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1.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782684

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented unprecedented challenges to the generic drug development including interruptions in bioequivalence (BE) studies. Per guidance published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) during the COVID-19 public health emergency, any protocol changes or alternative statistical analysis plan for COVID-19-interrupted BE study should be accompanied with adequate justifications and not lead to biased equivalence determination. In this study, we used a modeling and simulation approach to assess the potential impact of study outcomes when two different batches of a Reference Standard (RS) were to be used in an in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) BE study due to the RS expiration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Simulations were performed with hypothetical drugs under two scenarios: 1) uninterrupted study using a single batch of an RS, and 2) interrupted study using two batches of an RS. The acceptability of BE outcomes was evaluated by comparing the results obtained from interrupted studies with those from uninterrupted studies. The simulation results demonstrated that using a conventional statistical approach to evaluate BE for COVID-19-interrupted studies may be acceptable based on the pooled data from two batches. An alternative statistical method which includes a "batch" effect to the mixed effects model may be used when a significant "batch" effect was found in interrupted 4-way crossover studies. However, such alternative method is not applicable for interrupted 2-way crossover studies. Overall, the simulated scenarios are only for demonstration purpose, the acceptability of BE outcomes for the COVID19-interrupted studies could be case-specific.

2.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733447

ABSTRACT

Background In the early days of COVID-19 outbreak, the normally orderly health system was severely challenged by large numbers of feverish patients and shortage of healthcare workers. The outbreak played a harmful role in the mental health of these healthcare workers. Objective We aim to assess the prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety and depression symptoms (ADSs) of healthcare workers in different regions during COVID-19 disaster and identify the potential risk factors. Methods We did a cross-sectional study on ADS of healthcare workers in epicenter-Hubei province and regions in lower epidemic-other provinces by questionnaire online. The data of ADS, the demographic characteristics, occupational exposure, physical condition, family situation, and coping styles were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 24.68% of the respondents had experienced moderate or severe ADS. Moderate or severe ADSs were in a higher prevalence in Hubei (32.39%) than other provinces (18.22%). Suspicious symptoms on their own and in family members were independent risk factors of moderate or severe ADS of all health workers. Working on the frontline was the independent risk factor for participants in Hubei province, whereas quarantine was the independent risk factor for those in other provinces. Moreover, among all participants, those with negative coping style were more than four times more likely to have moderate or severe ADS than those with positive coping style. Conclusion Moderate or severe ADSs were in a higher prevalence in healthcare workers of Hubei province during COVID-19 outbreak. The coping style may have major impact on ADS in such situation.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310725

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. By 8 July 2020, the cumulative number of infected people worldwide had exceeded 11.50 million. It has been reported that a variety of indicators, including lymphocytes, can predict the progression of COVID-19 disease, but the clinical application value of eosinophils has not received widespread attention. It’s specific changes in the course of the disease, as well as the relationship with severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients, need to be further studied.Method: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we collected data on laboratory-confirmed 482 COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, who died or were discharged between February 1, 2020, and February 20, 2020. By collecting the clinical data and laboratory examination results of the patients, we analyzed the changes of eosinophil and lymphocyte count in patients with different severity and outcomes, so as to study their relationship with the severity and prognosis, to compare the diagnostic effects of lymphocytes and eosinophils on severe COVID-2019 patients.Result: A total of 482 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 39.0% were severe patients and 13.3% were nonsurvivors. All the nonsurvivors were from the severe group. The count of eosinophil remained relatively lower levels during hospitalization in the severe and nonsurvival groups compared with the nonsevere and survival groups (all P < 0.05). Patients with the lowest eosinophil count during hospitalization reduced to <0.02×10⁹/L and =0.00×10⁹/L had higher rates of severity and fatality (all P < 0.05). The lowest counts of lymphocyte and eosinophil during hospitalization were used to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of severe COVID-19, and their diagnostic effects were similar. The cutoff values were ≤0.72×10⁹/L and =0.00×10⁹/L, and the areas under the curve were 0.768 and 0.740, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression model showed that the older age, the emergence of dyspnea, the increase of the white blood cell count on admission, the decrease of lymphocyte count on admission, and eosinophil count reduced to =0.00×10⁹/L on admission were associated with fatal outcome.Conclusion: Eosinophil and lymphocyte count remained relatively lower levels during hospitalization in the severe and nonsurvival COVID-19 patients, and patients with eosinophil decline had higher rates of severity and fatality. Eosinophils = 0.00×10⁹/L and lymphocytes ≤0.72×10⁹/L had the similar efficacy to diagnosis the severe COVID-19 patients. Compared with lymphocytes, eosinophils could also be used to diagnose severe COVID-19 patients and predict prognosis.Funding Statement: This study is funded by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (81974383 and 81772607 to W.Y.;81770554 and 81570501 to Y.F.)Declaration of Interests: None.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Ethics Commission of Wuhan Tongji Hospital, Union Hospital, and Jin Yin-tan Hospital, and written informed consent was waived.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315368

