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1.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763252

ABSTRACT

T cells are thought to be an important correlates of protection against SARS-CoV2 infection. However, the composition of T cell subsets in convalescent individuals of SARS-CoV2 infection has not been well studied. The authors determined the lymphocyte absolute counts, the frequency of memory T cell subsets, and the plasma levels of common γ-chain in 7 groups of COVID-19 individuals, based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data show that both absolute counts and frequencies of lymphocytes as well as, the frequencies of CD4+ central and effector memory cells increased, and the frequencies of CD4+ naïve T cells, transitional memory, stem cell memory T cells, and regulatory cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. In addition, the frequencies of CD8+ central memory, effector, and terminal effector memory T cells increased, and the frequencies of CD8+ naïve cells, transitional memory, and stem cell memory T cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21-common γc cytokines started decreasing from Days 15-30 till Days 151-180. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibit decreased levels of lymphocyte counts and frequencies, higher frequencies of naïve cells, regulatory T cells, lower frequencies of central memory, effector memory, and stem cell memory, and elevated plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21. Finally, there was a significant correlation between memory T cell subsets and common γc cytokines. Thus, the study provides evidence of alterations in lymphocyte counts, memory T cell subset frequencies, and common γ-chain cytokines in convalescent COVID-19 individuals.

2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Examination of CD4+ T cell responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection offers useful information for the improvement of vaccination strategies against this virus and the protective effect of these T cells. METHODS: We characterized the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell activation marker, multifunctional cytokine and cytotoxic marker expression in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) individuals. RESULTS: CD4+ T-cell responses in late convalescent (>6 months of diagnosis) individuals are characterized by elevated frequencies of activated as well as mono, dual- and multi-functional Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cells in comparison to early convalescent (<1 month of diagnosis) individuals following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2-specific antigens. Similarly, the frequencies of cytotoxic marker expressing CD4+ T cells were also enhanced in late convalescent compared to early convalescent individuals. CONCLUSION: Our findings from a low-to middle-income country suggest protective adaptive immune responses following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 are elevated even at six months following initial symptoms, indicating the CD4+ T cell mediated immune protection lasts for six months or more in natural infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cytokine ; 150: 155785, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568622

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are both highly co-prevalent in many parts of the globe. Whether exposure to SARS-CoV-2 influences the antigen specific immune responses in latent tuberculosis has not been investigated. We examined the baseline, mycobacterial antigen and mitogen induced cytokine and chemokine responses in latent tuberculosis (LTBI) individuals with or without SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, LTBI negative individuals with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and healthy control (both LTBI and SARS-CoV-2 negative) individuals. Our results demonstrated that LTBI individuals with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity (LTBI+/IgG +) were associated with increased levels of unstimulated and TB-antigen stimulated IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-17, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, CXCL1, CXCL9 and CXCL10 when compared to those without seropositivity (LTBI+/IgG-). In contrast, LTBI+/IgG+ individuals were associated with decreased levels of IL-5 and IL-10. No significant difference in the levels of cytokines/chemokines was observed upon mitogen stimulation between the groups. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was associated with enhanced unstimulated and TB-antigen stimulated but not mitogen stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines in LTBI+ compared to LTBI negative individuals. Finally, most of these significant differences were not observed when LTBI negative individuals with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and controls were examined. Our data clearly demonstrate that both baseline and TB - antigen induced cytokine responses are augmented in the presence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, suggesting an augmenting effect of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immune responses of LTBI individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/blood , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Inflammation , Latent Tuberculosis/blood , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , Seroconversion
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258743, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511818

