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Tran, Khanh Bao, Lang, Justin J.; Compton, Kelly, Xu, Rixing, Acheson, Alistair R.; Henrikson, Hannah Jacqueline, Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Penberthy, Louise, Aali, Amirali, Abbas, Qamar, Abbasi, Behzad, Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen, Abbasi-Kangevari, Zeinab, Abbastabar, Hedayat, Abdelmasseh, Michael, Abd-Elsalam, Sherief, Abdelwahab, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Abdoli, Gholamreza, Abdulkadir, Hanan Abdulkadir, Abedi, Aidin, Abegaz, Kedir Hussein, Abidi, Hassan, Aboagye, Richard Gyan, Abolhassani, Hassan, Absalan, Abdorrahim, Abtew, Yonas Derso, Abubaker Ali, Hiwa, Abu-Gharbieh, Eman, Achappa, Basavaprabhu, Acuna, Juan Manuel, Addison, Daniel, Addo, Isaac Yeboah, Adegboye, Oyelola A.; Adesina, Miracle Ayomikun, Adnan, Mohammad, Adnani, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah, Advani, Shailesh M.; Afrin, Sumia, Afzal, Muhammad Sohail, Aggarwal, Manik, Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku, Ahmad, Araz Ramazan, Ahmad, Rizwan, Ahmad, Sajjad, Ahmad, Sohail, Ahmadi, Sepideh, Ahmed, Haroon, Ahmed, Luai A.; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Ahmed Rashid, Tarik, Aiman, Wajeeha, Ajami, Marjan, Akalu, Gizachew Taddesse, Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, Mostafa, Aklilu, Addis, Akonde, Maxwell, Akunna, Chisom Joyqueenet, Al Hamad, Hanadi, Alahdab, Fares, Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour, Alanzi, Turki M.; Alessy, Saleh Ali, Algammal, Abdelazeem M.; Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled, Alhassan, Robert Kaba, Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Ali, Liaqat, Ali, Syed Shujait, Alimohamadi, Yousef, Alipour, Vahid, Aljunid, Syed Mohamed, Alkhayyat, Motasem, Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali Ali, Almustanyir, Sami, Alonso, Nivaldo, Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Al-Rifai, Rami H. Hani, Al-Sabah, Salman Khalifah, Al-Tammemi, Ala'a B.; Altawalah, Haya, Alvis-Guzman, Nelson, Amare, Firehiwot, Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena, Aminian Dehkordi, Javad Javad, Amirzade-Iranaq, Mohammad Hosein, Amu, Hubert, Amusa, Ganiyu Adeniyi, Ancuceanu, Robert, Anderson, Jason A.; Animut, Yaregal Animut, Anoushiravani, Amir, Anoushirvani, Ali Arash, Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza, Ansha, Mustafa Geleto, Antony, Benny, Antwi, Maxwell Hubert, Anwar, Sumadi Lukman, Anwer, Razique, Anyasodor, Anayochukwu Edward, Arabloo, Jalal, Arab-Zozani, Morteza, Aremu, Olatunde, Argaw, Ayele Mamo, Ariffin, Hany, Aripov, Timur, Arshad, Muhammad, Artaman, Al, Arulappan, Judie, Aruleba, Raphael Taiwo, Aryannejad, Armin, Asaad, Malke, Asemahagn, Mulusew A.; Asemi, Zatollah, Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad, Ashraf, Tahira, Assadi, Reza, Athar, Mohammad, Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin, Atout, Maha Moh'd Wahbi, Attia, Sameh, Aujayeb, Avinash, Ausloos, Marcel, Avila-Burgos, Leticia, Awedew, Atalel Fentahun, Awoke, Mamaru Ayenew, Awoke, Tewachew, Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina, Ayana, Tegegn Mulatu, Ayen, Solomon Shitu, Azadi, Davood, Azadnajafabad, Sina, Azami-Aghdash, Saber, Azanaw, Melkalem Mamuye, Azangou-Khyavy, Mohammadreza, Azari Jafari, Amirhossein, Azizi, Hosein, Azzam, Ahmed Y. Y.; Babajani, Amirhesam, Badar, Muhammad, Badiye, Ashish D.; Baghcheghi, Nayereh, Bagheri, Nader, Bagherieh, Sara, Bahadory, Saeed, Baig, Atif Amin, Baker, Jennifer L.; Bakhtiari, Ahad, Bakshi, Ravleen Kaur, Banach, Maciej, Banerjee, Indrajit, Bardhan, Mainak, Barone-Adesi, Francesco, Barra, Fabio, Barrow, Amadou, Bashir, Nasir Z.; Bashiri, Azadeh, Basu, Saurav, Batiha, Abdul-Monim Mohammad, Begum, Aeysha, Bekele, Alehegn Bekele, Belay, Alemayehu