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus infective disease 19 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreads very rapidly, which become a worldwide public healthy crisis. Until now, there is no effective antivirus drugs or vaccines specifically used for its treatment. So it is urgent to discover efficient therapeutic methods. The same as SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also invades organism by combining with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, there are reports about SARS-CoV-2 infected host not only through the respiratory tract, but also gastrointestinal tract. However, it is proved that ACE2 plays a key role in protecting subjects from lung injury and resisting the inflammation caused by intestinal epithelial damage. Interestingly, the expression of ACE2 protein is reduced after SARS-CoV infection. Methods: : According to the dataset of genes co-expressed with ACE2 in the colonic epithelial cells, we established a protein-protein interaction (PPI) Network and selected hub genes from them. The cluster analysis was performed to find out the dense region of the PPI Network. Then, gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were performed to explore the main function of genes co-expressed with ACE2. Finally, we predicted the potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the connectivity map (Cmap) . Results: We constructed a PPI network containing 125 hub genes of genes co-expressed with ACE2 in the colonic epithelial cells and obtained two modules through cluster analysis. The GO analysis and the KEGG pathway revealed these genes were aggregated in ribosome, exosomes, extracellular cellular components;structure constituent of ribosome, G-protein coupled receptor activity, MHC class I and II receptor activity biological processes;immune response, protein metabolism, signal transduction biological processes;and ribosome, graft-versus-host disease, viral myocarditis pathways. The result from Cmap indicated ikarugamycin, molsidomine had highly correlated scores with the query files. Conclusion: We found out that ikarugamycin and molsidomine were the potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.

5.
Front Physiol ; 12: 805925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674373

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggest that autonomic dysfunction is associated with disease severity in acute phase in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between autonomic dysfunction and pulmonary sequelae in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association between autonomic dysfunction and pulmonary sequelae in patients with COVID-19 discharged for 6 months. We included 40 eligible participants and collected the following indicators: heart rate variability (HRV), pulmonary function tests (PFTs), lung X-ray computed tomography (CT), routine blood parameters, liver function parameters, and lymphocyte subsets. We found that at 6 months post-discharge, HRV still had a tight correlation with pulmonary fibrosis. There was a significant difference in HRV between patients with and without diffusion dysfunction, but HRV did not differ between patients with or without ventilatory dysfunction. Diffusion dysfunction and pulmonary fibrosis were tightly associated, and HRV index changes in patients with diffusion dysfunction had the same trend as that of patients with pulmonary fibrosis. They had a lower standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), the standard deviation of the average NN intervals (SDANN), and the triangular index, but a higher ratio between LF and HF power (LF/HF). In addition, WBC, neutrophils, and CD4/CD8 were correlated with pulmonary fibrosis and HRV. We concluded that autonomic dysfunction is closely associated with pulmonary fibrosis and diffusion dysfunction, and immune mechanisms may potentially contribute to this process.

6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 246-252, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544341

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several studies indicate that the digestive system can also be affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, patients with digestive symptoms should have a capsule endoscopy (CE). COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms who underwent CE were recruited from March 2020 to April 2020. We collected patients' data and performed a prospective follow-up study for 6 months. All 11 COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms who underwent CE presented gastritis. Eight cases (72.7%) had intestinal mucosa inflammation. Among them, two cases showed intestinal ulcers or erosions. Moreover, two cases displayed colonic mucositis. One case was lost during follow-up. At 3-6 months after hospital discharge, five patients underwent CE again, presenting gastrointestinal lesions. Five of the 10 cases had GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and others. Among these five cases, the GI symptoms of three patients disappeared at the last follow-up and two patients still presented diarrhea symptoms. Overall, we observed damaged digestive tract mucosa that could be caused by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, after discharge, some patients still presented intestinal lesions and GI symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Capsule Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis/complications , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 764493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450820

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2020.584342.].

9.
Front Artif Intell ; 4: 672050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430749

ABSTRACT

Cohort-independent robust mortality prediction model in patients with COVID-19 infection is not yet established. To build up a reliable, interpretable mortality prediction model with strong foresight, we have performed an international, bi-institutional study from China (Wuhan cohort, collected from January to March) and Germany (Würzburg cohort, collected from March to September). A Random Forest-based machine learning approach was applied to 1,352 patients from the Wuhan cohort, generating a mortality prediction model based on their clinical features. The results showed that five clinical features at admission, including lymphocyte (%), neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, could be used for mortality prediction of COVID-19 patients with more than 91% accuracy and 99% AUC. Additionally, the time-series analysis revealed that the predictive model based on these clinical features is very robust over time when patients are in the hospital, indicating the strong association of these five clinical features with the progression of treatment as well. Moreover, for different preexisting diseases, this model also demonstrated high predictive power. Finally, the mortality prediction model has been applied to the independent Würzburg cohort, resulting in high prediction accuracy (with above 90% accuracy and 85% AUC) as well, indicating the robustness of the model in different cohorts. In summary, this study has established the mortality prediction model that allowed early classification of COVID-19 patients, not only at admission but also along the treatment timeline, not only cohort-independent but also highly interpretable. This model represents a valuable tool for triaging and optimizing the resources in COVID-19 patients.

10.
Annals of Hematology ; 100(3):843-846, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1408352

ABSTRACT

In total, we identified five Caucasian patients from Wurzburg (Nos. 1-5) and three Asian patients from Wuhan (Nos. 6-8). The majority of the patients were male (n = 5, 63%), and the median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 57 (range 39-83 years). The three patients from Wuhan were infected by COVID-19 in January or February 2020, while the Wurzburg patients were diagnosed in March or April 2020. Due to COVID-19 infection, anti-MM treatment was discontinued in all the patients. Notably, two patients (Nos. 3-4) in Wurzburg showed no COVID-19 symptoms, and the other three patients (Nos. 1, 2, and 5) exhibited only mild symptoms such as fever, cough, and nausea, which did not require an intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Interestingly, approximately 3 weeks after diagnosis, as the patient No. 6 was discharged and the swab was also negative for COVID-19, both COVID-19 IgM and IgG were tested negative in this patient. In four patients from Wurzburg, we also performed COVID-19 antibody test after recovery, and three of them (Nos. 1, 2, and 5) showed positive IgG, while one patient (No. 3) did not develop IgG or IgM against COVID-19. This finding suggested inadequate humoral immune response in MM patients, probably due to secondary immune deficiency caused by the treatments or the disease itself. This observation suggested that it might be a nosocomial infection in this patient. After recovery, two patients from Wurzburg received MM therapy, i.e., lenalidomide maintenance in one patient and DARA-VRCD (daratumumab, bortezomib, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone) in another patient with NDMM.

11.
Pharmacol Res ; 160: 105036, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current diagnosis and medicines approach in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not reflect the heterogeneous characteristics of this disease. This study aims to find a new antiviral combination regimen by investigating the frequency of clinically relevant and objectively identified comorbidities, and the clustering of these clinical syndromes and varying results of treatment with antiviral drugs in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This study recruited 151 severe COVID-19 infection cases diagnosed in our hospital examination and illustrated the clinical potential during a consecutive 25-day medication period. Potential differences in disease severity and clinical characteristics, hematological profile, and current pharmacologic treatments (single agent, double or triple combinations, and the combined antiviral drugs plus Lianhua Qingwen) among comorbidity clusters were explored. RESULTS: Although disease severity was comparable among three clusters, it was markedly different in terms of laboratory test status. Coagulable abnormality was mainly present in cluster 1 and cluster 2. Other indicators were normal, except for a significant increase of neutrophils presented in cluster 2. Patients showed the most complicated haematological results in cluster 3, including severe coagulation abnormalities, leukocytosis, neutrophilic granulocytosis, and lymphopenia. Our results for the first time suggest that a quadruple combination therapy (Ribavirin, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Umifenovir, and Lianhua Qingwen) can be considered as a preferred treatment approach to severe COVID-19 patients. After treatment, abnormal coagulation and leukocyte had markedly improved with a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: This study expands the understanding of the co-occurrence of combination therapy in patients with COVID-19, which provides the probability of developing novel combined therapy. Furthermore, explore clinical trials of variable antivirus treatments based on subgroup analyses or on using subgroups in the selection criteria would be the next step.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis/etiology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 718-726, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304790

