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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107641, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When a new pathogen, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, appears all novel information can aid in the process of monitoring and in the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of the current study is to elucidate the specific miRNA profile which can act as new biomarkers for distinguishing acute COVID-19 disease from the healthy group and those in the post-acute phase of the COVID-19 disease. METHODS: The expression level of selected miRNAs including let-7b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-146a-3p and miR-155-5p were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients, in both the acute and post-acute COVID-19 phase of the disease and healthy groups, by real-time PCR assays. Specificity and sensitivity of miRNAs was tested by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The expression level of all miRNAs in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than in the healthy group. Therefore, the expression pattern of miR-29a-3p, miR-146a-3p and let-7b-3p in the post-acute COVID-19 phase was significantly different from the acute COVID-19 phase. ROC analyses demonstrated that miR-29a-3p, -155-5p and -146a-3p may serve as the novel biomarker for COVID-19 diagnosis with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, miR-29a-3p, and -146a-3p can maybe act as novel biomarkers for distinguishing acute from post-acute phase of COVID-19 disease. DISCUSSION: The difference in miRNA expression pattern between COVID-19 patients and those in the healthy group, and between acute COVID-19 with post-acute COVID-19, suggested that cellular miRNAs could be used as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107331, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065225

ABSTRACT

The present review provides an overview of recent advances regarding the function of Th17 cells and their produced cytokines in the progression of viral diseases. Viral infections alone do not lead to virus-induced malignancies, as both genetic and host safety factors are also involved in the occurrence of malignancies. Acquired immune responses, through the differentiation of Th17 cells, form the novel components of the Th17 cell pathway when reacting with viral infections all the way from the beginning to its final stages. As a result, instead of inducing the right immune responses, these events lead to the suppression of the immune system. In fact, the responses from Th17 cells during persistent viral infections causes chronic inflammation through the production of IL-17 and other cytokines which provide a favorable environment for tumor growth and its development. Additionally, during the past decade, these cells have been understood to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, further research is required to understand Th17 cells' immune mechanisms in the vast variety of viral diseases. This review aims to determine the roles and effects of the immune system, especially Th17 cells, in the progression of viral diseases; which can be highly beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.


Subject(s)
Cell Transformation, Viral , Neoplasms/virology , Th17 Cells/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/immunology , Tumor Virus Infections/metabolism , Viruses/immunology
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 675-696, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064514

ABSTRACT

The number of descriptions of emerging viruses has grown at an unprecedented rate since the beginning of the 21st century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that has introduced itself into the human population in the current era, after SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Molecular and cellular studies of the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research; however, based on similarities of SARS-CoV-2 to other coronaviruses, it can be hypothesized that the NF-κB, cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the likely causes of inflammation at the onset of COVID-19. Several drugs have been prescribed and used to alleviate the adverse effects of these inflammatory cellular signaling pathways, and these might be beneficial for developing novel therapeutic modalities against COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarize alterations of cellular signaling pathways that are associated with coronavirus infection, particularly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and tabulate the therapeutic agents that are currently approved for treating other human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Life Sci ; 270: 119124, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051825

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan of China in December 2019 and its worldwide spread has turned into the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory disorders, lymphopenia, cytokine cascades, and the immune responses provoked by this virus play a major and fundamental role in the severity of the symptoms and the immunogenicity which it causes. Owing to the decrease in the inflammatory responses' regulation in the immune system and the sudden increase in the secretion of cytokines, it seems that an investigation of inhibitory immune checkpoints can influence theories regarding this disease's treatment methods. Acquired cell-mediated immune defense's T-cells have a key major contribution in clearing viral infections thus reducing the severity of COVID-19's symptoms. The most important diagnostic feature in individuals with COVID-19 is lymphocyte depletion, most importantly, T-cells. Due to the induction of interferon-γ (INF-γ) production by neutrophils and monocytes, which are abundantly present in the peripheral blood of the individuals with COVID-19, the expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints including, PD-1 (programmed death), PD-L1 and CTLA4 on the T-cells' surface is enhanced. The purpose of this review is to discuss the functions of these checkpoints and their effects on the dysfunction and exhaustion of T-cells, making them almost ineffective in individuals with COVID-19, especially in the cases with extreme symptoms.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Monocytes/immunology
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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