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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 347-351, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727016

ABSTRACT

As of February 20, 2022, only BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine has been authorized for use in persons aged 12-17 years in the United States (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine on December 9, 2021, to authorize a homologous* booster dose for persons aged 16-17 years ≥6 months after receipt of dose 2 (1). On January 3, 2022, authorization was expanded to include persons aged 12-15 years, and for all persons aged ≥12 years, the interval between dose 2 and booster dose was shortened to ≥5 months (1). To characterize the safety of Pfizer-BioNTech booster doses among persons aged 12-17 years (adolescents), CDC reviewed adverse events and health impact assessments during the week after receipt of a homologous Pfizer-BioNTech booster dose reported to v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based safety surveillance system for adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, and adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive vaccine safety surveillance system managed by CDC and FDA. During December 9, 2021-February 20, 2022, approximately 2.8 million U.S. adolescents received a Pfizer-BioNTech booster dose.† During this period, receipt of 3,418 Pfizer-BioNTech booster doses were reported to v-safe for adolescents. Reactions were reported to v-safe with equal or slightly higher frequency after receipt of a booster dose than after dose 2, were primarily mild to moderate in severity, and were most frequently reported the day after vaccination. VAERS received 914 reports of adverse events after Pfizer-BioNTech booster dose vaccination of adolescents; 837 (91.6%) were nonserious and 77 (8.4%) were serious. Health care providers, parents, and adolescents should be advised that local and systemic reactions are expected among adolescents after homologous Pfizer-BioNTech booster vaccination, and that serious adverse events are rare.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Patient Safety , United States
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 249-254, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689714

ABSTRACT

During September 22, 2021-February 6, 2022, approximately 82.6 million U.S. residents aged ≥18 years received a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose.* The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized a booster dose of either the same product administered for the primary series (homologous) or a booster dose that differs from the product administered for the primary series (heterologous). These booster authorizations apply to all three COVID-19 vaccines used in the United States (1-3).† The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended preferential use of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (mRNA-1273 [Moderna] or BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech]) for a booster, even for persons who received the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) COVID-19 vaccine for their single-dose primary series.§ To characterize the safety of COVID-19 vaccine boosters among persons aged ≥18 years during September 22, 2021-February 6, 2022, CDC reviewed adverse events and health impact assessments following receipt of a booster that were reported to v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based safety surveillance system for adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, and adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive vaccine safety surveillance system managed by CDC and FDA. Among 721,562 v-safe registrants aged ≥18 years who reported receiving a booster, 88.8% received homologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Among registrants who reported a homologous COVID-19 mRNA booster dose, systemic reactions were less frequent following the booster (58.4% [Pfizer-BioNTech] and 64.4% [Moderna], respectively) than were those following dose 2 (66.7% and 78.4%, respectively). The adjusted odds of reporting a systemic reaction were higher following a Moderna COVID-19 vaccine booster, irrespective of the vaccine received for the primary series. VAERS has received 39,286 reports of adverse events after a COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccination for adults aged ≥18 years, including 36,282 (92.4%) nonserious and 3,004 (7.6%) serious events. Vaccination providers should educate patients that local and systemic reactions are expected following a homologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine booster; however, these reactions appear less common than those following dose 2 of an mRNA-based vaccine. CDC and FDA will continue to monitor vaccine safety and provide data to guide vaccine recommendations and protect public health.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Safety , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e26, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683880