ABSTRACT

Most critically ill patients experience malnutrition, resulting in a poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the association of prealbumin (PAB) with the prognosis for severely and critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore factors related to this association. Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from West Campus of Union Hospital in Wuhan from January 29, 2020 to March 31, 2020 were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified into the PAB1 (150-400 mg/L; N = 183) and PAB2 (< 150 mg/L; N = 225) groups. Data collection was performed using the hospital's electronic medical records system. The predictive value of PAB was evaluated by measuring the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Patients were defined as severely or critically ill based on the Guidance for COVID-19 (7th edition) by the National Health Commission of China. During this analysis, 316 patients had severe cases and 65 had critical cases. A reduced PAB level was associated with a higher risk of mortality and a longer hospital stay. The AUROC curve for the prognosis based on the PAB level was 0.93, with sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 77.6%. For severe cases, a lower level of PAB was associated with a higher risk of malnutrition, higher NK cell counts, and lower B lymphocyte counts; these factors were not significant in critical cases. C-reactive protein and nutritional status mediated the association between PAB and prognosis. This retrospective analysis suggests that the PAB level on admission is an indicator of the prognosis for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Prealbumin/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 113888, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056890

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has formed a global pandemic since late 2019. Benefitting from the application experience of Chinese Medicine (CM) for influenza and SARS, CM has been used to save patients at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CM, and compare with Western Medicine (WM) for COVID-19, we conducted a retrospective case series study based on the patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. METHODS: The inclusion and exclusion criteria of data extraction were set for this retrospective study. All patients who were admitted by the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital between January 17th and February 25th 2020 were considered. In addition, patients enrolled met the severe defined by the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. In these cases included in the study, CM or WM treatment was selected according to the wishes of the patients at the beginning of hospitalization. The patients in CM group were treated with Huashi Baidu granule (137 g po, bid) combined with the injections of Xiyanping (100 mg iv, bid), Xuebijing (100 ml iv, bid) and Shenmai (60 ml iv, qd) according to the syndrome of epidemic toxin blocking the lung in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The WM group received antiviral therapy (including abidor capsule 0.2 g po, tid; Lopinavir-Ritonavir tablets, 500 mg po, bid), antibiotics (such as cefoperazone 2 g iv, bid; moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, 0.4 g po, qd) or corticosteroid therapy (such as methylprednisolone succinate sodium 40 mg iv, qd; prednisone, 30 mg po, qd). In addition, patients in both groups received routine supportive treatment, including oxygen inhalation, symptomatic therapy, and/or human intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or serum albumin, and treatment for underlying diseases. The clinical outcomes were evaluated based on changes related with clinical manifestations, computer tomography (CT) scan images, and laboratory examinations before and after the treatment. RESULTS: 55 severe COVID-19 patients, with 23 in CM group and 32 in WM group, were included for analyzed. There was no case of death, being transferred to ICU, or receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in two groups during hospitalization. The median time of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in CM and WM group were 12 days and 15.5 days respectively, the ratio of nucleic acid negative conversion of CM group at different follow-up time points was significantly higher than that of WM group (HR: 2.281, P = 0.018). Further, the chest CT imaging showed more widely lung lesion opacity absorbed in the CM group. The high sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin decreased significantly in the CM group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events in terms of liver function and renal function between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Based on this retrospective analysis from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, CM has better effects in SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, promoting lung lesion opacity absorbed and reducing inflammation in severe COVID-19 patients, which is effective and safe therapy for treating severe COVID-19 and reducing mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
14.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(1): 32-42, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nutrition status of coronavirus disease 2019 patients is unknown. This study evaluates clinical and nutrition characteristics of severely and critically ill patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and investigates the relationship between nutrition risk and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted at West Campus of Union Hospital in Wuhan. Patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by a nucleic acid-positive test and identified as severely or critically ill were enrolled in this study. Clinical data and outcomes information were collected and nutrition risk was assessed using Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS). RESULTS: In total, 413 patients were enrolled in this study, including 346 severely and 67 critically ill patients. Most patients, especially critically ill patients, had significant changes in nutrition-related parameters and inflammatory markers. As for nutrition risk, the critically ill patients had significantly higher proportion of high NRS scores (P < .001), which were correlated with inflammatory and nutrition-related markers. Among 342 patients with NRS score ≥3, only 84 (of 342, 25%) received nutrition support. Critically ill patients and those with higher NRS score had a higher risk of mortality and longer stay in hospital. In logistic regression models, 1-unit increase in NRS score was associated with the risk of mortality increasing by 1.23 times (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.10-4.51; P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Most severely and critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at nutrition risk. The patients with higher nutrition risk have worse outcome and require nutrition therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , China/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , Nutritional Support , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 563781, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000146

