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1.
Nat Aging ; 3(6): 722-733, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322588

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has resulted in excellent protection against fatal disease, including in older adults. However, risk factors for post-vaccination fatal COVID-19 are largely unknown. We comprehensively studied three large nursing home outbreaks (20-35% fatal cases among residents) by combining severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosol monitoring, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and immunovirological profiling of nasal mucosa by digital nCounter transcriptomics. Phylogenetic investigations indicated that each outbreak stemmed from a single introduction event, although with different variants (Delta, Gamma and Mu). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in aerosol samples up to 52 d after the initial infection. Combining demographic, immune and viral parameters, the best predictive models for mortality comprised IFNB1 or age, viral ORF7a and ACE2 receptor transcripts. Comparison with published pre-vaccine fatal COVID-19 transcriptomic and genomic signatures uncovered a unique IRF3 low/IRF7 high immune signature in post-vaccine fatal COVID-19 outbreaks. A multi-layered strategy, including environmental sampling, immunomonitoring and early antiviral therapy, should be considered to prevent post-vaccination COVID-19 mortality in nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Nursing Homes , Vaccination , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0534622, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317870

ABSTRACT

The first 18 months of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Colombia were characterized by three epidemic waves. During the third wave, from March through August 2021, intervariant competition resulted in Mu replacing Alpha and Gamma. We employed Bayesian phylodynamic inference and epidemiological modeling to characterize the variants in the country during this period of competition. Phylogeographic analysis indicated that Mu did not emerge in Colombia but acquired increased fitness there through local transmission and diversification, contributing to its export to North America and Europe. Despite not having the highest transmissibility, Mu's genetic composition and ability to evade preexisting immunity facilitated its domination of the Colombian epidemic landscape. Our results support previous modeling studies demonstrating that both intrinsic factors (transmissibility and genetic diversity) and extrinsic factors (time of introduction and acquired immunity) influence the outcome of intervariant competition. This analysis will help set practical expectations about the inevitable emergences of new variants and their trajectories. IMPORTANCE Before the appearance of the Omicron variant in late 2021, numerous SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged, were established, and declined, often with different outcomes in different geographic areas. In this study, we considered the trajectory of the Mu variant, which only successfully dominated the epidemic landscape of a single country: Colombia. We demonstrate that Mu competed successfully there due to its early and opportune introduction time in late 2020, combined with its ability to evade immunity granted by prior infection or the first generation of vaccines. Mu likely did not effectively spread outside of Colombia because other immune-evading variants, such as Delta, had arrived in those locales and established themselves first. On the other hand, Mu's early spread within Colombia may have prevented the successful establishment of Delta there. Our analysis highlights the geographic heterogeneity of early SARS-CoV-2 variant spread and helps to reframe the expectations for the competition behaviors of future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(4): e1011348, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294124

ABSTRACT

Since the latter part of 2020, SARS-CoV-2 evolution has been characterised by the emergence of viral variants associated with distinct biological characteristics. While the main research focus has centred on the ability of new variants to increase in frequency and impact the effective reproductive number of the virus, less attention has been placed on their relative ability to establish transmission chains and to spread through a geographic area. Here, we describe a phylogeographic approach to estimate and compare the introduction and dispersal dynamics of the main SARS-CoV-2 variants - Alpha, Iota, Delta, and Omicron - that circulated in the New York City area between 2020 and 2022. Notably, our results indicate that Delta had a lower ability to establish sustained transmission chains in the NYC area and that Omicron (BA.1) was the variant fastest to disseminate across the study area. The analytical approach presented here complements non-spatially-explicit analytical approaches that seek a better understanding of the epidemiological differences that exist among successive SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Fasting
4.
Cell ; 186(9): 2040-2040.e1, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299160

ABSTRACT

Farmed mammals may act as hosts for zoonotic viruses that can cause disease outbreaks in humans. This SnapShot shows which farmed mammals, and to what extent, are of particular risk of harboring and spreading viruses from viral families that are commonly associated with zoonotic disease. It also discusses genome surveillance methods and biosafety measures. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.


