Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 774, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 has severely affected communities around the world. Fear and stress of being infected, along with pressure caused by lockdown, prevention protocols, and the economic downturn, increased tension among people, which consequently led to the rise of domestic violence (DV). Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the rate of change in DV and its associated factors during the COVID-19 epidemic in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 653 individuals with the age of over 15 years from Shiraz were participated through snowball sampling and filled out an online questionnaire through the WhatsApp platform. A 51-item, self-administered and multidimensional (knowledge, attitude, and practice) questionnaire was designed and assessed 653 participants. The gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 25), and variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In this study, 64.2% of the respondents were within the age range of 31-50 years, and 72.6% of the subjects were female. Furthermore, 73.8 and 73.0% of the individuals were married and educated for over 12 years, respectively. The DV increased by 37.5% during the quarantine period, compared to before the pandemic. The emotional type was the most common type of violence; the sexual type was the least frequent. Multivariate analysis indicated that infection with COVID-19, drug use, high level of co-living observation of anti-COVID prevention protocols, and lower level of physical activity during the quarantine period had a positive and significant association with the occurrence of DV. CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results, it is required to implement effective harm-reduction policies and measures in the community due to the increasing rate of DV during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323212

ABSTRACT

Background: Public trust in the healthcare system is a critical necessity of management in public health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To rapidly assess the public trust in the healthcare system during the COVID-19 epidemic and its correlates in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional rapid assessment was conducted in Iran during the COVID-19 epidemic in the country. A probability proportional to size multistage random sampling was applied. Sampling was done in 15 provinces. We collected data on public perceived fear, public trust in health system and socio-demographics. Ordinary least square regression modeling was applied to identify correlates of public trust. Results: A total of 5250 adults (response rate: 76%) were participated in the study. Mean of reported trust scores was 50.3±22.8, and of fear scores was 72.0±17.8. Being male (p=0.006), higher levels of education (p<0.001) and socio-economic status (p<0.001), and higher fear scores (p<0.001) were independently correlated with trust in healthcare system. Conclusion: At the time of the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran, public trust in healthcare system is low. A dynamic public epidemic communication with appropriate strategies to communicate with higher social classes is urgent in Iran. Rapid assessments to identify appropriate strategies are needed. These results might be generalizable to the other similar countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643281

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on burnout (BO) have included both individual and situational factors, referred to as job-person fit (JPF). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence rate of BO in the hospital staff working at a tertiary referral hospital in southwest Iran and then to highlight the importance of the person in the context of his/her work life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 on all hospital staff using a three-part questionnaire comprised of personal and work-situational factors, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Psychological Empowerment Scale (PES). The partial least squares (PLS) path modelling and the neural network (NN) model were used to identify the significant variables within the BO dimensions. A total of 358 staff completed the questionnaire and were recruited for the study. Emotional exhaustion (EE) was seen in 137 medical staff (38.3%) and depersonalization (DP) was observed in 75 individuals (20.1%). Thinking about job change was the most important factor positively correlated with EE. Positive stress and work experience were among the most significant factors negatively associated with PA and DP, respectively. The hospital staff experienced BO in a way comparable to the national results. Work-situational and personal variables interacted with the three dimensions of BO in the hospital staff. More experienced staff also felt more accomplished and successful, resulting in the identification of a decreased level of DP and elevated PA.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Marital Status , Models, Statistical , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(22): 6178-6200, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344560

ABSTRACT

It is hypothesized that liver impairment caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection might play a central role in severe clinical presentations. Liver injury is closely associated with severe disease and, even with antiviral drugs, have a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. In addition to the common hepatobiliary disorders caused by COVID-19, patients with pre-existing liver diseases demand special considerations during the current pandemic. Thus, it is vital that upon clinical presentation, patients with concurrent pre-existing liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction and COVID-19 be managed properly to prevent liver failure. Careful monitoring and early detection of liver damage through biomarkers after hospitalization for COVID-19 is underscored in all cases, particularly in those with pre-existing metabolic liver injury. The purpose of this study was to determine most recent evidence regarding causality, potential risk factors, and challenges, therapeutic options, and management of COVID-19 infection in vulnerable patients with pre-existing liver injury. This review aims to highlight the current frontier of COVID-19 infection and liver injury and the direction of liver injury in these patients.

7.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211024906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282205

ABSTRACT

Studying the people's expectations of government measures to control and manage the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can help to prepare for future crises. This study aimed to investigate the opinion of the Iranian people on authorities' management during a crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study was conducted on 70 Iranian citizens in Shiraz to explore their opinion about the government response to the COVID-19 outbreak in February and March 2020. Based on saturation criteria, the data was collected by 1 open-end question: "What is your attitude toward the readiness of the officials and government in this epidemic?" Thematic analysis was conducted to explore themes. At the first step of the outbreak, people had critical opinions on their authorities' management. Four themes were studied, including trust and responsiveness, policymaking during a health crisis, economic management, and epidemic management. Although the citizens' expectation is dynamic, our study showed that there are still high demands from citizens toward the authorities, even in a new crisis that was not perceived before. One of the best ways to respond to these demands is appropriate risk communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks , Government , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) ; 894: 115341, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225286

