Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317103

ABSTRACT

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is perennially plagued by prolonged phases of poverty, conflict, and increased internal migration, as well as pandemic outbreaks such as Ebola and COVID-19, and limited livelihood opportunities. Such unexpected or catastrophic events have rendered households vulnerable and resulted in poor health outcomes. Given this background, we intend to analyze the nutritional profile of households for a period spanning almost a decade using the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES). We construct a composite nutrition deficiency index (NDI), capturing intake of 14 different macro- and micronutrients (which we refer to as dimensions)—namely, calories, protein, calcium, zinc, folate, thiamine, niacin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E—using the popular Alkire-Foster methodology. This methodology, usually used to construct multidimensional poverty indexes, in this case helps measure the incidence, intensity, and combined extent of multinutrient deprivation. DRC’s values on the multidimensional NDI vary regionally from 0.13 to 0.73. Urban DRC performs worse than rural DRC. Regions subject to the conflict and Ebola crises are the worst-affected of the nutritionally deprived regions. Deficiency in calorie and protein intake contributes to the highest values of the NDI, but we also find evidence of a double burden of malnutrition, with households lacking consumption of both macro- and micronutrients. South Kivu is the worst-performing of all regions and Mongala the best. The northern parts of DRC have fewer nutritionally deprived households, as compared with the central and southwestern parts. Our main policy recommendation is to help improve market access in urban areas so that people consume a more diverse diet. In rural areas, the government should support improving nutrition-sensitive agricultural production. Although the World Food Programme has a sustained presence in the country, uplifting households from severe hunger, active participation by the government and collaboration with multiple stakeholders is called for.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311755

ABSTRACT

A global event such as the COVID-19 crisis presents new, often unexpected responses that are fascinating to investigate from both, scientific and social standpoints. Despite several documented similarities, the Coronavirus pandemic is clearly distinct from the 1918 flu pandemic in terms of our exponentially increased, almost instantaneous ability to access/share information, offering an unprecedented opportunity to visualise rippling effects of global events across space and time. Personal devices provide “big data” on people’s movement, the environment and economic trends, while access to the unprecedented flurry in scientific publications and media posts provides a measure of the response of the educated world to the crisis. Most bibliometric (co-authorship, co-citation, or bibliographic coupling) analyses ignore the time dimension, but COVID-19 has made it possible to perform a detailed temporal investigation into the pandemic. Here, we report a comprehensive network analysis based on more than 20000 published documents on viral epidemics, authored by over 75,000 individuals from 140 nations in the past one year of the crisis. In contrast to the 1918 flu pandemic, access to published data over the past two decades enabled a comparison of publishing trends between the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and those of the 2003 SARS epidemic, to study changes in thematic foci and societal pressures dictating research over the course of a crisis.

3.
Aquaculture ; 550: 737818, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634262

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic presents both a challenge and an opportunity to the Indian shrimp sector. With revitalizing the institutional arrangements and redirecting the focus, the Indian shrimp industry can flourish just by adapting to the needs of the local demand, even when the export prospects are uncertain. This paper takes a historical perspective of Indian shrimp farming and exports and suggests a domestic alternative/supplementary market for Indian farmed shrimp, resulting from COVID-19.

4.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(5)2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234684

ABSTRACT

A global event such as the COVID-19 crisis presents new, often unexpected responses that are fascinating to investigate from both scientific and social standpoints. Despite several documented similarities, the coronavirus pandemic is clearly distinct from the 1918 flu pandemic in terms of our exponentially increased, almost instantaneous ability to access/share information, offering an unprecedented opportunity to visualise rippling effects of global events across space and time. Personal devices provide "big data" on people's movement, the environment and economic trends, while access to the unprecedented flurry in scientific publications and media posts provides a measure of the response of the educated world to the crisis. Most bibliometric (co-authorship, co-citation, or bibliographic coupling) analyses ignore the time dimension, but COVID-19 has made it possible to perform a detailed temporal investigation into the pandemic. Here, we report a comprehensive network analysis based on more than 20,000 published documents on viral epidemics, authored by over 75,000 individuals from 140 nations in the past one year of the crisis. Unlike the 1918 flu pandemic, access to published data over the past two decades enabled a comparison of publishing trends between the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and those of the 2003 SARS epidemic to study changes in thematic foci and societal pressures dictating research over the course of a crisis.