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a hyperinflammatory illness related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The characteristics of patients with this syndrome and the frequency with which it occurs among patients hospitalised after SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-A, we created ICD-10-CM code and laboratory criteria to identify potential MIS-A patients in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, a database containing patient-level information on hospital discharges across the United States. Modified MIS-A criteria were applied to hospitalisations with discharge from March to December 2020. The proportion of hospitalisations meeting electronic health record criteria for MIS-A and descriptive statistics for patients in the potential MIS-A cohort were calculated. Of 34 515 SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations with complete clinical and laboratory data, 53 met modified criteria for MIS-A (0.15%). The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-74). Most patients met the severe cardiac illness criterion through either myocarditis (66.0%) or new-onset heart failure (35.8%). A total of 79.2% of patients required ICU admission, while 43.4% of patients in the cohort died. MIS-A appears to be a rare but severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additional studies are needed to investigate how this syndrome differs from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab561, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the costs of inpatient care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is very limited. This study estimates the per-patient cost of inpatient care for adult COVID-19 patients seen at >800 US hospitals. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with ≥1 hospitalization during March 2020-July 2021 with a COVID-19 diagnosis code in a large electronic administrative discharge database were included. We used validated costs when reported; otherwise, costs were calculated using charges multiplied by cost-to-charge ratios. We estimated costs of inpatient care per patient overall and by severity indicator, age, sex, underlying medical conditions, and acute complications of COVID-19 using a generalized linear model with log link function and gamma distribution. RESULTS: The overall cost among 654673 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was $16.2 billion. Estimated per-patient hospitalization cost was $24 826. Among surviving patients, estimated per-patient cost was $13 090 without intensive care unit (ICU) admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), $21 222 with ICU admission alone, and $59 742 with IMV. Estimated per-patient cost among patients who died was $27 017. Adjusted cost differential was higher among patients with certain underlying conditions (eg, chronic kidney disease [$12 391], liver disease [$8878], cerebrovascular disease [$7267], and obesity [$5933]) and acute complications (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome [$43 912], pneumothorax [$25 240], and intracranial hemorrhage [$22 280]). CONCLUSIONS: The cost of inpatient care for COVID-19 patients was substantial through the first 17 months of the pandemic. These estimates can be used to inform policy makers and planners and cost-effectiveness analysis of public health interventions to alleviate the burden of COVID-19.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1755-1760, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593989

ABSTRACT

On October 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine to expand its use to children aged 5-11 years, administered as 2 doses (10 µg, 0.2mL each) 3 weeks apart (1). As of December 19, 2021, only the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for administration to children aged 5-17 years (2,3). In preauthorization clinical trials, Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was administered to 3,109 children aged 5-11 years; most adverse events were mild to moderate, and no serious adverse events related to vaccination were reported (4). To further characterize safety of the vaccine in children aged 5-11 years, CDC reviewed adverse events after receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive vaccine safety surveillance system co-managed by CDC and FDA, and adverse events and health impact assessments reported to v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based safety surveillance system for adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination,* during November 3-December 19, 2021. Approximately 8.7 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were administered to children aged 5-11 years† during this period; VAERS received 4,249 reports of adverse events after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in this age group, 4,149 (97.6%) of which were not serious. Approximately 42,504 children aged 5-11 years were enrolled in v-safe after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine; after dose 2, a total of 17,180 (57.5%) local and 12,223 systemic (40.9%) reactions (including injection-site pain, fatigue, or headache) were reported. The preliminary safety findings are similar to those from preauthorization clinical trials (4,5). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19 (6). Parents and guardians of children aged 5-11 years vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine should be advised that local and systemic reactions are expected after vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent COVID-19. CDC and FDA will continue to monitor vaccine safety and will provide updates as needed to guide COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , United States
6.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7066-7073, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-authorization monitoring of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines is needed to better characterize their reactogenicity. We assessed reactions reported during the 2 weeks after receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. METHODS: We monitored persons who enrolled in v-safe after vaccination health checkerSM, a U.S. smartphone-based vaccine monitoring system, after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. V-safe participants received text message prompts to complete web-based surveys. We analyzed responses from persons who received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 from December 14, 2020 through March 14, 2021 and completed at least one survey by March 28, 2021. We measured the proportion of participants reporting local and systemic reactions solicited in surveys completed days 0 through 7 post-vaccination. For day 14 surveys, participants described new or worsening symptoms in a free-text response. We assessed the proportion of participants reporting new or worsening local and systemic reactions. RESULTS: One-third of participants were aged <45 years, two-thirds were female, and approximately half received BNT162b2 vaccine. A total of 4,717,908 participants reported during the 7 days after dose 1 and 2,906,377 reported during the 7 days after dose 2. Most reported at least one injection-site reaction (68.5% after dose 1; 72.9% after dose 2) or at least one systemic reaction (50.6% after dose 1; 69.5% after dose 2). Reactogenicity was greater after dose 2 and among mRNA-1273 recipients, persons aged <45 years, and females. New or worsening local and systemic reactions were uncommon during week 2 after either dose; the most frequent were local reactions for dose 1 mRNA-1273 recipients (2.6%). These reactions were reported more often among females after dose 1 mRNA-1273 (3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: During post-authorization monitoring among >4 million vaccinees, local and systemic reactions were commonly reported following mRNA-based vaccines. Reactions were most common during the first week following dose 2 and among persons aged <45 years, females, and mRNA-1273 recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1379-1384, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444557