ABSTRACT

Rapid distribution of airborne contagious pathogenic viruses such as SRAS-CoV-2 and their severely adverse impacts on different aspects of the human society, along with significant weaknesses of traditional diagnostic platforms, raised the global requirement for the design/fabrication of precise, sensitive, and rapid nanosystems capable of specific detection of viral illnesses with almost negligible false-negative results. To address this indispensable requirement, we have developed an ultra-precise fast diagnostic platform capable of detecting the trace of monoclonal IgG antibody against S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 within infected patients' blood specimens with COVID-19 in about 1 min. The as-developed electrochemical-based nanosensor consists of a highly activated graphene-based platform in conjunction with Au nanostars, which can detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with a fantastic detection limit (DL) and sensitivity of 0.18 × 10-19%V/V and 2.14 µA.%V/V.cm-2, respectively, in human blood plasma specimens even upon the presence of a high amount of interfering compound/antibodies. The nanosensor also exhibited remarkable sensitivity/specificity compared with the gold standard (i.e., ELISA assay), which furtherly confirmed its superb performance.

9.
Galen Med J ; 9: e1956, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The function of healthcare workers, particularly nursing staff, in taking care of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, cannot be overemphasized. As the pandemic lasts, burnout among the nursing staff needs to be considered as an important challenge. This was aimed to assess the nurses' burnout and factors affecting this variable. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was completed by 261 nurses in Shiraz hospitals (Iran) in April 2020. This questionnaire addresses different aspects, including emotional exhaustion, personal achievement, and depersonalization, to determine the intensity of perceived burnout among nurses during the outbreak. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that the nurses' burnout in Shiraz hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic was high (64.6%). Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were observed in 63.6 and 53.3 percent of the participants, respectively. Moreover, the rate of successful personal achievement among these nurses was >97%. Work experience <10 years (P=0.016), hospital ward (P=0.044), the number of deaths observed by nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.001), and the total number of shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic (P=0.006) had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion. CONCLUSION: Workload and stress resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak seem to be one of the major causes of emotional exhaustion in nurses. The emotional exhaustion among nurses must be considered in epidemics, such as COVID-19.

10.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. CONCLUSIONS: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

11.
Middle East J Dig Dis ; 12(3): 217-219, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875182
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 275, 2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among several potential transmission sources in the spreading of the COVID-19, dental services have received a high volume of attention. Several reports, papers, guidelines, and suggestions have been released on how this infection could be transmitted through dental services and what should be done. This study aimed to review the guidelines in order to develop a practical feasibility protocol for the re-opening of dental clinics and the reorientation of dental services. METHODS: This study systematically reviewed the published literature and the guidelines of international health care institutions on dentistry and COVID-19. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS electronic databases using MESH terms. The recommendations identified were tested with a convenience sample of experienced practitioners, and a practical step-by-step protocol is presented in this paper. RESULTS: To the date this paper was drafted, 38 articles were found, of which 9 satisfied our inclusion criteria. As all the nine studies were proposed in a general consensus, any elective non-emergency dental care for patients with suspected or known COVID-19 should be postponed for at least 2 weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only urgent treatment of dental diseases can be performed during the COVID-19 outbreak taking into consideration pharmacological management as the first line and contagion-reduced minimally invasive emergency treatment as the secondary and final management. CONCLUSIONS: While the currently available evidence has not demonstrated a clear and direct relationship between dental treatment or surgery and the possibility of the transmission of COVID-19, there is clearly the potential for transmission. Therefore, following the protective protocols in the COVID-19 crisis is of utmost importance in a dental setting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dentistry/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109874, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457246

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected health care service practices worldwide. Therefore, a global reaction to prepare health care systems is mandatory. Preventing the transmission of this virus during medical and dental procedures producing airborne particles and droplets, could be considered as one of the main venues in prevention of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in health care facilities. To the best of our knowledge, no intervention has been approved for this purpose, so the major suggestion in this regard is using personal preventive equipment (PPE) and similar measures as well as other sanitizing practices. Since we do not know how long we should face this universal issue, using antecedent pharmacotherapies for reducing oral-respiratory secretions to combat this virus might play a role in this regard. Given that currently there is no definitive cure for COVID-19, so we hypothesize that, considering drug solutions to reduce saliva and droplet production may be helpful in controlling Coronavirus spread during aerosol and respiratory droplet producing procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Sialorrhea/drug therapy , Aerosols , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Therapy Modalities/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk , Sialorrhea/prevention & control
15.
Disabil. Soc. ; 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-88533

ABSTRACT

This is a Current Issue because, at the time of writing, COVID-19 has affected many countries and territories worldwide and Iran ranked early on as one of the most seriously affected countries. As a result, this pandemic crisis poses a considerable challenge to people with disabilities in Iran. In this short article we show the different challenges people with disabilities are facing during the COVID emergency in Iran. In addition, we provide several recommendations, based on our perspective and experience in Rehabilitation and Health Policy Centres, to improve the situation in the content of the COVID-19 breakout.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL