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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057368, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with COVID-19 depends on the severity of the pulmonary affection. The most severe cases may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with a risk of long-term repercussions on respiratory function and neuromuscular outcomes. The functional repercussions of severe forms of COVID-19 may have a major impact on quality of life, and impair the ability to return to work or exercise. Social inequalities in healthcare may influence prognosis, with socially vulnerable individuals more likely to develop severe forms of disease. We describe here the protocol for a prospective, multicentre study that aims to investigate the influence of social vulnerability on functional recovery in patients who were hospitalised in intensive care for ARDS caused by COVID-19. This study will also include an embedded qualitative study that aims to describe facilitators and barriers to compliance with rehabilitation, describe patients' health practices and identify social representations of health, disease and care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The "Functional Recovery From Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Due to COVID-19: Influence of Socio-Economic Status" (RECOVIDS) study is a mixed-methods, observational, multicentre cohort study performed during the routine follow-up of post-intensive care unit (ICU) functional recovery after ARDS. All patients admitted to a participating ICU for PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and who underwent chest CT scan at the initial phase AND who received respiratory support (mechanical or not) or high-flow nasal oxygen, AND had ARDS diagnosed by the Berlin criteria will be eligible. The primary outcome is the presence of lung sequelae at 6 months after ICU discharge, defined either by alterations on pulmonary function tests, oxygen desaturation during a standardised 6 min walk test or fibrosis-like pulmonary findings on chest CT. Patients will be considered to be socially disadvantaged if they have an "Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé" (EPICES) score ≥30.17 at inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and the informed consent form were approved by an independent ethics committee (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée II) on 10 July 2020 (2020-A02014-35). All patients will provide informed consent before participation. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04556513.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Treatment Outcome
2.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1195-1213, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303398

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab randomized clinical trial results are heterogeneous because of the heterogenous population included in them. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines) between severe and non-severe COVID-19. RESULTS: We included nine trials. Overall, the mortality rate was 24.5% (821/3357) in the tocilizumab group and 29.1% (908/3125) in the control group at day 28-30 (pooled OR, 0.85; 95% CI 0.76-0.96; p = 0.006). Considering the subgroup analysis, this benefit on mortality was confirmed and amplified in the severe COVID-19 group (pooled OR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93; p = 0.001) but not in the non-severe COVID-19 group (pooled OR, 1.46; 95% CI 0.91-2.34; p = 0.12). For patients who were not mechanically ventilated at baseline (5523/6482), the pooled OR (0.74; 95% CI 0.64-0.85; p < 0.0001) for mechanical ventilation incidence at day 28-30 was in favor of tocilizumab (cumulative incidence of 14.8% versus 19.4% in tocilizumab and control arm, respectively). This benefit was confirmed in both subgroups, i.e., severe and non-severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab is an effective treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and hypoxemia by improving survival and decreasing mechanical ventilation requirement. The greatest benefit is observed in severe COVID-19.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045041, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259009

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: International guidelines include early nutritional support (≤48 hour after admission), 20-25 kcal/kg/day, and 1.2-2 g/kg/day protein at the acute phase of critical illness. Recent data challenge the appropriateness of providing standard amounts of calories and protein during acute critical illness. Restricting calorie and protein intakes seemed beneficial, suggesting a role for metabolic pathways such as autophagy, a potential key mechanism in safeguarding cellular integrity, notably in the muscle, during critical illness. However, the optimal calorie and protein supply at the acute phase of severe critical illness remains unknown. NUTRIREA-3 will be the first trial to compare standard calorie and protein feeding complying with guidelines to low-calorie low-protein feeding. We hypothesised that nutritional support with calorie and protein restriction during acute critical illness decreased day 90 mortality and/or dependency on intensive care unit (ICU) management in mechanically ventilated patients receiving vasoactive amine therapy for shock, compared with standard calorie and protein targets. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: NUTRIREA-3 is a randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label trial comparing two parallel groups of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasoactive amine therapy for shock and given early nutritional support according to one of two strategies: early calorie-protein restriction (6 kcal/kg/day-0.2-0.4 g/kg/day) or standard calorie-protein targets (25 kcal/kg/day, 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day) at the acute phase defined as the first 7 days in the ICU. We will include 3044 patients in 61 French ICUs. Two primary end-points will be evaluated: day 90 mortality and time to ICU discharge readiness. The trial will be considered positive if significant between-group differences are found for one or both alternative primary endpoints. Secondary outcomes include hospital-acquired infections and nutritional, clinical and functional outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The NUTRIREA-3 study has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee. Patients are included after informed consent. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03573739.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 90, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on mental health of professionals working in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the intensity of the epidemic in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 77 French hospitals from April 22 to May 13 2020. All ICU frontline healthcare workers were eligible. The primary endpoint was the mental health, assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Sources of stress during the crisis were assessed using the Perceived Stressors in Intensive Care Units (PS-ICU) scale. Epidemic intensity was defined as high or low for each region based on publicly available data from Santé Publique France. Effects were assessed using linear mixed models, moderation and mediation analyses. RESULTS: In total, 2643 health professionals participated; 64.36% in high-intensity zones. Professionals in areas with greater epidemic intensity were at higher risk of mental health issues (p < 0.001), and higher levels of overall perceived stress (p < 0.001), compared to low-intensity zones. Factors associated with higher overall perceived stress were female sex (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08-0.17), having a relative at risk of COVID-19 (B = 0.14; 95%-CI = 0.09-0.18) and working in high-intensity zones (B = 0.11; 95%-CI = 0.02-0.20). Perceived stress mediated the impact of the crisis context on mental health (B = 0.23, 95%-CI = 0.05, 0.41) and the impact of stress on mental health was moderated by positive thinking, b = - 0.32, 95% CI = - 0.54, - 0.11. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 negatively impacted the mental health of ICU professionals. Professionals working in zones where the epidemic was of high intensity were significantly more affected, with higher levels of perceived stress. This study is supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC-COVID 2020).