Sayih, Belete, Melaku Ashagrie, Belgaumi, Uzma Iqbal, Bell, Arielle Wilder, Belo, Luis, Benzian, Habib, Berhie, Alemshet Yirga, Bermudez, Amiel Nazer C.; Bernabe, Eduardo, Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth, Bhala, Neeraj, Bhandari, Bharti Bhandari, Bhardwaj, Nikha, Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bhattacharyya, Krittika, Bhojaraja, Vijayalakshmi S.; Bhuyan, Soumitra S.; Bibi, Sadia, Bilchut, Awraris Hailu, Bintoro, Bagas Suryo, Biondi, Antonio, Birega, Mesfin Geremaw Birega, Birhan, Habitu Eshetu, Bjørge, Tone, Blyuss, Oleg, Bodicha, Belay Boda Abule, Bolla, Srinivasa Rao, Boloor, Archith, Bosetti, Cristina, Braithwaite, Dejana, Brauer, Michael, Brenner, Hermann, Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich, Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich, Buchanan, Christina Maree, Bulamu, Norma B.; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa, Butt, Muhammad Hammad, Butt, Nadeem Shafique, Butt, Zahid A.; Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano, Cámera, Luis Alberto, Cao, Chao, Cao, Yin, Carreras, Giulia, Carvalho, Márcia, Cembranel, Francieli, Cerin, Ester, Chakraborty, Promit Ananyo, Charalampous, Periklis, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel, Chirinos-Caceres, Jesus Lorenzo, Cho, Daniel Youngwhan, Cho, William C. S.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Chu, Dinh-Toi, Chukwu, Isaac Sunday, Cohen, Aaron J.; Conde, Joao, Cortés, Sandra, Costa, Vera Marisa, Cruz-Martins, Natália, Culbreth, Garland T.; Dadras, Omid, Dagnaw, Fentaw Teshome, Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Dai, Xiaochen, Dandona, Lalit, Dandona, Rakhi, Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz, Danielewicz, Anna, Dao, An Thi Minh, Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza, Darwesh, Aso Mohammad, Das, Saswati, Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil, Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham, De la Hoz, Fernando Pio, Debela, Sisay Abebe, Dehghan, Azizallah, Demisse, Biniyam, Demisse, Fitsum Wolde, Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar, Derakhshani, Afshin, Derbew Molla, Meseret, Dereje, Diriba, Deribe, Kalkidan Solomon, Desai, Rupak, Desalegn, Markos Desalegn, Dessalegn, Fikadu Nugusu, Dessalegni, Samuel Abebe A.; Dessie, Gashaw, Desta, Abebaw Alemayehu, Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman, Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda, Dhimal, Meghnath, Dianatinasab, Mostafa, Diao, Nancy, Diaz, Daniel, Digesa, Lankamo Ena, Dixit, Shilpi Gupta, Doaei, Saeid, Doan, Linh Phuong, Doku, Paul Narh, Dongarwar, Deepa, dos Santos, Wendel Mombaque, Driscoll, Tim Robert, Dsouza, Haneil Larson, Durojaiye, Oyewole Christopher, Edalati, Sareh, Eghbalian, Fatemeh, Ehsani-Chimeh, Elham, Eini, Ebrahim, Ekholuenetale, Michael, Ekundayo, Temitope Cyrus, Ekwueme, Donatus U.; El Tantawi, Maha, Elbahnasawy, Mostafa Ahmed, Elbarazi, Iffat, Elghazaly, Hesham, Elhadi, Muhammed, El-Huneidi, Waseem, Emamian, Mohammad Hassan, Engelbert Bain, Luchuo, Enyew, Daniel Berhanie, Erkhembayar, Ryenchindorj, Eshetu, Tegegne, Eshrati, Babak, Eskandarieh, Sharareh, Espinosa-Montero, Juan, Etaee, Farshid, Etemadimanesh, Azin, Eyayu, Tahir, Ezeonwumelu, Ifeanyi Jude, Ezzikouri, Sayeh, Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis, Fahimi, Saman, Fakhradiyev, Ildar Ravisovich, Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Fares, Jawad, Farmany, Abbas, Farooque, Umar, Farrokhpour, Hossein, Fasanmi, Abidemi Omolara, Fatehizadeh, Ali, Fatima, Wafa, Fattahi, Hamed, Fekadu, Ginenus, Feleke, Berhanu Elfu, Ferrari, Allegra Allegra, Ferrero, Simone, Ferro Desideri, Lorenzo, Filip, Irina, Fischer, Florian, Foroumadi, Roham, Foroutan, Masoud, Fukumoto, Takeshi, Gaal, Peter Andras, Gad, Mohamed