ABSTRACT

BCG vaccination is known to induce innate immune memory, which confers protection against heterologous infections. However, the effect of BCG vaccination on the conventional adaptive immune cells subsets is not well characterized. We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on the frequencies of T cell subsets and common gamma c (γc) cytokines in a group of healthy elderly individuals (age 60-80 years) at one month post vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19. Our results demonstrate that BCG vaccination induced enhanced frequencies of central (p<0.0001) and effector memory (p<0.0001) CD4+ T cells and diminished frequencies of naïve (p<0.0001), transitional memory (p<0.0001), stem cell memory (p = 0.0001) CD4+ T cells and regulatory T cells. In addition, BCG vaccination induced enhanced frequencies of central (p = 0.0008), effector (p<0.0001) and terminal effector memory (p<0.0001) CD8+ T cells and diminished frequencies of naïve (p<0.0001), transitional memory (p<0.0001) and stem cell memory (p = 0.0034) CD8+T cells. BCG vaccination also induced enhanced plasma levels of IL-7 (p<0.0001) and IL-15 (p = 0.0020) but diminished levels of IL-2 (p = 0.0033) and IL-21 (p = 0.0020). Thus, BCG vaccination was associated with enhanced memory T cell subsets as well as memory enhancing γc cytokines in elderly individuals, suggesting its ability to induce non-specific adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin Receptor Common gamma Subunit/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vaccination/methods
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 752397, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497081

ABSTRACT

Covaxin/BBV152 is a whole virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The effect of prime-boost vaccination with Covaxin on systemic immune responses is not known. We investigated the effect of Covaxin on the plasma levels of a wide panel of cytokines and chemokines at baseline (M0) and at months 1 (M1), 2 (M2) and 3 (M3) following prime-boost vaccination in healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate that Covaxin induces enhanced plasma levels of Type 1 cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα), Type 2/regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13), Type 17 cytokine (IL-17A), other pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-1α, IL-1ß) and other cytokines (IL-3 and IL-7) but diminished plasma levels of IL-25, IL-33, GM-CSF and Type 1 IFNs. Covaxin also induced enhanced plasma levels of CC chemokine (CCL4) and CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2 and CX3CL1) but diminished levels of CXCL10. Covaxin vaccination induces enhanced cytokine and chemokine responses as early as month 1, following prime-boost vaccination, indicating robust activation of innate and adaptive immune responses in vaccine recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20254, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467135

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are thought to play an important role in host defence and pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, a comprehensive examination of monocyte numbers and function has not been performed longitudinally in acute and convalescent COVID-19. We examined the absolute counts of monocytes, the frequency of monocyte subsets, the plasma levels of monocyte activation markers using flowcytometry and ELISA in seven groups of COVID-19 individuals, classified based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV2 infection. Our data shows that the absolute counts of total monocytes and the frequencies of intermediate and non-classical monocytes increases from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateau thereafter. In contrast, the frequency of classical monocytes decreases from Days 15-30 till Days 121-150. The plasma levels of sCD14, CRP, sCD163 and sTissue Factor (sTF)-all decrease from Days 15-30 till Days 151-180. COVID-19 patients with severe disease exhibit higher levels of monocyte counts and higher frequencies of classical monocytes and lower frequencies of intermediate and non-classical monocytes and elevated plasma levels of sCD14, CRP, sCD163 and sTF in comparison with mild disease. Thus, our study provides evidence of dynamic alterations in monocyte counts, subset frequencies and activation status in acute and convalescent COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Monocytes , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/immunology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1255-1260, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441316

ABSTRACT

It is essential to examine the longevity of the defensive immune response engendered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examined the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses and ex vivo memory B-cell subsets in seven groups of individuals with COVID-19 classified based on days since reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data showed that the levels of IgG and neutralizing antibodies started increasing from days 15 to 30 to days 61 to 90, and plateaued thereafter. The frequencies of naive B cells and atypical memory B cells decreased from days 15 to 30 to days 61 to 90, and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, the frequencies of immature B cells, classical memory B cells, activated memory B cells, and plasma cells increased from days 15 to 30 to days 61 to 90, and plateaued thereafter. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited increased frequencies of naive cells, atypical memory B cells, and activated memory B cells, and lower frequencies of immature B cells, central memory B cells, and plasma cells when compared with patients with mild COVID-19. Therefore, our data suggest modifications in memory B-cell subset frequencies and persistence of humoral immunity in convalescent individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , /immunology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , India , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 671-676, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412852