ABSTRACT

On August 12, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines to authorize administration of an additional dose after completion of a primary vaccination series to eligible persons with moderate to severe immunocompromising conditions (1,2). On September 22, 2021, FDA authorized an additional dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine ≥6 months after completion of the primary series among persons aged ≥65 years, at high risk for severe COVID-19, or whose occupational or institutional exposure puts them at high risk for COVID-19 (1). Results from a phase 3 clinical trial conducted by Pfizer-BioNTech that included 306 persons aged 18-55 years showed that adverse reactions after receipt of a third dose administered 5-8 months after completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA vaccination series were similar to those reported after receipt of dose 2; these adverse reactions included mild to moderate injection site and systemic reactions (3). CDC developed v-safe, a voluntary, smartphone-based safety surveillance system, to provide information on adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination. Coincident with authorization of an additional dose for persons with immunocompromising conditions, the v-safe platform was updated to allow registrants to enter information about additional doses of COVID-19 vaccine received. During August 12-September 19, 2021, a total of 22,191 v-safe registrants reported receipt of an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Most (97.6%) reported a primary 2-dose mRNA vaccination series followed by a third dose of the same vaccine. Among those who completed a health check-in survey for all 3 doses (12,591; 58.1%), 79.4% and 74.1% reported local or systemic reactions, respectively, after dose 3, compared with 77.6% and 76.5% who reported local or systemic reactions, respectively, after dose 2. These initial findings indicate no unexpected patterns of adverse reactions after an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine; most of these adverse reactions were mild or moderate. CDC will continue to monitor vaccine safety, including the safety of additional doses of COVID-19 vaccine, and provide data to guide vaccine recommendations and protect public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(31): 1053-1058, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344579

ABSTRACT

As of July 30, 2021, among the three COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use in the United States, only the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for adolescents aged 12-17 years. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for use in persons aged ≥16 years on December 11, 2020 (1); the EUA was expanded to include adolescents aged 12-15 years on May 10, 2021 (2), based on results from a Phase 3 clinical trial (3). Beginning in June 2021, cases of myocarditis and myopericarditis (hereafter, myocarditis) after receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine began to be reported, primarily among young males after receipt of the second dose (4,5). On June 23, 2021, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed available data and concluded that the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination to individual persons and the population outweigh the risks for myocarditis and recommended continued use of the vaccine in persons aged ≥12 years (6). To further characterize safety of the vaccine, adverse events after receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and adverse events and health impact assessments reported in v-safe (a smartphone-based safety surveillance system) were reviewed for U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years during December 14, 2020-July 16, 2021. As of July 16, 2021, approximately 8.9 million U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years had received Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.* VAERS received 9,246 reports after Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination in this age group; 90.7% of these were for nonserious adverse events and 9.3% were for serious adverse events, including myocarditis (4.3%). Approximately 129,000 U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years enrolled in v-safe after Pfizer-BioNTech vaccination; they reported local (63.4%) and systemic (48.9%) reactions with a frequency similar to that reported in preauthorization clinical trials. Systemic reactions were more common after dose 2. CDC and FDA continue to monitor vaccine safety and provide data to ACIP to guide COVID-19 vaccine recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Safety , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab236, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297404

ABSTRACT

We described antibiotic use among inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most COVID-19 inpatients received antibiotic therapy. We also described hospital-wide antibiotic use during 2020 compared with 2019, stratified by hospital COVID-19 burden. Although total antibiotic use decreased between years, certain antibiotic use increased with higher COVID-19 burden.

11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
12.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1788-1796, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) differs from that of patients without diabetes or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from U.S. hospitals from March to November 2020 (N = 269,674 after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without diabetes or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with patients without diabetes, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.21, 95% CI 0.19-0.24; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07; RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.24-1.57), with adjustment for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.12; RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12-1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03) and had lower mortality (RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01) in comparisons with patients with T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without diabetes. Higher risk of ICU/MV in patients with T1DM than in patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to diabetes management and the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111182, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258012

ABSTRACT

Importance: Information on underlying conditions and severe COVID-19 illness among children is limited. Objective: To examine the risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included patients aged 18 years and younger with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code U07.1 (COVID-19) or B97.29 (other coronavirus) during an emergency department or inpatient encounter from March 2020 through January 2021. Data were collected from the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, which included data from more than 800 US hospitals. Multivariable generalized linear models, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, were used to estimate adjusted risk of severe COVID-19 illness associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Exposures: Underlying medical conditions and medical complexity (ie, presence of complex or noncomplex chronic disease). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization and severe illness when hospitalized (ie, combined outcome of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). Results: Among 43 465 patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or younger, the median (interquartile range) age was 12 (4-16) years, 22 943 (52.8%) were female patients, and 12 491 (28.7%) had underlying medical conditions. The most common diagnosed conditions were asthma (4416 [10.2%]), neurodevelopmental disorders (1690 [3.9%]), anxiety and fear-related disorders (1374 [3.2%]), depressive disorders (1209 [2.8%]), and obesity (1071 [2.5%]). The strongest risk factors for hospitalization were type 1 diabetes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 4.60; 95% CI, 3.91-5.42) and obesity (aRR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.66-3.54), and the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness were type 1 diabetes (aRR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76) and cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (aRR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99). Prematurity was a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness among children younger than 2 years (aRR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.47-2.29). Chronic and complex chronic disease were risk factors for hospitalization, with aRRs of 2.91 (95% CI, 2.63-3.23) and 7.86 (95% CI, 6.91-8.95), respectively, as well as for severe COVID-19 illness, with aRRs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.69-2.26) and 2.86 (95% CI, 2.47-3.32), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children with medical complexity and certain underlying conditions, such as type 1 diabetes, cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies, and obesity. Health care practitioners could consider the potential need for close observation and cautious clinical management of children with these conditions and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Abnormalities/epidemiology , Child Health , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Premature Birth , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(2): ofaa638, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults and people from certain racial and ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and deaths. METHODS: Using data from the Premier Healthcare Database on 181 813 hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19 during March-September 2020, we applied multivariable log-binomial regression to assess the associations between age and race/ethnicity and COVID-19 clinical severity (intensive care unit [ICU] admission, invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], and death) and to determine whether the impact of age on clinical severity differs by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Overall, 84 497 (47%) patients were admitted to the ICU, 29 078 (16%) received IMV, and 27 864 (15%) died in the hospital. Increased age was strongly associated with clinical severity when controlling for underlying medical conditions and other covariates; the strength of this association differed by race/ethnicity. Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, risk of death was lower among non-Hispanic Black patients (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and higher among Hispanic/Latino patients (risk ratio [RR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), non-Hispanic Asian patients (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23), and patients of other racial and ethnic groups (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). Risk of ICU admission and risk of IMV were elevated among some racial and ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that age is a driver of poor outcomes among hospitalized persons with COVID-19. Additionally, clinical severity may be elevated among patients of some racial and ethnic minority groups. Public health strategies to reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rates among older adults and racial and ethnic minorities are essential to reduce poor outcomes.

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