M.; Gadanya, Muktar A.; Gaipov, Abduzhappar, Galehdar, Nasrin, Gallus, Silvano, Garg, Tushar, Gaspar Fonseca, Mariana, Gebremariam, Yosef Haile, Gebremeskel, Teferi Gebru, Gebremichael, Mathewos Alemu, Geda, Yohannes Fikadu, Gela, Yibeltal Yismaw, Gemeda, Belete Negese Belete, Getachew, Melaku, Getachew, Motuma Erena, Ghaffari, Kazem, Ghafourifard, Mansour, Ghamari, Seyyed-Hadi, Ghasemi Nour, Mohammad, Ghassemi, Fariba, Ghimire, Ajnish, Ghith, Nermin, Gholamalizadeh, Maryam, Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Jamshid, Ghozy, Sherief, Gilani, Syed Amir, Gill, Paramjit Singh, Ginindza, Themba G.; Gizaw, Abraham Tamirat T.; Glasbey, James C.; Godos, Justyna, Goel, Amit, Golechha, Mahaveer, Goleij, Pouya, Golinelli, Davide, Golitaleb, Mohamad, Gorini, Giuseppe, Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia, Grosso, Giuseppe, Guadie, Habtamu Alganeh, Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen, Gudayu, Temesgen Worku, Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro, Gunawardane, Damitha Asanga, Gupta, Bhawna, Gupta, Sapna, Gupta, Veer Bala, Gupta, Vivek Kumar, Gurara, Mekdes Kondale, Guta, Alemu, Habibzadeh, Parham, Haddadi Avval, Atlas, Hafezi-Nejad, Nima, Hajj Ali, Adel, Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin, Halboub, Esam S.; Halimi, Aram, Halwani, Rabih, Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hameed, Sajid, Hamidi, Samer, Hanif, Asif, Hariri, Sanam, Harlianto, Netanja I.; Haro, Josep Maria, Hartono, Risky Kusuma, Hasaballah, Ahmed I.; Hasan, S. M. Mahmudul, Hasani, Hamidreza, Hashemi, Seyedeh Melika, Hassan, Abbas M.; Hassanipour, Soheil, Hayat, Khezar, Heidari, Golnaz, Heidari, Mohammad, Heidarymeybodi, Zahra, Herrera-Serna, Brenda Yuliana, Herteliu, Claudiu, Hezam, Kamal, Hiraike, Yuta, Hlongwa, Mbuzeleni Mbuzeleni, Holla, Ramesh, Holm, Marianne, Horita, Nobuyuki, Hoseini, Mohammad, Hossain, Md Mahbub, Hossain, Mohammad Bellal Hossain, Hosseini, Mohammad-Salar, Hosseinzadeh, Ali, Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi, Hostiuc, Mihaela, Hostiuc, Sorin, Househ, Mowafa, Huang, Junjie, Hugo, Fernando N.; Humayun, Ayesha, Hussain, Salman, Hussein, Nawfal R.; Hwang, Bing-Fang, Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel, Iftikhar, Pulwasha Maria, Ikuta, Kevin S.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Ilic, Irena M.; Ilic, Milena D.; Immurana, Mustapha, Innos, Kaire, Iranpour, Pooya, Irham, Lalu Muhammad, Islam, Md Shariful, Islam, Rakibul M.; Islami, Farhad, Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah, Isola, Gaetano, Iwagami, Masao, J, Linda Merin, Jaiswal, Abhishek, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo, Jalili, Mahsa, Jalilian, Shahram, Jamshidi, Elham, Jang, Sung-In, Jani, Chinmay T.; Javaheri, Tahereh, Jayarajah, Umesh Umesh, Jayaram, Shubha, Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad, Jebai, Rime, Jemal, Bedru, Jeong, Wonjeong, Jha, Ravi Prakash, Jindal, Har Ashish, John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Joo, Tamas, Joseph, Nitin, Joukar, Farahnaz, Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy, Jürisson, Mikk, Kabir, Ali, Kacimi, Salah Eddine Oussama, Kadashetti, Vidya, Kahe, Farima, Kakodkar, Pradnya Vishal, Kalankesh, Laleh R.; Kalankesh, Leila R.; Kalhor, Rohollah, Kamal, Vineet Kumar, Kamangar, Farin, Kamath, Ashwin, Kanchan, Tanuj, Kandaswamy, Eswar, Kandel, Himal, Kang, HyeJung, Kanno, Girum Gebremeskel, Kapoor, Neeti, Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar, Karanth, Shama D.; Karaye, Ibraheem M.; Karch, André, Karimi, Amirali, Kassa, Bekalu Getnet, Katoto, Patrick D. M. C.