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a recommendation from the World Health Organization as the foremost preference in the current situation to control the COVID-19 pandemic. BBV152 is one of the approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in India. In this study, we determined SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels at day 0 (baseline, before vaccination), day 28 ± 2 post-first dose (month 1) and day 56 ± 2 post-first dose (month 2) of BBV152 whole-virion-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 recipients, and compared the antibody responses of individuals with confirmed pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection to those individuals without prior evidence of infection. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 114 healthcare professionals and frontline workers who received BBV152 vaccine from February to May & June 2021. Prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 was determined at baseline. Serum samples were used to estimate SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein-specific IgG [IgG (N)], spike protein-specific IgG [IgG (S)] and neutralizing antibodies (NAb). Results: Participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after a single vaccine dose elicited IgG (N) and IgG (S) antibody levels along with NAb binding inhibition responses levels were similar to infection-naïve vaccinated participants who had taken two doses of vaccine. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data suggested that a single dose of BBV152-induced humoral immunity in previously infected individuals was equivalent to two doses of the vaccine in infection-naïve individuals. However, these findings need to be confirmed with large sized cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect ; 83(3): 339-346, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Latent Tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is postulated to modulate immune responses and alter disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. However, no data exist on the effect of LTBI on the immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 co-infected individuals. METHODS: We examined the SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody responses, plasma cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins and growth factor levels in LTBI positive and negative individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that individuals with LTBI (LTBI+) and seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were associated with elevated SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies, as well as enhanced neutralization activity compared to those negative for LTBI (LTBI-) individuals. Our results also demonstrate that LTBI+ individuals exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-25, IL-33, CCL3 and CXCL10 compared to LTBI- individuals. Finally, our results show that LTBI+ individuals exhibit significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin, VEGF and TGFα compared to LTBI- individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our data clearly demonstrates that LTBI+ individuals seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibit heightened levels of humoral, cytokine and acute phase responses compared to LTBI- individuals. Thus, LTBI is associated with modulation of antibody and cytokine responses as well as systemic inflammation in individuals seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Latent Tuberculosis , Acute-Phase Reaction , Cytokines , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Adv ; 7(32)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343935