Subject(s)
Viruses , Zoonoses , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Disease Outbreaks , Risk Assessment
5.
Virus Evol ; 9(1): vead010, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268103

ABSTRACT

Bayesian phylogeographic inference is a powerful tool in molecular epidemiological studies, which enables reconstruction of the origin and subsequent geographic spread of pathogens. Such inference is, however, potentially affected by geographic sampling bias. Here, we investigated the impact of sampling bias on the spatiotemporal reconstruction of viral epidemics using Bayesian discrete phylogeographic models and explored different operational strategies to mitigate this impact. We considered the continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model and two structured coalescent approximations (Bayesian structured coalescent approximation [BASTA] and marginal approximation of the structured coalescent [MASCOT]). For each approach, we compared the estimated and simulated spatiotemporal histories in biased and unbiased conditions based on the simulated epidemics of rabies virus (RABV) in dogs in Morocco. While the reconstructed spatiotemporal histories were impacted by sampling bias for the three approaches, BASTA and MASCOT reconstructions were also biased when employing unbiased samples. Increasing the number of analyzed genomes led to more robust estimates at low sampling bias for the CTMC model. Alternative sampling strategies that maximize the spatiotemporal coverage greatly improved the inference at intermediate sampling bias for the CTMC model, and to a lesser extent, for BASTA and MASCOT. In contrast, allowing for time-varying population sizes in MASCOT resulted in robust inference. We further applied these approaches to two empirical datasets: a RABV dataset from the Philippines and a SARS-CoV-2 dataset describing its early spread across the world. In conclusion, sampling biases are ubiquitous in phylogeographic analyses but may be accommodated by increasing the sample size, balancing spatial and temporal composition in the samples, and informing structured coalescent models with reliable case count data.

6.
iScience ; 26(2): 106075, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240400

ABSTRACT

The emergence of recombinant viruses is a threat to public health, as recombination may integrate variant-specific features that together result in escape from treatment or immunity. The selective advantages of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 isolates over their parental lineages remain unknown. We identified a Delta-Omicron (AY.45-BA.1) recombinant in an immunosuppressed transplant recipient treated with monoclonal antibody Sotrovimab. The single recombination breakpoint is located in the spike N-terminal domain adjacent to the Sotrovimab binding site. While Delta and BA.1 are sensitive to Sotrovimab neutralization, the Delta-Omicron recombinant is highly resistant. To our knowledge, this is the first described instance of recombination between circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants as a functional mechanism of resistance to treatment and immune escape.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; : 100850, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184476

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Omicron sublineages impacts the therapeutic efficacy of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we evaluate neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities of 6 therapeutic mAbs against Delta, BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5. The Omicron subvariants escape most antibodies but remain sensitive to bebtelovimab and cilgavimab. Consistent with their shared spike sequence, BA.4 and BA.5 display identical neutralization profiles. Sotrovimab is the most efficient at eliciting ADCC. We also analyze 121 sera from 40 immunocompromised individuals up to 6 months after infusion of Ronapreve (imdevimab + casirivimab) or Evusheld (cilgavimab + tixagevimab). Sera from Ronapreve-treated individuals do not neutralize Omicron subvariants. Evusheld-treated individuals neutralize BA.2 and BA.5, but titers are reduced. A longitudinal evaluation of sera from Evusheld-treated patients reveals a slow decay of mAb levels and neutralization, which is faster against BA.5. Our data shed light on antiviral activities of therapeutic mAbs and the duration of effectiveness of Evusheld pre-exposure prophylaxis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7003, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116500

ABSTRACT

Genomic sequencing is essential to track the evolution and spread of SARS-CoV-2, optimize molecular tests, treatments, vaccines, and guide public health responses. To investigate the global SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance, we used sequences shared via GISAID to estimate the impact of sequencing intensity and turnaround times on variant detection in 189 countries. In the first two years of the pandemic, 78% of high-income countries sequenced >0.5% of their COVID-19 cases, while 42% of low- and middle-income countries reached that mark. Around 25% of the genomes from high income countries were submitted within 21 days, a pattern observed in 5% of the genomes from low- and middle-income countries. We found that sequencing around 0.5% of the cases, with a turnaround time <21 days, could provide a benchmark for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance. Socioeconomic inequalities undermine the global pandemic preparedness, and efforts must be made to support low- and middle-income countries improve their local sequencing capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Genomics
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6644, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106406