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Kaur, Harkiran, Kebede, Abinet Gebremickael, Keikavoosi-Arani, Leila, Kejela, Gemechu Gemechu, Kemp Bohan, Phillip M.; Keramati, Maryam, Keykhaei, Mohammad, Khajuria, Himanshu, Khan, Abbas, Khan, Abdul Aziz Khan, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khan, Gulfaraz, Khan, Md Nuruzzaman, Khan, Moien A. B.; Khanali, Javad, Khatab, Khaled, Khatatbeh, Moawiah Mohammad, Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli, Khayamzadeh, Maryam, Khayat Kashani, Hamid Reza, Khazeei Tabari, Mohammad Amin, Khezeli, Mehdi, Khodadost, Mahmoud, Kim, Min Seo, Kim, Yun Jin, Kisa, Adnan, Kisa, Sezer, Klugar, Miloslav, Klugarová, Jitka, Kolahi, Ali-Asghar, Kolkhir, Pavel, Kompani, Farzad, Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koulmane Laxminarayana, Sindhura Lakshmi, Koyanagi, Ai, Krishan, Kewal, Krishnamoorthy, Yuvaraj, Kucuk Bicer, Burcu, Kugbey, Nuworza, Kulimbet, Mukhtar, Kumar, Akshay, Kumar, G. Anil, Kumar, Narinder, Kurmi, Om P.; Kuttikkattu, Ambily, La Vecchia, Carlo, Lahiri, Arista, Lal, Dharmesh Kumar, Lám, Judit, Lan, Qing, Landires, Iván, Larijani, Bagher, Lasrado, Savita, Lau, Jerrald, Lauriola, Paolo, Ledda, Caterina, Lee, Sang-woong, Lee, Shaun Wen Huey, Lee, Wei-Chen, Lee, Yeong Yeh, Lee, Yo Han, Legesse, Samson Mideksa, Leigh, James, Leong, Elvynna, Li, Ming-Chieh, Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Gang, Liu, Jue, Lo, Chun-Han, Lohiya, Ayush, Lopukhov, Platon D.; Lorenzovici, László, Lotfi, Mojgan, Loureiro, Joana A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas, Madadizadeh, Farzan, Mafi, Ahmad R.; Magdeldin, Sameh, Mahjoub, Soleiman, Mahmoodpoor, Ata, Mahmoudi, Morteza, Mahmoudimanesh, Marzieh, Mahumud, Rashidul Alam, Majeed, Azeem, Majidpoor, Jamal, Makki, Alaa, Makris, Konstantinos Christos, Malakan Rad, Elaheh, Malekpour, Mohammad-Reza, Malekzadeh, Reza, Malik, Ahmad Azam, Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain, Mallya, Sneha Deepak, Mamun, Mohammed A.; Manda, Ana Laura, Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz, Mansouri, Borhan, Mansournia, Mohammad Ali, Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni, Martini, Santi, Martorell, Miquel, Masoudi, Sahar, Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra, Matei, Clara N.; Mathews, Elezebeth, Mathur, Manu Raj, Mathur, Vasundhara, McKee, Martin, Meena, Jitendra Kumar, Mehmood, Khalid, Mehrabi Nasab, Entezar, Mehrotra, Ravi, Melese, Addisu, Mendoza, Walter, Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mengesha, SIsay Derso, Mensah, Laverne G.; Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A.; Mera-Mamián, Andry Yasmid Mera, Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Merid, Mehari Woldemariam, Mersha, Amanual Getnet, Meselu, Belsity Temesgen, Meshkat, Mahboobeh, Mestrovic, Tomislav, Miao Jonasson, Junmei, Miazgowski, Tomasz, Michalek, Irmina Maria, Mijena, Gelana Fekadu Worku, Miller, Ted R.; Mir, Shabir Ahmad, Mirinezhad, Seyed Kazem, Mirmoeeni, Seyyedmohammadsadeq, Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari, Mohammad, Mirzaei, Hamed, Mirzaei, Hamid Reza, Misganaw, Abay Sisay, Misra, Sanjeev, Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin, Mohammadi, Esmaeil, Mohammadi, Mokhtar, Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah, Mohammadpourhodki, Reza, Mohammed, Arif, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mohan, Syam, Mohseni, Mohammad, Moka, Nagabhishek, Mokdad, Ali H.; Molassiotis, Alex, Molokhia, Mariam, Momenzadeh, Kaveh, Momtazmanesh, Sara, Monasta, Lorenzo, Mons, Ute, Montasir, Ahmed Al, Montazeri, Fateme, Montero, Arnulfo, Moosavi, Mohammad Amin, Moradi, Abdolvahab, Moradi, Yousef, Moradi Sarabi, Mostafa, Moraga, Paula, Morawska, Lidia, Morrison, Shane Douglas, Morze, Jakub, Mosapour, Abbas, Mostafavi, Ebrahim, Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam, Mousavi Isfahani, Haleh, Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin, Mpundu-Kaambwa, Christine, Mubarik, Sumaira, Mulita, Francesk, Munblit, Daniel, Munro, Sandra