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1.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marital Status/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sleep Latency , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
2.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1037-1048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311329

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We investigated the impact of isolation on sleep quality and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Methods: An online survey was conducted on 353 (88 isolated and 265 not isolated) individuals from May to June 2020. Subjective sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and psychological distress measured using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Results: The mean age of the isolated group was 28.6 years versus 27.5 years for the non-isolated group, with male participants accounting for 37% in both groups. The mean PSQI score was 8.5±3.6 and 8.4±3.5 for the isolated and non-isolated groups, respectively (P= 0.92). The mean K-10 score was 27.6± 9.4 and 25.3± 9.5 for the isolated and non-isolated groups, respectively (P= 0.04). Poor sleep (PSQI ≥6) was reported in 235 (66.6%) and psychological distress (K-10 ≥20) in 244 (69.1%) participants. Isolation was not associated with poor sleep (OR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.41-1.3), P=0.29), but was statistically significant with psychological distress (OR: 2.12 (95% CI: 1.10-4.08), P=0.03). Conclusion: Poor sleep and psychological distress symptoms were highly prevalent in our study population. Isolation may influence psychological distress but not sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(6): 357-364, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246651

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, also referred to as physical distancing, means creating a safe distance of at least two meters (six feet) between yourself and others. This is a term popularized during the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is one of the most important measures to prevent the spread of this virus. However, the term 'social distancing' can be misleading, as it may imply that individuals should stop socializing. However, socializing in a safe context (i.e. over the phone, video-chat, etc.) is especially important during this time of crisis. Therefore, in this narrative review, we suggest the term 'distant socializing' as more apt expression, to promote physical distancing measures while also highlighting the importance of maintaining social bonds. Further, articles discussing the practice, implementation, measurement, and mental health effects of physical distancing are reviewed. Physical distancing is associated with psychiatric symptoms (such as anxiety and depression), suicidal ideation, and domestic violence. Further, unemployment and job insecurity have significantly increased during COVID-19, which may exacerbate these negative mental health effects. Governments, medical institutions, and public health bodies should therefore consider increasing mental health resources both during and after the pandemic, with a specific focus on frontline workers, COVID-19 survivors, and marginalized communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(2): 299-313, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115516

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: No systematic review or meta-analysis has yet been conducted to examine the impact of the pandemic on the prevalence of sleep problems among the general population, health care workers, or patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this systematic review was conducted to assess the impact and prevalence of sleep problems among those categories. METHODS: American Psychological Association PsycINFO, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCOhost, EMBASE, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, ProQuest Medical, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science from November 1, 2019 to July 5, 2020 were used. Additionally, 5 preprints servers (medRxiv.org; preprints.org; psyarxiv.com; arXiv.org; biorxiv.org) were also searched for papers accepted after peer review but not yet published and indexed. There was no language restriction. The random-effect models meta-analysis model was used with the DerSimonian and Laird methodology. RESULTS: Forty-four papers, involving a total of 54,231 participants from 13 countries, were judged relevant and contributed to the systematic review and meta-analysis of sleep problems during COVID-19. The global pooled prevalence rate of sleep problems among all populations was 35.7% (95% confidence interval, 29.4-42.4%). Patients with COVID-19 appeared to be the most affected group, with a pooled rate of 74.8% (95% confidence interval, 28.7-95.6%). Health care workers and the general population had comparative rates of sleep problems, with rates of 36.0% (95% confidence interval, 21.1-54.2%) and 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 25.3-40.2%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic is high and affects approximately 40% of people from the general and health care populations. Patients with active COVID-19 appeared to have a higher prevalence rates of sleep problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Saudi Med J ; 41(9): 907-915, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the outcomes of the coronavirus disease 2019 infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in the first 4 months of the pandemic. METHODS: A meta-analysis approach was used in this context. We used the aggregate data from the World Health Organization Regional Office for the EMRO (until 26 May 2020) to generate this report. RESULTS: An analysis of official data from all 22 countries and territories in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Central Asia K=22 (a total of 438,717 cases) was performed. The total number of cases, recovered cases were 438,717,228,986,  and deaths was 11,290 in the EMR. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the EMR was 52.5% (95% CI 52.3% - 52.6%). The lowest recovery rates were in Somalia (4.3%), and the highest rates were in Tunisia (87.4%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the EMR yielded 3.85% [95% CI 3.80% - 3.9%]. Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of recovery rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 46.1% (95% CI 45.8% - 46.3%). Meta-analytic pooling of the point estimates of death rate per country in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries was 0.6% (95% CI 0.50% - 0.65%). CONCLUSION: Wide variability was found between EMR countries in recovery and mortality, implying the possible impact of resource availability, and genetic and environmental factors on the morality and recovery of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Survival Rate , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Mortality , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Somalia/epidemiology
6.
Ann Thorac Med ; 15(3): 125-133, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729698

