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1.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(11):e29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028765
2.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(10):e26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016967
3.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(9):e24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016966
4.
N Engl J Med ; 387(8):e22, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000985
5.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S77-S77, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848592
6.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333803

ABSTRACT

Global deployment of vaccines that can provide protection across several age groups is still urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic especially for low- and middle-income countries. While vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 based on mRNA and adenoviral-vector technologies have been rapidly developed, additional practical and scalable SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are needed to meet global demand. In this context, protein subunit vaccines formulated with appropriate adjuvants represent a promising approach to address this urgent need. Receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a key target of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) but is poorly immunogenic. We therefore compared pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists, including those activating STING, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9, alone or formulated with aluminum hydroxide (AH), and benchmarked them to AS01B and AS03-like emulsion-based adjuvants for their potential to enhance RBD immunogenicity in young and aged mice. We found that the AH and CpG adjuvant formulation (AH:CpG) demonstrated the highest enhancement of anti-RBD neutralizing Ab titers in both age groups (~80-fold over AH), and protected aged mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, AH:CpG-adjuvanted RBD vaccine elicited neutralizing Abs against both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 variant at serum concentrations comparable to those induced by the authorized mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. AH:CpG induced similar cytokine and chemokine gene enrichment patterns in the draining lymph nodes of both young adult and aged mice and synergistically enhanced cytokine and chemokine production in human young adult and elderly mononuclear cells. These data support further development of AH:CpG-adjuvanted RBD as an affordable vaccine that may be effective across multiple age groups. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Alum and CpG enhance SARS-CoV-2 RBD protective immunity, variant neutralization in aged mice and Th1-polarizing cytokine production by human elder leukocytes.

7.
Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S77-S77, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783341

ABSTRACT

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is associated with immune dysregulation and common occurrence of major infections. Whether humoral responses to COVID-19 vaccination are protective and durable in LVAD patients is uncertain. We conducted a prospective single-center cohort study in LVAD patients without prior COVID-19 infection, who received 2 doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) or 1 dose of Ad26.COV2.S (J&J) COVID-19 vaccines. Serologic testing was performed at 3, 6, and 9 months after COVID-19 vaccination using the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike enzyme immunoassay (range <0.4 to >2500 U/mL [positive ≥0.8]), which tests for antibodies against the spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD). In March 2021, 45 LVAD patients (80% HeartMate 3) were enrolled and 24 (53%) received Pfizer vaccines, 17 (38%) Moderna, and 4 (9%) J&J at a median duration of LVAD support of 34 months (1-114). Most were male (89%) and white non-Hispanic (71%) persons with median age 62 years (23-78);26 (58%) had diabetes, 16 (36%) had chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 3 (7%) were on immunosuppressive medications. Median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at the time of their vaccine was 1.26 K/uL (0.54-3.41). All patients developed a detectable anti-RBD antibody after vaccination, which began to wane after 3 months. The median anti-RBD IgG titers were 1132 U/mL, 360 U/mL, and 286 U/mL at 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively, post-vaccination (Figure). Age > 60 years, ALC < 1.5 K/uL, and history of CKD were associated with lower median anti-RBD IgG titers at 3, 6, and 9 months. Moderna vaccine recipients had the highest and J&J the lowest anti-RBD IgG titers at 3-months. In the 9-month study period, there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or breakthrough COVID-19 infections. LVAD patients exhibit a robust humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination without breakthrough infection. Further research to evaluate cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccination in LVAD patients is warranted. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S16-S17, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746815

ABSTRACT

Background. mRNA vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illicit strong humoral and cellular responses and have high efficacy for preventing and reducing the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Since solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients were excluded from the phase 3 trials, the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Understanding the serological responses to COVID vaccines among SOT recipients is essential to better understand vaccine protection for this vulnerable population. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, a subset of SOT recipients who were part of our center's larger antibody study were enrolled prior to receipt of two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer, Inc) vaccine for high resolution immunophenotyping. To date, plasma has been collected for 10 participants on the day of their first dose (baseline), day of their second dose, and 28 days post second dose. 23 healthy participants planning to receive either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (ModernaTX, Inc) were also enrolled, providing plasma at the same timepoints. Ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) assays were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S), S1, receptor-binding domain (RBD) and Nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibodies. Results. Participant demographics and SOT recipient characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Low titers of anti-N IgG at all timepoints indicate no natural infection with COVID-19 during the study (Fig 1A). There were significantly lower magnitudes for anti-S (p< 0.0001), anti-S1 (p< 0.0001), and anti-RBD (p< 0.0001) IgG titers on the day of dose 2 and day 28 post second dose for SOT recipients compared to healthy controls (Fig 1B,C,D). Using the internally validated threshold of anti-S IgG >1.07 based on pre-pandemic controls, only 50% of the SOT sub-cohort responded to vaccine after series completion (Fig 2). There was a positive trend between months from transplant and anti-S IgG titer (Fig 3). Black error bars denote median and 95% CI. The dotted line on panel B denotes an internally validated cutoff of 1.07;anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 denote a positive response. SOT recipients further out from transplant tend to have a higher anti-S IgG response. The dotted line denotes an internally validated cutoff, with anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 indicating a positive response. Conclusion. SOT recipients had a significantly decreased humoral response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines compared to the healthy cohort, with those further out from transplant more likely to respond. Further research is needed to evaluate T-cell responses and clinical efficacy to maximize the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response among SOT recipients.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S17-S18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746814

ABSTRACT

Background. Allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are at an increased risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19. While the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are highly immunogenic in the general population, the immune response in SCT recipients is poorly understood. We characterized the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in a cohort of SCT patients. Methods. We performed a prospective cohort study of 16 allogeneic SCT patients and 23 healthy controls. Blood samples for both cohorts were collected prior to first vaccination (baseline), at the time of second vaccination, and approximately 28 days post-second vaccination. Anti-Spike (S), anti-S1, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD), and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG levels were measured quantitatively from plasma using a multiplexed single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay. Reactogenicity was captured for the SCT cohort via a self-reported post-vaccination diary for 7 days after each dose. Results. Demographics and SCT recipients' characteristics are shown in Table 1. In the SCT cohort, we observed a significantly lower anti-S (p< 0.0001), S1 (p< 0.0001), and RBD (p< 0.0001) IgG responses as compared to healthy controls, both at the time of dose 2 and 28 days post-vaccine series (Fig 1). Overall, 62.5% of SCT recipients were responders after vaccine series completion, as compared to 100% of healthy controls (Fig 2). While no patients had a reported history of COVID-19 diagnosis, 2 patients in the SCT cohort had elevated anti-S IgG levels and 1 showed elevated anti-N at baseline. 10/16 participants in the SCT cohort completed at least one post-vaccination diary. Local and systemic reactions were reported by 67% and 22% of participants, respectively, after dose 1, and 63% and 50% after dose 2 (Figure 3). All reported events were mild. Anti-Spike (A), anti-S1 (B), anti-RBD (C), and anti-nucleocapsid (D) IgG titers were measured at baseline, time of second dose, and approximately 28 days after second vaccination. IgG levels were measured quantitatively using multiplexed single molecule array (Simoa) immunoassays, and are reported as Normalized Average Enzymes per Bead (AEB). Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (mauve) showed significantly lower anti-S, S1, and RBD IgG responses as compared to healthy controls (mint). Low titers of anti-N IgG demonstrates no history of COVID-19 natural infection during the course of the study. 10 allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients completed at least one diary for 7 days after vaccination. Reactions after dose 1 are shown in light blue, and reactions after dose 2 are shown in dark blue. Local reactions (A) were reported by 67% (6/9) of participants after dose 1, and 63% (5/8) after dose 2. Systemic reactions (B) were reported by 22% (2/9) of participants after dose 1, and 50% (4/8) after dose 2. All reported events were mild (Grade 1). Conclusion. Among SCT recipients, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were well-tolerated but less immunogenic than in healthy controls. Further study is warranted to better understand heterogeneous characteristics that may affect the immune response in order to optimize COVID-19 vaccination strategies for SCT recipients. Figure 2: Response Rate to COVID-19 Vaccination An internally validated threshold for responders was established using pre-pandemic sera from healthy adults. A positive antibody response was was defined as individuals with anti-Spike IgG levels above the 1.07 Normalized AEB threshold.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S395-S396, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746412