B.; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén, Musa, Jonah, Nabhan, Ashraf F.; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman, Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad, Nagel, Gabriele, Naghipour, Mohammadreza, Naimzada, Mukhammad David, Nair, Tapas Sadasivan, Naqvi, Atta Abbas, Narasimha Swamy, Sreenivas, Narayana, Aparna Ichalangod, Nassereldine, Hasan, Natto, Zuhair S.; Nayak, Biswa Prakash, Ndejjo, Rawlance, Nduaguba, Sabina Onyinye, Negash, Wogene Wogene, Nejadghaderi, Seyed Aria, Nejati, Kazem, Neupane Kandel, Sandhya, Nguyen, Huy Van Nguyen, Niazi, Robina Khan, Noor, Nurulamin M.; Noori, Maryam, Noroozi, Nafise, Nouraei, Hasti, Nowroozi, Ali, Nuñez-Samudio, Virginia, Nzoputam, Chimezie Igwegbe, Nzoputam, Ogochukwu Janet, Oancea, Bogdan, Odukoya, Oluwakemi Ololade, Oghenetega, Onome Bright, Ogunsakin, Ropo Ebenezer, Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru, Oh, In-Hwan, Okati-Aliabad, Hassan, Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul, Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olakunde, Babayemi Oluwaseun, Olufadewa, Isaac Iyinoluwa, Omer, Emad, Omonisi, Abidemi E. Emmanuel, Ong, Sokking, Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Orru, Hans, Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Oulhaj, Abderrahim, Oumer, Bilcha, Owopetu, Oluwatomi Funbi, Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel, P A, Mahesh, Padron-Monedero, Alicia, Padubidri, Jagadish Rao, Pakbin, Babak, Pakshir, Keyvan, Pakzad, Reza, Palicz, Tamás, Pana, Adrian, Pandey, Anamika, Pandey, Ashok, Pant, Suman, Pardhan, Shahina, Park, Eun-Cheol, Park, Eun-Kee, Park, Seoyeon, Patel, Jay, Pati, Siddhartha, Paudel, Rajan, Paudel, Uttam, Paun, Mihaela, Pazoki Toroudi, Hamidreza, Peng, Minjin, Pereira, Jeevan, Pereira, Renato B.; Perna, Simone, Perumalsamy, Navaraj, Pestell, Richard G.; Pezzani, Raffaele, Piccinelli, Cristiano, Pillay, Julian David, Piracha, Zahra Zahid, Pischon, Tobias, Postma, Maarten J.; Pourabhari Langroudi, Ashkan, Pourshams, Akram, Pourtaheri, Naeimeh, Prashant, Akila, Qadir, Mirza Muhammad Fahd, Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin, Rabiee, Mohammad, Rabiee, Navid, Radfar, Amir, Radhakrishnan, Raghu Anekal, Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman, Raeisi, Mojtaba, Rafiee, Ata, Rafiei, Alireza, Raheem, Nasiru, Rahim, Fakher, Rahman, Md Obaidur, Rahman, Mosiur, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Rahmani, Amir Masoud, Rahmani, Shayan, Rahmanian, Vahid, Rajai, Nazanin, Rajesh, Aashish, Ram, Pradhum, Ramezanzadeh, Kiana, Rana, Juwel, Ranabhat, Kamal, Ranasinghe, Priyanga, Rao, Chythra R.; Rao, Sowmya J.; Rashedi, Sina, Rashidi, Amirfarzan, Rashidi, Mahsa, Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi, Ratan, Zubair Ahmed, Rawaf, David Laith, Rawaf, Salman, Rawal, Lal, Rawassizadeh, Reza, Razeghinia, Mohammad Sadegh, Rehman, Ashfaq Ur, Rehman, Inayat ur, Reitsma, Marissa B.; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Rezaei, Maryam, Rezaei, Nazila, Rezaei, Negar, Rezaei, Nima, Rezaei, Saeid, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Rezapour, Aziz, Riad, Abanoub, Rikhtegar, Reza, Rios-Blancas, Maria, Roberts, Thomas J.; Rohloff, Peter, Romero-Rodríguez, Esperanza, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Rwegerera, Godfrey M.; S, Manjula, Saber-Ayad, Maha Mohamed, Saberzadeh-Ardestani, Bahar, Sabour, Siamak, Saddik, Basema, Sadeghi, Erfan, Saeb, Mohammad Reza, Saeed, Umar, Safaei, Mohsen, Safary, Azam, Sahebazzamani, Maryam, Sahebkar, Amirhossein, Sahoo, Harihar, Sajid, Mirza Rizwan, Salari, Hedayat, Salehi, Sana, Salem, Marwa Rashad, Salimzadeh, Hamideh, Samodra, Yoseph Leonardo, Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan, Sankararaman, Senthilkumar, Sanmarchi, Francesco, Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.; Saqib, Muhammad