ABSTRACT

WITH the growing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, a parallel growing interest arose concerning potential preventive and adjunct therapies, dietary and lifestyle modifications, and remedies that may boost the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, as Ramadan intermittent religious fasting that is practiced by about one and a half billion Muslims throughout the globe is coincide this year with COVID-19 pandemic, a growing debate rose concerning the expected impact of fasting during Ramadan month and the associated dietary and lifestyle behaviors on the body's immunity against the pandemic infection. Published literature was searched to find out how intermittent fasting (IF) and its model of Ramadan affect the various aspects related to the body's immunity against microbial infections. IF was found to impact immunity by changing different related elements, including oxidative stress and inflammation, metabolism, body weight, and body composition. Dietary and lifestyle modifications during Ramadan month and their impact on immunity, such as water intake and hydration status, sleep duration and timing, caloric intake and mealtime, and social and spirtual activities, were addressed. Further research is warranted to figure out how IF during ramadan affects immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Sleep Vigil ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692488

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 brought all healthcare services around the globe to immense strain; hospitals abandoned elective care for acute care. Like all other elective services, sleep medicine services suffered a partial deadlock due to the closing down of the sleep disorders diagnostic and therapeutic services, although clinical consultations and follow-ups, carried on remotely, allowed some mitigation. Since there is dire need to resume the services, we tried to formulate the principles and guidelines to work in this exigent healthcare setting. Principles and guidelines are based on epidemiological and infection control guidelines besides recommendations of various healthcare organizations and sleep societies, after a requisite web search to extract the data.

8.
Ann Thorac Med ; 15(3): 138-145, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679541

ABSTRACT

Because coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is relatively new, health-care organizations and researchers have been publishing guidelines and recommendations to help health-care providers proceed safely with various aspects of disease management and investigation. Most of the published papers have addressed clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, mitigation measures, and hospital preparedness. Pathological and laboratory issues, including autopsy procedures and the handling of dead bodies, have not yet been well characterized. We reviewed the recent literature for guidelines and reports related to COVID-19 and anatomic pathology, specifically laboratory services, the handling of dead bodies, the conduct of autopsies, and postmortem pathological investigations, to synthesize relevant knowledge to ensure that clinicians are aware of the most recent recommendations for precautions and safety measures, and to support the development of standards in health-care facilities.

9.
Sleep Breath ; 25(1): 503-511, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the sleep disturbances of healthcare workers during crisis events of public health. This study aimed to examine the sleep quality of frontline healthcare workers (FLHCW) in Bahrain during the COVID-19 pandemic, and compare it with the sleep quality of non-frontline healthcare workers (NFLHCW). METHODS: Healthcare workers (n = 280) from multiple facilities belonging to the Ministry of Health, Bahrain, were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. An online questionnaire, including socio-demographics, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), was used to evaluate sleep disturbances and stress levels of healthcare workers. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI ≥ 5 and moderate-severe stress as PSS ≥ 14. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the scores of FLHCW and NFLHCW. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of poor sleep quality, moderate-severe stress, and the combined problem of poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. RESULTS: A total of 257 participants (129 FLHCW and 128 NFLHCW) provided usable responses. The overall PSQI and PSS scores were 7.0 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 7.1, respectively. The FLHCW scored higher in the PSQI and PSS compared with the NFLHCW; however, the differences in the PSQI and PSS scores were not statistically significant. For the FLHCW, 75% were poor sleepers, 85% had moderate-severe stress, and 61% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. For the NFLHCW, 76% were poor sleepers, 84% had moderate-severe stress, and 62% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. Female sex and professional background were the predictors of poor sleep quality and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality and stress are common during the COVID-19 crisis. Approximately, 60% of both FLHCW and NFLHCW have poor sleep quality combined with moderate-severe stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Sleep/physiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Bahrain/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pandemics , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology
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