ABSTRACT

Background. Patients with lymphoid malignancies are at high risk of severe COVID-19 disease and were not included in the phase 3 mRNA vaccine trials. Many patients with lymphoid malignancies receive immunosuppressive therapies, including B-cell depleting agents, that may negatively impact humoral response to vaccination. Methods. We recruited patients with lymphoid malignancies and healthy participants who planned to receive two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Blood was drawn at baseline, prior to second dose of vaccine, and 28 days after last vaccination. Disease characteristics and therapies were extracted from patients' electronic medical record. An ultrasensitive, single molecule array (Simoa) assay detected anti-Spike (S), anti-S1, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD), and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) IgG from plasma at each timepoint. Results. 23 healthy participants and 37 patients with lymphoid malignancies were enrolled (Table 1). Low titers of anti-N (Fig 1A) demonstrate no prior exposure or acquisition of COVID-19 before vaccination or during the study. 37.8% of the lymphoid malignancy cohort responded to the vaccine, using an internally validated AEB cutoff of 1.07. A significantly higher magnitude of anti-S (p< 0.0001), anti-S1 (p< 0.0001) and anti-RBD (p< 0.0001) are present in the healthy as compared to lymphoid malignancy cohort at the second dose and day 28 post-series (Fig 1B, Fig 1C and Fig 1D). Anti-S IgG titers were compared between the healthy cohort, treatment naI&Die;ve, and treatment experienced groups (Fig 2). The treatment naI&Die;ve cohort had high titers by series completion which were not significantly different from the healthy cohort (p=0.2259), although the treatment experienced group had significantly decreased titers (p< 0.0001). Of the 20 patients who had received CD20 therapy, there was no clear correlation of anti-S IgG response with time from CD20 therapy, although most patients who received CD20 therapies within 12 months from the vaccine had no response (Figure 3). Conclusion. The vaccine-induced immune response was poor among treatment-experienced patients with lymphoid malignancies, especially among those who received CD20 therapies within 12 months.

11.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327045

ABSTRACT

The GISAID database contains more than 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes, including sequences of the recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant and of prior SARS-CoV-2 strains that have been collected from patients around the world since the beginning of the pandemic. We applied unsupervised cluster analysis to the SARS-CoV-2 genomes, assessing their similarity at a genome-wide level based on the Jaccard index and principal component analysis. Our analysis results show that the omicron variant sequences are most similar to sequences that have been submitted early in the pandemic around January 2020. Furthermore, the omicron variants in GISAID are spread across the entire range of the first principal component, suggesting that the strain has been in circulation for some time. This observation supports a long-term infection hypothesis as the omicron strain origin.

13.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial, estimated mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was 94%. SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements were assessed as correlates of COVID-19 risk and as correlates of protection. METHODS: Through case-cohort sampling, participants were selected for measurement of four serum antibody markers at Day 1 (first dose), Day 29 (second dose), and Day 57: IgG binding antibodies (bAbs) to Spike, bAbs to Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and 50% and 80% inhibitory dilution pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers calibrated to the WHO International Standard (cID50 and cID80). Participants with no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Cox regression assessed in vaccine recipients the association of each Day 29 or 57 serologic marker with COVID-19 through 126 or 100 days of follow-up, respectively, adjusting for risk factors. RESULTS: Day 57 Spike IgG, RBD IgG, cID50, and cID80 neutralization levels were each inversely correlated with risk of COVID-19: hazard ratios 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.88;p=0.005);0.57 (0.40, 0.82;p=0.002);0.42 (0.27, 0.65;p<0.001);0.35 (0.20, 0.61;p<0.001) per 10-fold increase in marker level, respectively, multiplicity adjusted P-values 0.003-0.010. Results were similar for Day 29 markers (multiplicity adjusted P-values <0.001-0.003). For vaccine recipients with Day 57 reciprocal cID50 neutralization titers that were undetectable (<2.42), 100, or 1000, respectively, cumulative incidence of COVID-19 through 100 days post Day 57 was 0.030 (0.010, 0.093), 0.0056 (0.0039, 0.0080), and 0.0023 (0.0013, 0.0036). For vaccine recipients at these titer levels, respectively, vaccine efficacy was 50.8% (-51.2, 83.0%), 90.7% (86.7, 93.6%), and 96.1% (94.0, 97.8%). Causal mediation analysis estimated that the proportion of vaccine efficacy mediated through Day 29 cID50 titer was 68.5% (58.5, 78.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Binding and neutralizing antibodies correlated with COVID-19 risk and vaccine efficacy and likely have utility in predicting mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.

16.
Genetic Epidemiology ; 45(7):807-807, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436769
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