Arif Nadeem, Sarveazad, Arash, Sarvi, Fatemeh, Sathian, Brijesh, Satpathy, Maheswar, Sayegh, Nicolas, Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola, Schwarzinger, Michaël, Šekerija, Mario, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seylani, Allen, Seyoum, Kenbon, Sha, Feng, Shafaat, Omid, Shah, Pritik A.; Shahabi, Saeed, Shahid, Izza, Shahrbaf, Mohammad Amin, Shahsavari, Hamid R.; Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shaka, Mohammed Feyisso, Shaker, Elaheh, Shannawaz, Mohammed, Sharew, Mequannent Melaku Sharew, Sharifi, Azam, Sharifi-Rad, Javad, Sharma, Purva, Shashamo, Bereket Beyene, Sheikh, Aziz, Sheikh, Mahdi, Sheikhbahaei, Sara, Sheikhi, Rahim Ali, Sheikhy, Ali, Shepherd, Peter Robin, Shetty, Adithi, Shetty, Jeevan K.; Shetty, Ranjitha S.; Shibuya, Kenji, Shirkoohi, Reza, Shirzad-Aski, Hesamaddin, Shivakumar, K. M.; Shivalli, Siddharudha, Shivarov, Velizar, Shobeiri, Parnian, Shokri Varniab, Zahra, Shorofi, Seyed Afshin, Shrestha, Sunil, Sibhat, Migbar Mekonnen, Siddappa Malleshappa, Sudeep K.; Sidemo, Negussie Boti, Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Silva, Luís Manuel Lopes Rodrigues, Silva Julian, Guilherme, Silvestris, Nicola, Simegn, Wudneh, Singh, Achintya Dinesh, Singh, Ambrish, Singh, Garima, Singh, Harpreet, Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Singh, Paramdeep, Singh, Surjit, Sinha, Dhirendra Narain, Sinke, Abiy H.; Siraj, Md Shahjahan, Sitas, Freddy, Siwal, Samarjeet Singh, Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich, Skryabina, Anna Aleksandrovna, Socea, Bogdan, Soeberg, Matthew J.; Sofi-Mahmudi, Ahmad, Solomon, Yonatan, Soltani-Zangbar, Mohammad Sadegh, Song, Suhang, Song, Yimeng, Sorensen, Reed J. 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L..
The Lancet ; 400(10352):563-591, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991370

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk–outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01–4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0–116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3–48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1–45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60–3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8–54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36–1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5–41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6–28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8–25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9–42·8] and 33·3% [25·8–42·0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 68, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no valid and reliable tool to measure COVID-19 healthcare stress felt by healthcare students. A scale was developed to assess COVID-19 stress in healthcare students and its psychometrics was examined. METHODS: This is a two phases mixed-method study including a qualitative stage consisting of student interview and literature review to develop content of the tool. In the quantitative stage, the psychometrics of the scale was examined in 2020-2021. RESULTS: The COVID-19 related healthcare student stress scale (CHSSS) featured five factors including fear of catching coronavirus, social constraints, changes in education, non-compliance of health protocols and worrying news and overload information, which totally explained 51.75% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: Validity and reliability of CHSSS with 17 items were supported to measure COVID-19 stress in healthcare students as a self-assessment tool. Researchers can utilize this tool to assess COVID-19 stress in healthcare students and introduce policies and intervention especially