5.
J Soc Econ Dev ; : 1-23, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157044

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected several economic sectors in India, dragging many to the brink of survival. In particular, the already fragile horticulture industry is now facing a double burden of a weak value chain management system as well as perishability of produce (fresh fruits and vegetables), this pandemic season. Also, the strict enforcement of lockdown has altered both demand and supply factors, which in turn have shocked various linkages in the value chain of fresh fruits and vegetables. So, this paper dissects the value chain management of grapes and its processed products, namely juice, wine, and raisins in Maharashtra, the largest producer of grapes in India. For this, a value chain analysis (VCA) is carried out by computing the degree of value addition to uncover the rupture points caused by the pandemic as well as advocate policy measures to build a resilient system. The value chain analysis shows that post-COVID-19, the degree of value addition, has shot up for the intermediary agents, i.e., pre-harvest contractors, at the expense of the farmers. Using the insights from the VCA results plus the demand and supply shocks, various policy measures are elucidated to strengthen the grape value chain.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(12): 1656-1665, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810560

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been established.Objectives: To assess outcomes in patients with ILD hospitalized for COVID-19 versus those without ILD in a contemporaneous age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched population.Methods: An international multicenter audit of patients with a prior diagnosis of ILD admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 1, 2020, was undertaken and compared with patients without ILD, obtained from the ISARIC4C (International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium) cohort, admitted with COVID-19 over the same period. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary analysis distinguished idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ILD and used lung function to determine the greatest risks of death.Measurements and Main Results: Data from 349 patients with ILD across Europe were included, of whom 161 were admitted to the hospital with laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19 and eligible for propensity score matching. Overall mortality was 49% (79/161) in patients with ILD with COVID-19. After matching, patients with ILD with COVID-19 had significantly poorer survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; confidence interval, 1.17-2.18; P = 0.003) than age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls without ILD. Patients with an FVC of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR, 1.72; 1.05-2.83). Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR, 2.27; 1.39-3.71).Conclusions: Patients with ILD are at increased risk of death from COVID-19, particularly those with poor lung function and obesity. Stringent precautions should be taken to avoid COVID-19 in patients with ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(2): 311-315, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the health services worldwide, challenging the way modern medicine has been practiced for decades. AIM: The present study documents an institutional experience on its impact on cytology services. MATERIALS & METHODS: The cytology samples received during lock down period in India (24 March to 17 May 2020) were analysis and compared to the samples received during the same time frame in year 2019. RESULTS: The data revealed an overall 92.6% reduction in cytology samples received. All sample types were reduced with a statically significant reduction in thyroid cytology samples (P-value: .023). There was relative increase in breast and lymph node samples; however, this relative increase was not statistically significant. The malignancy rate also significantly increased by 34.1% accompanied by decrease in neoplastic category among the samples received during COVID-19 lockdown period. Breast samples remain the most frequent sample type both in pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Majority of fine-needle aspiration done in these cases, during the lockdown period, were either in cases for recurrence or primary diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Prioritization of samples, proper precautions and triaging of patients before procedure helped in carrying out this procedure safely.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/pathology
8.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(6): 869-875, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42072

ABSTRACT

This paper describes country-wide special measures undertaken for interventional radiology staff during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although each interventional radiology service around the world faces unique challenges, the principles outlined in this article will be useful when designing or strengthening individual practices and integrating them within wider hospital and national measures. Moving beyond the current outbreak, these measures will be useful for any future infectious diseases which are likely to arise.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiology, Interventional/methods , COVID-19 , Humans , Singapore
9.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 26(3): 236-240, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-23341

ABSTRACT

As we face an explosion of COVID-19 cases and deal with an unprecedented set of circumstances all over the world, healthcare personnel are at the forefront, dealing with this emerging scenario. Certain subspecialties like interventional radiology entails a greater risk of acquiring and transmitting infection due to the close patient contact and invasive patient care the service provides. This makes it imperative to develop and set guidelines in place to limit transmission and utilize resources in an optimal fashion. A multi-tiered approach needs to be devised and monitored at the administrative level, taking into account the various staff and patient contact points. Based on these factors, work site and health force rearrangements need to be in place while enforcing segregation and disinfection parameters. We are putting forth an all-encompassing review of infection control measures that cover the dynamics of patient care and staff protocols that such a situation demands of an interventional department.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiology, Interventional , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Personnel , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL