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3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2213606, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858512

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data are limited on whether patients with breakthrough COVID-19 infection have the potential to significantly contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To compare the secondary attack rate and infectious viral shedding kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 between fully vaccinated individuals (breakthrough infection group) and partially or unvaccinated individuals (nonbreakthrough infection group). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed secondary transmission by analyzing the epidemiologic data of health care workers, inpatients, and caregivers diagnosed with COVID-19 during hospitalization or residence in a tertiary care hospital between March 1, 2020, and November 6, 2021. To evaluate viral shedding kinetics, the genomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was measured using polymerase chain reaction and performed virus culture from daily saliva samples of individuals with mild COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant who were isolated in a community facility in Seoul, South Korea, between July 20 and August 20, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The secondary attack rate and infectious viral shedding kinetics according to COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 173 individuals (median [IQR] age, 47 [32-59] years; 100 female [58%]) with COVID-19 were included in the secondary transmission study, of whom 50 (29%) had a breakthrough infection. Secondary transmission was significantly less common in the breakthrough infection group than in the nonbreakthrough infection group (3 of 43 [7%] vs 29 of 110 [26%]; P = .008). In the viral shedding kinetics study, 45 patients (median age, 37 years [IQR, 25-49 years]; 14 female [31%]) infected with the Delta variant were included, of whom 6 (13%) were fully vaccinated and 39 (87%) were partially or unvaccinated. Although the initial genomic viral load was comparable between the 2 groups, viable virus in cell culture was detected for a notably longer duration in partially vaccinated (8 days after symptom onset) or unvaccinated (10 days after symptom onset) individuals compared with fully vaccinated individuals (4 days after symptom onset). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, although the initial genomic viral load was similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, fully vaccinated individuals had a shorter duration of viable viral shedding and a lower secondary attack rate than partially vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Data from this study provide important evidence that despite the possibility of breakthrough infections, COVID-19 vaccinations remain critically useful for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Middle Aged
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical and virological characteristics of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 are limited. This prospective cohort study compared the characteristics of the delta variant to other variants. METHODS: Adult patients with mild COVID-19 who agreed to daily saliva sampling at a community isolation facility in South Korea between July and August 2021 were enrolled. Scores of 28 COVID-19-related symptoms were recorded daily. The genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA from saliva samples were measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR. Cell cultures were performed on saliva samples with positive genomic RNA results. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients (delta group, n = 108 [77%]; non-delta group, n = 33 [23%]) were enrolled. Myalgia was more common in the delta group than in the non-delta group (52% vs. 27%, P = .03). Total symptom scores were significantly higher in the delta group between days 3 to 10 after symptom onset. Initial genomic RNA titers were similar between the two groups; however, during the late course of disease, genomic RNA titers were higher in the delta group. Negative conversion of subgenomic RNA was slower in the delta group (median 9 vs. 5 days; P < .001). The duration of viral shedding in terms of positive viral culture was also longer in the delta group (median 5 vs. 3 days; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients infected with the delta variant exhibited prolonged viable viral shedding with more severe symptoms than those infected with non-delta variants.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We assessed humoral responses and reactogenicity following the heterologous vaccination compared to the homologous vaccination groups. METHODS: We enrolled healthcare workers (HCWs) who were either vaccinated with ChAdOx1 followed by BNT162b2 (heterologous group) or 2 doses of ChAdOx1 (ChAdOx1 group) or BNT162b2 (BNT162b2 group). Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring antibody titers against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in all participants and neutralizing antibody titer in 100 participants per group. Reactogenicity was evaluated by a questionnaire-based survey. RESULTS: We enrolled 499 HCWs (ChAdOx1, n = 199; BNT162b2, n = 200; heterologous ChAdOx1/BNT162b2, n = 100). The geometric mean titer of anti-receptor-binding domain antibody at 14 days after the booster dose was significantly higher in the heterologous group (11 780.55 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL [95% CI, 10 891.52-12 742.14]) than in the ChAdOx1 (1561.51 [95% CI, 1415.03-1723.15]) or BNT162b2 (2895.90 [95% CI, 2664.01-3147.98]) groups (both p < 0.001). The neutralizing antibody titer of the heterologous group (geometric mean ND50, 2367.74 [95% CI, 1970.03-2845.74]) was comparable to that of the BNT162b2 group (2118.63 [95% CI, 1755.88-2556.32]; p > 0.05) but higher than that of the ChAdOx1 group (391.77 [95% CI, 326.16-470.59]; p < 0.001). Compared with those against wild-type SARS-CoV-2, the geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta variant at 14 days after the boosting were reduced by 3.0-fold in the heterologous group (geometric mean ND50, 872.01 [95% CI, 685.33-1109.54]), 4.0-fold in the BNT162b2 group (337.93 [95% CI, 262.78-434.57]), and 3.2-fold in the ChAdOx1 group (206.61 [95% CI, 144.05-296.34]). The local or systemic reactogenicity after the booster dose in the heterologous group was higher than that of the ChAdOx1 group but comparable to that of the BNT162b2 group. DISCUSSION: Heterologous ChAdOx1 followed by BNT162b2 vaccination with a 12-week interval induced a robust humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2, including the Delta variant, that was comparable to the homologous BNT162b2 vaccination and stronger than the homologous ChAdOx1 vaccination, with a tolerable reactogenicity profile.