ABSTRACT

Current COVID-19 vaccines are based on prototypic spike sequences from ancestral 2019 SARS-CoV-2 strains. However, the ongoing pandemic is fueled by variants of concern (VOC) escaping vaccine-mediated protection. Here we demonstrate how immunization in hamsters using prototypic spike expressed from yellow fever 17D (YF17D) as vector blocks ancestral virus (B lineage) and VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7) yet fails to fully protect from Beta (B.1.351). However, the same YF17D vectored vaccine candidate with an evolved antigen induced considerably improved neutralizing antibody responses against VOCs Beta, Gamma (P.1) and the recently predominant Omicron (B.1.1.529), while maintaining immunogenicity against ancestral virus and VOC Delta (B.1.617.2). Thus vaccinated animals resisted challenge by all VOCs, including vigorous high titre exposure to the most difficult to cover Beta, Delta and Omicron variants, eliminating detectable virus and markedly improving lung pathology. Finally, vaccinated hamsters did not transmit Delta variant to non-vaccinated cage mates. Overall, our data illustrate how current first-generation COVID-19 vaccines may need to be updated to maintain efficacy against emerging VOCs and their spread at community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081913

ABSTRACT

An adequate SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance strategy has proven to be essential for countries to obtain a thorough understanding of the variants and lineages being imported and successfully established within their borders. During 2020, genomic surveillance in Belgium was not structurally implemented but performed by individual research laboratories that had to acquire the necessary funds themselves to perform this important task. At the start of 2021, a nationwide genomic surveillance consortium was established in Belgium to markedly increase the country's genomic sequencing efforts (both in terms of intensity and representativeness), to perform quality control among participating laboratories, and to enable coordination and collaboration of research projects and publications. We here discuss the genomic surveillance efforts in Belgium before and after the establishment of its genomic sequencing consortium, provide an overview of the specifics of the consortium, and explore more details regarding the scientific studies that have been published as a result of the increased number of Belgian SARS-CoV-2 genomes that have become available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1861): 20210242, 2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001544

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in Bayesian phylogenetics offer substantial computational savings to accommodate increased genomic sampling that challenges traditional inference methods. In this review, we begin with a brief summary of the Bayesian phylogenetic framework, and then conceptualize a variety of methods to improve posterior approximations via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Specifically, we discuss methods to improve the speed of likelihood calculations, reduce MCMC burn-in, and generate better MCMC proposals. We apply several of these techniques to study the evolution of HIV virulence along a 1536-tip phylogeny and estimate the internal node heights of a 1000-tip SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic tree in order to illustrate the speed-up of such analyses using current state-of-the-art approaches. We conclude our review with a discussion of promising alternatives to MCMC that approximate the phylogenetic posterior. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Genomic population structures of microbial pathogens'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Software , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Markov Chains , Monte Carlo Method , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Nature ; 610(7930): 154-160, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991629

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (Pango lineage B.1.617.2) variant of concern spread globally, causing resurgences of COVID-19 worldwide1,2. The emergence of the Delta variant in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here we analyse 52,992 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from England together with 93,649 genomes from the rest of the world to reconstruct the emergence of Delta and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Using analysis of human movement, contact tracing and virus genomic data, we find that the geographic focus of the expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced more than 1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers reduced onward transmission from importations; however, the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England were seeded before travel restrictions were introduced. Increasing inter-regional travel within England drove the nationwide dissemination of Delta, with some cities receiving more than 2,000 observable lineage introductions from elsewhere. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing-and not the number of importations-were associated with the faster relative spread of Delta. The invasion dynamics of Delta depended on spatial heterogeneity in contact patterns, and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce the transmission of current and future variants of concern, such as Omicron (Pango lineage B.1.1.529).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , England/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence
13.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 65, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947557