5.
JAMA ; 324(13): 1298-1306, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739601

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with severe lung damage. Corticosteroids are a possible therapeutic option. Objective: To determine the effect of hydrocortisone on treatment failure on day 21 in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and acute respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized double-blind sequential trial conducted in France, with interim analyses planned every 50 patients. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure were enrolled from March 7 to June 1, 2020, with last follow-up on June 29, 2020. The study intended to enroll 290 patients but was stopped early following the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive low-dose hydrocortisone (n = 76) or placebo (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, was defined as death or persistent dependency on mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy. Prespecified secondary outcomes included the need for tracheal intubation (among patients not intubated at baseline); cumulative incidences (until day 21) of prone position sessions, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and inhaled nitric oxide; Pao2:Fio2 ratio measured daily from day 1 to day 7, then on days 14 and 21; and the proportion of patients with secondary infections during their ICU stay. Results: The study was stopped after 149 patients (mean age, 62.2 years; 30.2% women; 81.2% mechanically ventilated) were enrolled. One hundred forty-eight patients (99.3%) completed the study, and there were 69 treatment failure events, including 11 deaths in the hydrocortisone group and 20 deaths in the placebo group. The primary outcome, treatment failure on day 21, occurred in 32 of 76 patients (42.1%) in the hydrocortisone group compared with 37 of 73 (50.7%) in the placebo group (difference of proportions, -8.6% [95.48% CI, -24.9% to 7.7%]; P = .29). Of the 4 prespecified secondary outcomes, none showed a significant difference. No serious adverse events were related to the study treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure, low-dose hydrocortisone, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce treatment failure (defined as death or persistent respiratory support) at day 21. However, the study was stopped early and likely was underpowered to find a statistically and clinically important difference in the primary outcome. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02517489.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
6.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-612053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to SARS-CoV-2 is likely due to a cytokine storm characterised by a major release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6). Blocking excessive IL-6 production might be the key to the COVID-19-ARDS treatment. Beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade using a humanised anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ) were previously reported in patients with COVID-19 related ARDS. The aim of the study was to study the variation over time of several biomarkers, demonstrated to be predictors of poor prognostic, in subjects successfully treated with TCZ for severe COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a case series of patients with COVID-19-ARDS, evidenced by RT-PCR and lung CT-scan. Patients with increasing O2 requirements, within the window of opportunity for TCZ treatment (Day 7 to Day 17 after onset of symptoms) were treated with TCZ (2 infusions of 8 mg/kg). Demographic, biological and clinical data were collected from the patients' files. Serum levels of CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, lymphocytes, platelets, creatinine, D-dimer and liver enzymes were assayed at the time of the first TCZ administration, then every two days for 8 days. RESULTS: 40 patients were treated with TCZ. Most of them had several comorbidities, and all had multiple biological abnormalities (lymphopenia, increased CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, D-dimer, liver enzymes). 30 patients (75%) benefited from TCZ and 10 patients died. In the survivors, following TCZ administration CRP decreased dramatically as early as day 4 (-86.7%, p<0.0001) and returned to normal at day 6. Fibrinogen and lymphocyte count returned to normal values at day 6. Ferritin also decreased significantly. No significant change was observed for D-dimer (p=0.68) and other studied biomarkers (haemoglobin, leucocyte count, AST). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, treatment with TCZ resulted in favourable evolution in 75% of the cases. Biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen) decreased dramatically as early as the 4th day after TCZ injection. Lymphopenia, a predictor of poor prognostic, was reversed 6 days after TCZ injection.

7.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 500-503, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608942

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients (n = 34) suffering from ARDS were treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Outcome was classified in two groups: "Death" and "Recovery". Predictive factors of mortality were studied. Mean age was 75.3, mean oxygen (O2) requirements 10.4 l/min. At baseline, all patients had multiple biological abnormalities (lymphopenia, increased CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, D-dimer and liver enzymes). 24 patients (70.5%) recovered after TCZ therapy and 10 died (29.5%). Deceased subjects differed from patients in whom treatment was effective with regard to more pronounced lymphopenia (0.6 vs 1.0 G/l; p = 0.037), lower platelet number (156 vs 314 G/l; p = 0.0001), lower fibrinogen serum level (0.6 vs 1.0 G/l; p = 0.03), higher aspartate-amino-transferase (108 vs 57 UI/l; p = 0.05) and greater O2 requirements (11 vs 8 l/min; p = 0.003).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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