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Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577


Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.

COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875


Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.

Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 385-395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162009


BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) remains of global public health concern. Dromedary camels are the source of zoonotic infection. Over 70% of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-infected dromedaries are found in Africa but no zoonotic disease has been reported in Africa. We aimed to understand whether individuals with exposure to dromedaries in Africa had been infected by MERS-CoV. METHODS: Workers slaughtering dromedaries in an abattoir in Kano, Nigeria, were compared with abattoir workers without direct dromedary contact, non-abattoir workers from Kano, and controls from Guangzhou, China. Exposure to dromedaries was ascertained using a questionnaire. Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were tested for MERS-CoV specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses. FINDINGS: None of the participants from Nigeria or Guangdong were MERS-CoV seropositive. 18 (30%) of 61 abattoir workers with exposure to dromedaries, but none of 20 abattoir workers without exposure (p=0·0042), ten non-abattoir workers or 24 controls from Guangzhou (p=0·0002) had evidence of MERS-CoV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in PBMC. T-cell responses to other endemic human coronaviruses (229E, OC43, HKU-1, and NL-63) were observed in all groups with no association with dromedary exposure. Drinking both unpasteurised camel milk and camel urine was significantly and negatively associated with T-cell positivity (odds ratio 0·07, 95% CI 0·01-0·54). INTERPRETATION: Zoonotic infection of dromedary-exposed individuals is taking place in Nigeria and suggests that the extent of MERS-CoV infections in Africa is underestimated. MERS-CoV could therefore adapt to human transmission in Africa rather than the Arabian Peninsula, where attention is currently focused. FUNDING: The National Science and Technology Major Project, National Institutes of Health.

Camelus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Camelus/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology