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1.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the impact of changes in estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infection among frontline workers at high risk for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective frontline worker cohort to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 by month as well as the association of COVID-19 vaccination, occupation, demographics, physical distancing, and mask use with infection risk. Participants completed baseline and quarterly surveys, and each week self-collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs and reported symptoms. RESULTS: Among 1018 unvaccinated and 3531 fully vaccinated workers, the monthly incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in January 2021 was 13.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.4-17.4), declining to 0.5 (95% CI -0.4-1.4) per 1000 person-weeks in June. By September 2021, when the Delta variant predominated, incidence had once again risen to 13.6 (95% CI 7.8-19.4) per 1000 person-weeks. In contrast, there was no reportable incidence among fully vaccinated participants at the end of January 2021, and incidence remained low until September 2021 when it rose modestly to 4.1 (95% CI 1.9-3.8) per 1000. Below average facemask use was associated with a higher risk of infection for unvaccinated participants during exposure to persons who may have COVID-19 and vaccinated participants during hours in the community. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection despite Delta variant predominance. Our data demonstrate the added protective benefit of facemask use among both unvaccinated and vaccinated frontline workers.

3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S289-S290, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564997

ABSTRACT

Background Peru has one of the highest per capita SARS-CoV-2 death rates in Latin America. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a critical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic but are themselves often at increased risk of infection. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 attack rate and risk factors among frontline HCWs. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of HCW serving two acute care hospitals in Lima, Peru from Aug 2020 to Mar 2021. Participants had baseline SARS-CoV-2 serology using the CDC ELISA, active symptom monitoring, and weekly respiratory specimen collection with COVID-19 exposure/risk assessment for 16-weeks regardless of symptoms. Respiratory specimens were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Results Of 783 eligible, 667 (85%) HCW were enrolled (33% nurse assistants, 29% non-clinical staff, 26% nurses, 7% physicians, and 6% other). At baseline and prior to COVID-19 vaccine introduction, 214 (32.1%;214/667) were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In total, 72 (10.8%;72/667) HCWs were found to be rRT-PCR positive during weekly follow-up. Of the rRT-PCR positive HCWs, 37.5% (27/72) did not report symptoms within 1-week of specimen collection. During follow up, HCW without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline were significantly more likely to be rRT-PCR positive (65/453, 14.3%) compared to those with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline (4/214, 1.9%) (p-value: < 0.001). Three HCW were both serologically reactive and rRT-PCR positive at baseline. Looking only at HCW without SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, nurse assistants (rRT-PCR positive: 18.6%;27/141) and non-clinical healthcare workers (16.5%;21/127) were at greater risk of infection compared to nurses (8.5%;10/118), physicians (7.9%;3/38), and other staff (10.3%;4/29) (RR 1.95;95%CI 1.2,3.3;p-value: 0.01). Conclusion Baseline SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and 16-week cumulative incidence were substantial in this pre-vaccination Peruvian HCW cohort. Almost 40% of new infections occurred in HCW without complaint of symptoms illustrating a limitation of symptom-based HCW screening for COVID-19 prevention. Nurse assistants and non-clinical healthcare workers were at greater risk of infection indicating a role for focused infection prevention and risk reduction strategies for some groups of HCW. Disclosures Fernanda C. Lessa, MD, MPH, Nothing to disclose

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294751

ABSTRACT

Background Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Data to assess risk factors for illness severity among pregnant women with COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with COVID-19 illness severity among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by molecular testing were reported during March 29, 2020–January 8, 2021 through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). Criteria for illness severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate-to-severe, or critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Crude and adjusted risk ratios for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness were calculated for selected demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Among 5,963 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness was associated with age 30–39 years, Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, healthcare occupation, pre-pregnancy obesity, chronic lung disease, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and pregestational diabetes mellitus. Risk of moderate-to-severe or critical illness increased with the number of underlying medical or pregnancy-related conditions. Conclusions Pregnant women with moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness were more likely to be older and have underlying medical conditions compared to pregnant women with asymptomatic infection or mild COVID-19 illness. This information might help pregnant women understand their risk for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness and inform targeted public health messaging. Summary Among pregnant women with COVID-19, older age and underlying medical conditions were risk factors for increased illness severity. These findings can be used to inform pregnant women about their risk for severe COVID-19 illness and public health messaging.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524680