6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Infect Chemother ; 54(1): 102-113, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether fluvoxamine reduces clinical deterioration in adult patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to identify risk factors for clinical deterioration in patients admitted to a community treatment center (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a CTC, in Seoul, Korea from January 15, 2021, to February 19, 2021. Symptomatic adult patients with positive results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real time-polymerase chain reaction within 3 days of randomization were assigned at random to receive 100 mg of fluvoxamine or placebo twice daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration defined by any of the following criteria: oxygen requirement to keep oxygen saturation over 94.0%, aggravation of pneumonia with dyspnea, or World Health Organization clinical progression scale 4 or greater. RESULTS: Of 52 randomized participants [median (interquartile range) age, 53.5 (43.3 - 60.0) years; 31 (60.0%) men], 44 (85.0%) completed the trial. Clinical deterioration occurred in 2 of 26 patients in each group (P >0.99). There were no serious adverse events in either group. Clinical deterioration occurred in 15 (6.0%) of 271 patients admitted to the CTC, and all of them were transferred to a hospital. In multivariate analysis, age between 55 and 64, fever and pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors for clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: In this study of adult patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who were admitted to the CTC, there was no significant differences in clinical deterioration between patients treated with fluvoxamine and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711863).

9.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(2): 455-459, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data comparing the antibody responses of different coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine platforms according to dose with natural severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced antibody responses are limited. METHODS: Blood samples from adult patients with mild and severe COVID-19 and healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2nd dose at 12-week intervals) and BNT162b2 vaccine (2nd dose at 3-week intervals) were collected and compared by immunoglobulin G immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 specific spike protein using an in-house-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients, including 12 and 41 with mild and severe COVID-19, respectively, were analyzed. In addition, a total of 73 healthcare workers, including 37 who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 36 who received BNT162b2, were enrolled. Antibody responses after the first and second doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were similar to those in convalescent patients with mild COVID-19, but lower than those in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19, respectively. However, after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the antibody response was comparable to that in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the second dose of mRNA vaccination may be more beneficial in terms of long-term immunity and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection than a single dose of COVID-19 vaccination or homologous second challenge ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibody Formation/drug effects , /pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , /pharmacology , Humans
10.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
11.
Immune Netw ; 21(6): e41, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704288

ABSTRACT

Correlation between vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Thus, we investigated to determine whether the reactogenicity after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination is associated with antibody (Ab) titers and T cell responses. This study was prospective cohort study done with 131 healthcare workers at tertiary center in Seoul, South Korea. The degrees of the local reactions after the 1st and 2nd doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (ChAdOx1) vaccination were significantly associated with the S1-specific IgG Ab titers (p=0.003 and 0.01, respectively) and neutralizing Ab (p=0.04 and 0.10, respectively) in age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis, whereas those after the BNT162b2 vaccination did not show significant associations. T cell responses did not show significant associations with the degree of reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccination or the BNT162b2 vaccination. Thus, high degree of local reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccine may be used as an indicator of strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Korean J Transplant ; 35(4): 253-256, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648231

ABSTRACT

The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on humoral and cellular immunity in transplant recipients remains unknown. We report the case of a 78-year-old kidney transplant recipient who experienced acute T cell-mediated rejection after receiving the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). She had no history of acute rejection throughout the 13 years after deceased donor kidney transplantation. Fifteen days after receiving the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the recipient visited our center with a mild headache and fever. Her serum creatinine level had increased from 0.61 to 4.95 mg/dL. Kidney allograft biopsy indicated acute T cell-mediated rejection (grade IB) with no pathologic evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike-immunoglobulin G and -immunoglobulin M measurements were weak positive and negative, respectively. Careful monitoring of kidney allograft function is vital for transplant recipients undergoing COVID-19 vaccination.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1861-1872, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493829