ABSTRACT

We investigated the influence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on the unstimulated plasma levels of a wide panel of cytokines, chemokines, acute-phase proteins (APPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors in a group of healthy elderly individuals (age, 60 to 80 years) at baseline (before vaccination) and 1 month after vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19. Our results demonstrated that BCG vaccination resulted in diminished plasma levels of types 1, 2, and 17 and other proinflammatory cytokines and type 1 interferons. BCG vaccination also resulted in decreased plasma levels of CC, CXC chemokines, APPs, MMPs, and growth factors. Plasma levels of the aforementioned parameters were significantly lower in vaccinated individuals when compared to unvaccinated control individuals. Thus, our study demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties of BCG vaccination and suggests its potential utility in nonspecific vaccination of COVID-19 by down-modulating pathogenic inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BCG Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab279, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children that can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The inflammatory underpinnings of MIS-C have not been examined in detail. METHODS: We examined the plasma levels of acute phase proteins and microbial translocation markers in children with MIS-C, children with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, SARS-CoV-2-seropositive children, and controls. RESULTS: MIS-C children exhibited significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha2 macroglobulin (α2M), serum amyloid P (SAP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14, and LPS binding protein (LBP) and significantly lower levels of haptoglobin (Hp) in comparison with seropositive, control, and/or COVID-19 children. In addition, COVID-19 children exhibited significantly higher levels of most of the above markers in comparison with seropositive and control children. Principal component analysis using a set of these markers could clearly discriminate MIS-C and COVID-19 from seropositive and control children. MIS-C children requiring pediatric intensive care unit admission and COVID-19 children with severe disease had higher levels of CRP, SAP, and/or sCD14 at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes the role of systemic inflammation and microbial translocation markers in children with MIS-C and COVID-19 and therefore helps in advancing our understanding of the pathogenesis of different presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 98-104, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: BCG can improve the response to vaccines directed against viral infections, and also, BCG vaccination reduces all-cause mortality, most likely by protecting against unrelated infections. However, the effect of BCG vaccination on dendritic cell (DC) subsets is not well characterized. METHODS: We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on the frequencies of DC subsets and type I and III interferons (IFNs) using whole blood and plasma samples in a group of elderly individuals (age 60-80 years) at one-month post-vaccination as part of our clinical study to examine the effect of BCG on COVID-19. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that BCG vaccination induced enhanced frequencies of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and myeloid DC (mDC). BCG vaccination also induced diminished plasma levels of type I IFNs, IFNα and IFNß but increased levels of type III IFNs, IL-28A and IL-29. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, BCG vaccination was associated with enhanced DC subsets and IL-28A/IL-29 in elderly individuals, suggesting its ability to induce non-specific innate immune responses.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Interferons , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103317, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can present with varied clinical phenotypes and understanding the pathogenesis is essential, to inform about the clinical trajectory and management. METHODS: We performed a multiplex immune assay analysis and compared the plasma biomarkers of Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), acute COVID-19 infection (COVID-19), SARS-CoV-2 seropositive and control children admitted to a tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were correlated with SARS-CoV-2 clinical phenotypes. FINDINGS: PIMS-TS children had significantly elevated levels of cytokines, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-33 and IL-Ra; elevated chemokines, CCL2, CCL19, CCL20 and CXCL10 and elevated VEGF, Granzyme B and PDL-1 in comparison to COVID-19, seropositive and controls. COVID-19 children had elevated levels of IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10 and VEGF in comparison to seropositive and/or controls. Similarly, seropositive children had elevated levels of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1α, IFNß, IL-17A, IL-10, CCL5 and CXCL10 in comparison to control children. Plasma biomarkers in PIMS-TS and COVID-19 children showed a positive correlation with CRP and a negative correlation with the lymphocyte count and sodium levels. INTERPRETATION: We describe a comprehensive plasma biomarker profile of children with different clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) and observed that PIMS-TS is a distinct and unique immunopathogenic paediatric illness related to SARS-CoV-2 presenting with cytokine storm different from acute COVID-19 infection and other hyperinflammatory conditions.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Adolescent , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Chemokines/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , India , Infant , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
15.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 48-60, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Population-based seroepidemiological studies measure the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a country. We report the findings of the first round of a national serosurvey, conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adult population of India. METHODS: From May 11 to June 4, 2020, a randomly sampled, community-based survey was conducted in 700 villages/wards, selected from the 70 districts of the 21 States of India, categorized into four strata based on the incidence of reported COVID-19 cases. Four hundred adults per district were enrolled from 10 clusters with one adult per household. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies using COVID Kavach ELISA kit. All positive serum samples were re-tested using Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 ELISA. Adjusting for survey design and serial test performance, weighted seroprevalence, number of infections, infection to case ratio (ICR) and infection fatality ratio (IFR) were calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with IgG positivity. RESULTS: Total of 30,283 households were visited and 28,000 individuals were enrolled. Population-weighted seroprevalence after adjusting for test performance was 0.73 per cent [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-1.13]. Males, living in urban slums and occupation with high risk of exposure to potentially infected persons were associated with seropositivity. A cumulative 6,468,388 adult infections (95% CI: 3,829,029-11,199,423) were estimated in India by the early May. The overall ICR was between 81.6 (95% CI: 48.3-141.4) and 130.1 (95% CI: 77.0-225.2) with May 11 and May 3, 2020 as plausible reference points for reported cases. The IFR in the surveyed districts from high stratum, where death reporting was more robust, was 11.72 (95% CI: 7.21-19.19) to 15.04 (9.26-24.62) per 10,000 adults, using May 24 and June 1, 2020 as plausible reference points for reported deaths. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was low among the adult population in India around the beginning of May 2020. Further national and local serosurveys are recommended to better inform the public health strategy for containment and mitigation of the epidemic in various parts of the country.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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