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052473, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We describe here a multicentric community-dwelling cohort of older adults (>60 years of age) established to estimate incidence, study risk factors, healthcare utilisation and economic burden associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in India. PARTICIPANTS: The four sites of this cohort are in northern (Ballabgarh), southern (Chennai), eastern (Kolkata) and western (Pune) parts of India. We enrolled 5336 participants across 4220 households and began surveillance in July 2018 for viral respiratory infections with additional participants enrolled annually. Trained field workers collected data about individual-level and household-level risk factors at enrolment and quarterly assessed frailty and grip strength. Trained nurses surveilled weekly to identify acute respiratory infections (ARI) and clinically assessed individuals to diagnose acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) as per protocol. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs are collected from all ALRI cases and one-fifth of the other ARI cases for laboratory testing. Cost data of the episode are collected using the WHO approach for estimating the economic burden of seasonal influenza. Handheld tablets with Open Data Kit platform were used for data collection. FINDINGS TO DATE: The attrition of 352 participants due to migration and deaths was offset by enrolling 680 new entrants in the second year. All four sites reported negligible influenza vaccination uptake (0.1%-0.4%), low health insurance coverage (0.4%-22%) and high tobacco use (19%-52%). Ballabgarh had the highest proportion (54.4%) of households in the richest wealth quintile, but reported high solid fuel use (92%). Frailty levels were highest in Kolkata (11.3%) and lowest in Pune (6.8%). The Chennai cohort had highest self-reported morbidity (90.1%). FUTURE PLANS: The findings of this cohort will be used to inform prioritisation of strategies for influenza and RSV control for older adults in India. We also plan to conduct epidemiological studies of SARS-CoV-2 using this platform.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Aged , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
8.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2497-2499, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435935

ABSTRACT

We determined incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus infections among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants in Kenya during 2020-2021. Incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was highest among pregnant women, followed by postpartum women and infants. No influenza virus infections were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(15): 1355-1371, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effectiveness of the vaccines against symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) currently authorized in the United States with respect to hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or ambulatory care in an emergency department or urgent care clinic. METHODS: We conducted a study involving adults (≥50 years of age) with Covid-19-like illness who underwent molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed 41,552 admissions to 187 hospitals and 21,522 visits to 221 emergency departments or urgent care clinics during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021, in multiple states. The patients' vaccination status was documented in electronic health records and immunization registries. We used a test-negative design to estimate vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated patients with those among unvaccinated patients. Vaccine effectiveness was adjusted with weights based on propensity-for-vaccination scores and according to age, geographic region, calendar time (days from January 1, 2021, to the index date for each medical visit), and local virus circulation. RESULTS: The effectiveness of full messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization, 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) against infection leading to an ICU admission, and 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. The effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to a Covid-19-associated hospitalization or emergency department or urgent care clinic visit was similar with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines and ranged from 81% to 95% among adults 85 years of age or older, persons with chronic medical conditions, and Black or Hispanic adults. The effectiveness of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization and 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 vaccines in the United States were highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization, ICU admission, or an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. This vaccine effectiveness extended to populations that are disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
11.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391515

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have described increased risk of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. The risk in middle-income countries where the distributions of age groups and preexisting conditions may differ is less known. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women in Colombia. METHODS: We analysed national surveillance data from Colombia, of women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigen testing, from 6 March 2020 to 12 December 2020. An enhanced follow-up of pregnant women with COVID-19 was established to monitor pregnancy and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Of 371,363 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1.5% (n = 5614) were reported as pregnant; among those, 2610 (46.5%) were considered a complete pregnancy for reporting purposes at the time of analysis. Hospitalisation (23.9%) and death (1.3%) occurred more frequently among pregnant symptomatic women compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women (2.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women, pregnant symptomatic women were at increased risk of hospitalisation (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07, 2.32) and death (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.60, 2.07), after adjusting for age, type of health insurance and presence of certain underlying medical conditions. Among complete pregnancies, 55 (2.1%) were pregnancy losses, 72 (2.8%) resulted in term low birthweight infants and 375 (14.4%) were preterm deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women were infrequently reported with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant symptomatic women with COVID-19 were at increased risk for hospitalisation and death compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women. Almost all infections we reported on were third-trimester infections; ongoing follow-up is needed to determine pregnancy outcomes among women infected earlier in pregnancy. Healthcare providers should counsel pregnant women about preventive measures to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection and when to seek care.

13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371828

ABSTRACT

Among approximately 4.6 million members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we examined associations of severe COVID-19 with demographic factors and comorbidities. As of July 23, 2021, 16 182 had been hospitalized, 2416 admitted to an ICU, and 1525 died due to COVID-19. Age was strongly associated with hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. Black persons and Hispanic ethnicity had higher risk of death compared with Whites. Among the comorbidities examined, Alzheimer's disease was associated with the highest risk for hospitalization (aHR 3.19, CI: 2.88-3.52) and death (aHR 4.04, CI: 3.32-4.91). Parkinson's disease had the second highest risk of death (aHR = 2.07, CI: 1.50-2.87).

