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BMJ Open ; 12(6): e061610, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the patient profile and outcomes in Qatar during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: A retrospective observational study was conducted comparing the demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to a secondary care hospital, during the first and second waves of the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: 1039 patients from the first wave and 991 from the second wave who had pneumonia on chest X-ray and had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by a real-time PCR test of a nasopharyngeal swab were included. Patients with a normal chest X-ray and those who had a negative PCR test despite a positive COVID-19 antigen test were excluded. OUTCOME: Length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, final disposition and mortality were the key outcomes studied RESULTS: Influenza like symptoms (18.5% in the first wave vs 36.1% in the second wave, p 0.001), cough (79.2% vs 87%, p<0.001) and dyspnoea (27.5% vs 38% p<0.001) were more common in the second wave. Second wave patients had significantly higher respiratory rate, lower peripheral oxygen saturation, needed more supplemental oxygen and had higher incidence of pulmonary embolism. More patients received hydroxychloroquine and antibiotics during the first wave and more received steroids, antivirals and interleukin-1 antagonist during the second wave. The second wave had a shorter length of stay (14.58±7.75 vs 12.61±6.16, p<0.001) and more patients were discharged home (22% vs 10%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who presented during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic appeared to be more ill clinically and based on their laboratory parameters. They required shorter hospitalisation and were more likely to be discharged home. This could represent greater expertise in handling such patients that was acquired during the first wave as well as use of more appropriate and combination therapies during the second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Demography , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 777, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes at a national level, and none after 60 days of follow up. The aim of this study was to describe national, 60-day all-cause mortality associated with COVID-19, and to identify risk factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including the first consecutive 5000 patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who completed 60 days of follow up by June 17, 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, we explored risk factors for admission to ICU. RESULTS: Included patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 28 and April 17, 2020. The majority (4436, 88.7%) were males and the median age was 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 28-43]. By 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, 14 patients (0.28%) had died, 10 (0.2%) were still in hospital, and two (0.04%) were still in ICU. Fatal COVID-19 cases had a median age of 59.5 years (IQR 55.8-68), and were mostly males (13, 92.9%). All included pregnant women (26, 0.5%), children (131, 2.6%), and healthcare workers (135, 2.7%) were alive and not hospitalized at the end of follow up. A total of 1424 patients (28.5%) required hospitalization, out of which 108 (7.6%) were admitted to ICU. Most frequent co-morbidities in hospitalized adults were diabetes (23.2%), and hypertension (20.7%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.061 per year increase; P < 0.001], male sex (aOR 4.375, 95% CI 1.964-9.744; P < 0.001), diabetes (aOR 1.698, 95% CI 1.050-2.746; P 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aOR 3.590, 95% CI 1.596-8.079, P 0.002), and higher BMI (aOR 1.067, 95% CI 1.027-1.108 per unit increase; P 0.001), were all independently associated with increased risk of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively younger national cohort with a low co-morbidity burden, COVID-19 was associated with low all-cause mortality. Independent risk factors for ICU admission included older age, male sex, higher BMI, and co-existing diabetes or chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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