaigns. However, studies that validated the gamification model elements are limited, specifically to drive behavior change. Therefore, the content validity of the GAMEBC model instrument was carried out, and the analysis was based on thirteen expert reviews. The mean value and inter-rater agreement approach were implemented to examine the content validity ratio (CVR), item content validity index (I-CVI), and scale content validity index (S-CVI). The expert evaluation approach was implemented to review the GAMEBC model in terms of relevance and clarity. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. As a result of this work, we formulated an instrument that can be used to model and measure behavior change through the gamification approach in health awareness campaigns. © 2022 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.

17.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 23(4):244-248, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955738

ABSTRACT

Background:As the pandemic progresses, we are growing increasingly aware that COVID-19 affects multiple parts of the body beyond the lungs. Objective: We aimed to review the literature to outline the COVID-19 effect on hair, vision, thinking, hearing, fertility, taste and smell, skin and gastro-intestine (GI), and its health crisis among COVID-19 infected patients.Method: We searched the database «PubMed» which included studies that measured COVID-19 effect on hair, vision, thinking, hearing, fertility, taste and smell, skin, and GI. Results: A total of 60 studies were reviewed and screened based on titles and s. Of these, only 15 studies were determined to meet the eligibility criteria for discussion. The health crisis associated with hair, vision, thinking, hearing, fertility, taste and smell, skin, and GI were baldness, hair shedding, conjunctivitis, pink-eye syndrome, sore-eyes, brain fog, short-term memory loss, reduction in male sperm concentration, altered sperm cell shape, morbidity, tinnitus, loss of hearing, reduce taste and loss of smell, acne, eczema, psoriasis, and rosacea, lacy and dusky rashes on the skin, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting diarrhea, and abdomen pain. Conclusion: Scientists, researchers and clinicians are still learning, observing and knowledge is evolving daily related to COVID-19 infection.

18.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:1248-1254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the impact of a major public health emergency on mental health. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess psychological impact among university students and train them to raise mental health awareness among their peers during the pandemic. METHODS: This an online electronic survey that was carried out over the period of July to September 2020. Study participants were medical and paramedical university students representing students’ union alliance of the Egyptian Youth Initiative. A convenient non-probability sampling method used for recruiting the study participants. Key mental health outcomes investigated 2 weeks before the survey were posttraumatic stress symptoms, symptoms of depression using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), anxiety using Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), insomnia using Insomnia Severity Index, and perceived stress using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Based on the preliminary analysis of the online questionnaires, a PhD qualified psychiatrist was assigned to develop an online psychosocial support to the volunteers’ students (n = 60) to be facilitators for raising mental awareness among peers and train them how to handle stress. RESULTS: Of the 115 students, 42.6% experienced moderate to severe depression, 21.7% were afflicted with moderate to severe anxiety, and 62.7% suffered from sub-threshold to severe insomnia. PSS analysis showed moderate levels of stress among the study participants. A significant difference was detected between pre-and post-test mean scores of the PSS (p = 0.001) 8 weeks after the training program included psychological support for the students. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that young people suffered of more than one psychological problems and highlighted the urgent need to develop interventions and preventive strategies to address mental health of college students.

19.
Journal of Islamic Marketing ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883103

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to empirically examine the knowledge, social and religious factors effecting the intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination while considering the mediating role of attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. The research explores how the Islamic ideologies shape Muslims' knowledge, social and religious beliefs towards COVID-19 vaccination acceptance or refusal. Design/methodology/approach Theoretically, the study is based on the functional theory of attitudes. The model of the study is comprised of nine variables explaining the attitude and intention towards COVID-19 vaccination. Among nine variables, perceived Islamic religiosity, perceived behavioural control and Halal consciousness among Muslims are explained through the value-expressive function of attitude. Furthermore, the perceived risk of COVID-19, the perceived side effect of COVID-19 vaccination and the perceived efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination are considered in the model based on the utility function of attitude. Moreover, social influence for COVID vaccination, subjective norms and group conformity are ed from the social-adjustive function of attitude. This study used a quantitative survey research method to test the hypotheses. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed to non-vaccinated Muslim respondents from five cities in Pakistan. The structural equation modelling (SEM) technique was used to test the relationship among the variables in the proposed model. The partial least square-SEM method explained the variances in the dependent variables. Moreover, to test the structure of data, different statistical tests, including exploratory factor analysis (EFA), factor loadings and average variance extracted, were used with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and analysis of a moment structures (AMOS) 23.0 version. Findings Results for direct effect showed a significant negative effect of Islamic religiosity, perceived behavioural control, halal consciousness, perceived side effect of COVID-19 vaccination, social influence, subjective norm and group conformity on attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. In contrast, insignificant results showed no relationship of perceived risk from COVID-19 infection and perceived efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination with attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. Results for mediating effect showed the significant negative mediating effect of attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination between Islamic religiosity, perceived behavioural control, halal consciousness, perceived side effect, social influence, subjective norm, group conformity and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. While results showed the insignificant mediation of attitude towards COVID-19 between perceived risk from COVID-19 infection, perceived efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Research limitations/implications Further studies are required to compare the attitude and intention among the temporary refusal group (those who will consider vaccination the future) and the permanent refusal group (those who will not consider vaccination the future). Comparing Muslim and non-Muslim groups can also explain differences in attitude and intention towards COVID-19 vaccination. Originality/value The area of acceptance and refusal of COVID-19 vaccination has been given limited attention in academic literature. Theoretically, this research has proposed a well-defined model to explain the attitude of Muslims towards COVID-19 vaccination. This model can helpf predict the attitude and intentions of Muslims towards vaccination or medicines. Moreover, this research is a unique contribution for the vaccination brands to consider the discussed factors before launching their brand in Muslim countries.

20.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 6(1):1013-1016, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1772276

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus causes severe pneumonia of idiopathic nature. The clinical manifestation ranges from mild to severe respiratory problems. Due presences of target receptors and the release of chemical mediators, it also affect other organs including the liver and kidney. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 infection on hematological parameters, liver function and renal function. Methods: This multicenter case-control observational study was conducted at Lady reading hospital, Hayatabad medical complex and Khyber teaching hospital Peshawar. A total of 340 samples were processed including 170 COVID-19 patients and 170 control groups. Complete blood count, liver function tests and renal function tests were performed to determine the effect of COVID infection on these parameters. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: In complete blood count, the mean WBC count was 16632.34±7339.94 which was statistically significant with p value less than 0.05. In differential leukocyte count, the mean neutrophil values were 87.79±7.36 which was statistically significant (p=0.00). The mean value of ALT and ALP were 49.47±100.08, 114.43±64.71 respectively which were higher than the control group. Mean value of urea and creatinine were 70.58±41.89, 1.31±1.12 respectively and was statistically significant (p=0.00). Conclusion: it is concluded that COVID-19 infection affects hematological and biochemical parameters including ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine. Hence these manifestations can be used collectively as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.

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