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of infections and fatalities globally since its emergence in late 2019. The virus was first detected in Finland in January 2020, after which it rapidly spread among the populace in spring. However, compared to other European nations, Finland has had a low incidence of SARS-CoV-2. To gain insight into the origins and turnover of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Finland in 2020, we investigated the phylogeographic and -dynamic history of the virus. Methods: The origins of SARS-CoV-2 introductions were inferred via Travel-aware Bayesian time-measured phylogeographic analyses. Sequences for the analyses included virus genomes belonging to the B.1 lineage and with the D614G mutation from countries of likely origin, which were determined utilizing Google mobility data. We collected all available sequences from spring and fall peaks to study lineage dynamics. Results: We observed rapid turnover among Finnish lineages during this period. Clade 20C became the most prevalent among sequenced cases and was replaced by other strains in fall 2020. Bayesian phylogeographic reconstructions suggested 42 independent introductions into Finland during spring 2020, mainly from Italy, Austria, and Spain. Conclusions: A single introduction from Spain might have seeded one-third of cases in Finland during spring in 2020. The investigations of the original introductions of SARS-CoV-2 to Finland during the early stages of the pandemic and of the subsequent lineage dynamics could be utilized to assess the role of transboundary movements and the effects of early intervention and public health measures.

14.
Epidemics ; 40: 100589, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To better understand the conditions which have led to one of the largest COVID-19 outbreaks in Belgian nursing homes in 2020. SETTING: A nursing home in Flanders, Belgium, which experienced a massive outbreak of COVID-19 after a cultural event. An external volunteer who dressed as a legendary figure visited consecutively the 4 living units on December, 4th and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 the next day. Within days, residents started to display symptoms and the outbreak spread rapidly within the nursing home. METHODS: We interviewed key informants and collected standardized data from all residents retrospectively. A batch of 115 positive samples with a Ct value of < 37 by qRT-PCR were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing. Six months after the outbreak, ventilation assessment of gathering rooms in the nursing home was done using a tracer gas test with calibrated CO2 sensors. RESULTS: Timeline of diagnoses and symptom onsets clearly pointed to the cultural event as the start of the outbreak, with the volunteer as index case. The genotyping of positive samples depicted the presence of one large cluster, suggesting a single source outbreak. By the end of December, a total of 127 residents and 40 staff were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the outbreak. The attack rate among residents was 77 % and significantly associated with presence at the event but not with close contact or mask wearing. The ventilation assessment showed a high background average CO2 level in four main rooms varying from 657 ppm to 846 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation shows a rapid and widespread single source outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in a nursing home, in which airborne transmission was the most plausible explanation for the massive intra-facility spread. Our results underscore the importance of ventilation and air quality for the prevention of future outbreaks in closed facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Retrospective Studies
15.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869829

ABSTRACT

We report two clusters of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta variant) infections in a group of 41 Indian nursing students who travelled from New Delhi, India, to Belgium via Paris, France. All students tested negative before departure and had a second negative antigen test upon arrival in Paris. Upon arrival in Belgium, the students were quarantined in eight different houses. Four houses remained COVID-free during the 24 days of follow-up, while all 27 residents of the other four houses developed an infection during quarantine, including the four residents who were fully vaccinated and the two residents who were partially vaccinated. Genome sequencing revealed two distinct clusters affecting one and three houses, respectively. In this group of students, vaccination status did not seem to prevent infection nor decrease the viral load. No severe symptoms were reported. Extensive contact tracing and 3 months of nationwide genomic surveillance confirmed that these outbreaks were successfully contained and did not contribute to secondary community transmission in Belgium. These clusters highlight the importance of repeated testing and quarantine measures among travelers coming from countries experiencing a surge of infections, as all infections were detected 6 days or more after arrival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Students
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 212-214, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851266

ABSTRACT

On November 24, 2021, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant assigned to the lineage B.1.1.529 (Omicron) was first reported to the World Health Organization from South Africa. Despite the co-circulation of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, co-infection by different variants is not commonly identified. Here, we report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 co-identifications with the Omicron and Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veac020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806583