ABSTRACT

Germinal centers (GCs) elicit protective humoral immunity through a combination of antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells, following pathogen invasion or vaccination. However, the possibility of a GC response inducing protective immunity against reinfection following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unknown. We found GC activity was consistent with seroconversion observed in recovered macaques and humans. Rechallenge with a different clade of virus resulted in significant reduction in replicating virus titers in respiratory tracts in macaques with high GC activity. However, diffuse alveolar damage and increased fibrotic tissue were observed in lungs of reinfected macaques. Our study highlights the importance of GCs developed during natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in managing viral loads in subsequent infections. However, their ability to alleviate lung damage remains to be determined. These results may improve understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune responses, resulting in better coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Germinal Center , Immunity, Humoral , Reinfection/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca , Seroconversion
16.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481021

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective cohort study at a community facility designated for the isolation of individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 between 10 January and 22 February 2021 to investigate the relationship of viral shedding with symptom changes of COVID-19. In total, 89 COVID-19 adult patients (12 asymptomatic, 16 presymptomatic, 61 symptomatic) were enrolled. Symptom scores, the genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples with a cell culture were measured. Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients had a similar viral load to symptomatic patients during the early course of the disease, but exhibited a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity. Subgenomic RNA and viable virus by cell culture in asymptomatic patients were detected only until 3 days after diagnosis, and the positivity of the subgenomic RNA and cell culture in symptomatic patients gradually decreased in both from 40% in the early disease course to 13% at 10 days and 4% at 8 days after the symptom onset, respectively. In conclusion, symptomatic patients have a high infectivity with high symptom scores during the early disease course and gradually lose infectivity depending on the symptom. Conversely, asymptomatic patients exhibit a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity, despite a similar viral load during the early disease course.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Viral Load
17.
Immune Netw ; 21(4): e29, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399492

ABSTRACT

There are limited data directly comparing humoral and T cell responses to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 vaccines. We compared Ab and T cell responses after first doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. BNT162b2 vaccines. We enrolled healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine in Seoul, Korea. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein-specific IgG Abs (S1-IgG), neutralizing Abs (NT Abs), and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response were evaluated before vaccination and at 1-wk intervals for 3 wks after vaccination. A total of 76 persons, comprising 40 injected with the ChAdOx1 vaccine and 36 injected with the BNT162b2 vaccine, participated in this study. At 3 wks after vaccination, the mean levels (±SD) of S1-IgG and NT Abs in the BNT162b2 participants were significantly higher than in the ChAdOx1 participants (S1-IgG, 14.03±7.20 vs. 6.28±8.87, p<0.0001; NT Ab, 183.1±155.6 vs. 116.6±116.2, p=0.035), respectively. However, the mean values of the T cell responses in the 2 groups were comparable after 2 wks. The humoral immune response after the 1st dose of BNT162b2 developed faster and was stronger than after the 1st dose of ChAdOx1. However, the T cell responses to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 were similar.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 395-400, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374604

ABSTRACT

Data on the longevity of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are limited. We evaluated the detailed kinetics of antibody and T-cell responses at the acute, convalescent, and post-convalescent phases in COVID-19 patients with a wide range of severity. We enrolled patients with COVID-19 prospectively from four hospitals and one community treatment center between February 2020 and January 2021. symptom severity was classified as mild, moderate, or severe/critical. Patient blood samples were collected at 1 week (acute), 1 month (convalescent), and 2 months after symptom onset (post-convalescent). Human SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using in-house-developed ELISA. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses against overlapping peptides of spike proteins and nucleoprotein were measured by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Twenty-five COVID-19 patients were analyzed (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 9; severe/critical, n = 11). IgM and IgG antibody responses peaked at 1 month after symptom onset and decreased at 2 months. IgG response levels were significantly greater in the severe/critical group compared with other groups. Interferon-γ-producing T-cell responses increased between 1 week and 1 month after symptom onset, and had a trend toward decreasing at 2 months, but did not show significant differences according to severity. Our data indicate that SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses were greater in those with severe symptoms and waned after reaching a peak around 1 month after symptom onset. However, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different according to symptom severity, and decreased slowly during the post-convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Convalescence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(33): e233, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370979

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
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