designed for healthcare students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Psychometrics , Qualitative Research , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between willingness to mobile learning (m-learning) and educational achievement was examined in health-care professional students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive correlative study that was conducted from January 2020 to February 2020. A total of 295 students in Saveh University of Medical Sciences in Iran were selected through census method. The data were collected using the standard willingness to m-learning questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed statistically using Pearson's correlation coefficient and concurrent regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean score of willingness to m-learning was 165.55 ± 13.4, which is an indicative of a higher willingness level in the health-care professional students for m-learning. There was a positive and significant relationship between willingness for m-learning and educational achievement (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). The predictive variable, i.e., willingness to m-learning, predicted 53.8% of the variance of educational achievement (F = 58.801, P = 0.00). Among the variables of willingness to m-learning, the regression coefficients of perceived ease, attitude, self-management in learning, educational use, and efficiency of m-learning were significant (P < 0.05). This means that these variables are direct predictors of educational achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Willingness to m-learning had a positive and significant relationship with educational achievement. Although this study was performed just before the corona outbreak, paying attention to the results of this study can be helpful for students, faculty members, and policymakers in filling the educational gap during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.

5.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(4): 775-781, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Herbal medicines, as a treatment method, have received a great deal of attention. The effects of two herbal medicines namely Zingiber officinale and Echinacea on alleviation of clinical symptoms and hospitalization rate of suspected COVID-19 outpatients were examined. METHODS: A clinical trial with 100 suspected COVID-19 outpatients as participants was conducted. The participants were allocated randomly to two groups of 50 members. The intervention group received concurrent Zingiber officinale (Tablet Vomigone 500 mg II tds) and Echinacea (Tablet Rucoldup I tds) for seven days in addition to the standard treatment. The control group only received the standard treatment (Hydroxychloroquine). After seven days, alleviation of clinical symptoms and hospitalization rate were examined. In addition, 14 days after treatment, the hospitalization was assessed again by telephone follow up. RESULTS: The two groups were identical in terms of basic characteristics. Improvement level as to coughing, dyspnea, and muscle pain was higher in the intervention group (p value <0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the other symptoms. In addition, the hospitalization rate in the intervention and control groups were 2 and 6% respectively, which are not significantly different (p value >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the efficiency and trivial side-effects of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea, using them for alleviation and control of the clinical symptoms in COVID-19 outpatients is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echinacea , Ginger , Hospitalization , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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