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants continue to emerge, and their identification is important for the public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Genomic sequencing provides robust information but may not always be accessible, and therefore, mutation-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches can be used for rapid identification of known variants. International travelers arriving in Karachi between December 2020 and February 2021 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. A subset of positive samples was tested for S-gene target failure (SGTF) on TaqPathTM COVID-19 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and for mutations using the GSD NovaType SARS-CoV-2 (Eurofins Technologies) assays. Sequencing was conducted on the MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies). Bayesian phylogeographic inference was performed integrating the patients' travel history information. Of the thirty-five COVID-19 cases screened, thirteen had isolates with SGTF. The travelers transmitted infection to sixty-eight contact cases. The B.1.1.7 lineage was confirmed through sequencing and PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of sequence data available for six cases included four B.1.1.7 strains and one B.1.36 and B.1.1.212 lineage isolate. Phylogeographic modeling estimated at least three independent B.1.1.7 introductions into Karachi, Pakistan, originating from the UK. B.1.1.212 and B.1.36 were inferred to be introduced either from the UK or the travelers' layover location. We report the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and other lineages in Pakistan by international travelers arriving via different flight routes. This highlights SARS-CoV-2 transmission through travel, importance of testing, and quarantine post-travel to prevent transmission of new strains, as well as recording detailed patients' metadata. Such results help inform policies on restricting travel from destinations where new highly transmissible variants have emerged.

18.
Nat Med ; 28(6): 1297-1302, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758268

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron BA.1 sublineage has been supplanted in many countries by the BA.2 sublineage. BA.2 differs from BA.1 by about 21 mutations in its spike. In this study, we first compared the sensitivity of BA.1 and BA.2 to neutralization by nine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In contrast to BA.1, BA.2 was sensitive to cilgavimab, partly inhibited by imdevimab and resistant to adintrevimab and sotrovimab. We then analyzed sera from 29 immunocompromised individuals up to 1 month after administration of Ronapreve (casirivimab and imdevimab) and/or Evusheld (cilgavimab and tixagevimab) antibody cocktails. All treated individuals displayed elevated antibody levels in their sera, which efficiently neutralized the Delta variant. Sera from Ronapreve recipients did not neutralize BA.1 and weakly inhibited BA.2. Neutralization of BA.1 and BA.2 was detected in 19 and 29 out of 29 Evusheld recipients, respectively. As compared to the Delta variant, neutralizing titers were more markedly decreased against BA.1 (344-fold) than BA.2 (nine-fold). We further report four breakthrough Omicron infections among the 29 individuals, indicating that antibody treatment did not fully prevent infection. Collectively, BA.1 and BA.2 exhibit noticeable differences in their sensitivity to therapeutic mAbs. Anti-Omicron neutralizing activity of Ronapreve and, to a lesser extent, that of Evusheld is reduced in patients' sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1152, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730284

ABSTRACT

In spring 2021, an increasing number of infections was observed caused by the hitherto rarely described SARS-CoV-2 variant A.27 in south-west Germany. From December 2020 to June 2021 this lineage has been detected in 31 countries. Phylogeographic analyses of A.27 sequences obtained from national and international databases reveal a global spread of this lineage through multiple introductions from its inferred origin in Western Africa. Variant A.27 is characterized by a mutational pattern in the spike gene that includes the L18F, L452R and N501Y spike amino acid substitutions found in various variants of concern but lacks the globally dominant D614G. Neutralization assays demonstrate an escape of A.27 from convalescent and vaccine-elicited antibody-mediated immunity. Moreover, the therapeutic monoclonal antibody Bamlanivimab and partially the REGN-COV2 cocktail fail to block infection by A.27. Our data emphasize the need for continued global monitoring of novel lineages because of the independent evolution of new escape mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Combinations , Germany/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 11(2): e0116121, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673354

ABSTRACT

We report the complete genome sequence of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (lineage B.1.1.529) from a Belgian patient with a history of recent travel to Egypt. At the time of writing, this genome constituted the first confirmed case of an infection with the Omicron variant in Europe.

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