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S17-S23, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Data to assess risk factors for illness severity among pregnant women with COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with COVID-19 illness severity among pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by molecular testing were reported during 29 March 2020-5 March 2021 through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). Criteria for illness severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate-to-severe, or critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Crude and adjusted risk ratios for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness were calculated for selected demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 7950 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness was associated with age 25 years and older, healthcare occupation, prepregnancy obesity, chronic lung disease, chronic hypertension, and pregestational diabetes mellitus. Risk of moderate-to-severe or critical illness increased with the number of underlying medical or pregnancy-related conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and having underlying medical conditions were associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness among pregnant women. This information might help pregnant women understand their risk for moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 illness and can inform targeted public health messaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254563, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thailand was the first country outside China to report SARS-CoV-2 infected cases. Since the detection of the first imported case on January 12th, 2020 to the time this report was written, Thailand experienced two waves of community outbreaks (March-April 2020 and December 2020-March 2021). We examined prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among healthcare providers (HCPs) in four hospitals approximately one year after SARS-CoV-2 first detected in Thailand. By March 2021, these hospitals have treated a total of 709 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: Blood specimens, collected from COVID-19 unvaccinated HCPs during January-March 2021, were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to nucleocapsid (IgG-nucleocapsid) and spike (IgG-spike) proteins using Euroimmune® enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Of 600 HCPs enrolled, 1 (0.2%) tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 IgG-spike antibodies, but not the IgG-nucleocapsid. CONCLUSION: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was rare in this sample of HCPs, suggesting that this population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thailand/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2497-2499, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291358

ABSTRACT

We determined incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus infections among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants in Kenya during 2020-2021. Incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was highest among pregnant women, followed by postpartum women and infants. No influenza virus infections were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 495-505, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance helps time prevention and control interventions especially where complex seasonal patterns exist. We assessed influenza surveillance sustainability in Africa where influenza activity varies and external funds for surveillance have decreased. METHODS: We surveyed African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology (ANISE) countries about 2011-2017 surveillance system characteristics. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed with univariate and multivariable analyses to quantify sustained or expanded influenza surveillance capacity in Africa. RESULTS: Eighteen (75%) of 24 ANISE members participated in the survey; their cumulative population of 710 751 471 represent 56% of Africa's total population. All 18 countries scored a mean 95% on WHO laboratory quality assurance panels. The number of samples collected from severe acute respiratory infection case-patients remained consistent between 2011 and 2017 (13 823 vs 13 674 respectively) but decreased by 12% for influenza-like illness case-patients (16 210 vs 14 477). Nine (50%) gained capacity to lineage-type influenza B. The number of countries reporting each week to WHO FluNet increased from 15 (83%) in 2011 to 17 (94%) in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Despite declines in external surveillance funding, ANISE countries gained additional laboratory testing capacity and continued influenza testing and reporting to WHO. These gains represent important achievements toward sustainable surveillance and epidemic/pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Africa/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222267

ABSTRACT

Each year in Latin America and the Caribbean, seasonal influenza is associated with an estimated 36,500 respiratory deaths and 400,000 hospitalizations. Since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, the Region has made significant advances in the prevention and control of seasonal influenza, including improved surveillance systems, burden estimates, and vaccination of at-risk groups. The Global Influenza Strategy 2019-2030 provides a framework to strengthen these advances. Against the backdrop of this new framework, the University of Colorado convened in October 2020 its Immunization Advisory Group of Experts to review and discuss current surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for seasonal influenza in Latin America and the Caribbean, also in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review identified five areas for action and made recommendations specific to each area. The Region should continue its efforts to strengthen surveillance and impact evaluations. Existing data on disease burden, seasonality patterns, and vaccination effectiveness should be used to inform decision-making at the country level as well as advocacy efforts for programmatic resources. Regional and country strategic plans should be prepared and include specific targets for 2030. Existing investments in influenza prevention and control, including for immunization programs, should be optimized. Finally, regional partnerships, such as the regional networks for syndromic surveillance and vaccine effectiveness evaluation (SARInet and REVELAC-i), should continue to play a critical role in continuous learning and standardization by sharing experiences and best practices among countries.

19.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1892-1896, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127055

ABSTRACT

While seasonal influenza vaccines (SIV) remain the best method to prevent influenza-associated illnesses, implementing SIV programs may benefit countries beyond disease reduction, strengthening health systems and national immunization programs, or conversely, introduce new challenges. Few studies have examined perceived impacts of SIV introduction beyond disease reduction on health systems; understanding such impacts will be particularly salient in the context of COVID-19 vaccine introduction. We collected qualitative data from key informants-Partnership for Influenza Vaccine Introduction (PIVI) contacts in six middle-income PIVI vaccine recipient countries-to understand perceptions of ancillary benefits and challenges from SIV implementation. Respondents reported benefits associated with SIV introduction, including improved attitudes to SIV among risk groups (characterized by increased demand) and perceptions that SIV introduction improved relationships with other ministries and collaboration with mass media. Challenges included sustaining investment in SIV programs, as vaccine supply did not always meet coverage goals, and managing SIV campaigns.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Humans , Vaccination
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