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China was a sudden bio-disaster, which may bring a negative impact on the job burnout of health care professionals (HCPs). Objective: We aim to find out the association factors, especially those closely related to this outbreak, of job burnout in Chinese HCPs. Method: The cross-sectional survey about HCPs' job burnout based on a network platform was conducted in high and low infection regions during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. The demographic characteristics, medical-work-related factors, risk of getting infected due to occupational exposure, and family factors were collected by the self-reported questionnaire. The Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) were employed in this study to evaluate the job burnout and coping style, respectively. Furthermore, statistical analysis was done to find out the associated factors of job burnout. Results: We collected 880 complete questionnaires from doctors and nurses from February 9, 2020 to February 11, 2020. In this study, the positive rates of three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) and overall burnout were 9.09, 50.57, 56.59, and 73.98%, respectively. After the statistical analysis, we found that several factors can independently affect the dimensions. Working in the high infection region and negative coping styles can affect all three dimensions at once. More night shift quantity and having symptoms could increase emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, while higher work intensity and senior title could increase emotional exhaustion and reduce personal accomplishment, respectively. Conclusion: The rate of moderate and severe burnout had increased due to the outbreak. More attention should be paid to burnout in HCPs, especially those with negative coping. There were some potential ways to reduce burnout, such as reducing their workload and providing better protection from the virus.

16.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2020: 8853922, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999336

ABSTRACT

The incidence of digestive symptoms may vary depending on doctors' professional backgrounds when they inquired suspected COVID-19 patients in a fever clinic. We sought to understand the characteristics of inquiries about digestive symptoms by doctors in different specialties; therefore, inquiry records of 2 gastroenterologists and 6 nongastroenterologists were reviewed. We compared the difference in inquiry of digestive symptoms (diarrhea, vomit, distension, anorexia, and abdominal pain) between these two groups among identified COVID-19 patients. And we further compared the difference of digestive symptoms between confirmed patients and suspected cases who excluded from COVID-19. Among 495 confirmed COVID-19 cases (254 cases by gastroenterologists and 241 cases by nongastroenterologists), 22.83% patients experienced various digestive symptoms in the gastroenterologists' group, while only 4.47% reported digestive symptoms by nongastroenterologists (p < 0.0001). Additionally, among initially suspected 611 patients who presented with similar respiratory symptoms inquired by gastroenterologists, confirmed cases presented far more frequency of digestive symptoms than excluded cases (22.8% vs. 3.64%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, confirmed patients reported more percentage of watery diarrhea (56% vs. 36%, p < 0.0001) and higher frequent vomit (2.77 ± 0.97 vs. 1.80 ± 0.45 per day, p = 0.041) than excluded cases. We concluded that gastroenterologists could detect a greater proportion of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients during fever clinic inquiries. Moreover, confirmed COVID-19 patients are more likely to have higher severity in digestive symptoms than excluded cases. Therefore, physicians in fever clinic should pay more attention to the triage of gastrointestinal symptoms.

17.
Hepatology ; 73(4): 1509-1520, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. Although it has been reported that some patients with COVID-19 showed elevated liver biochemistries, there are few studies regarding the clinical features and prognosis of these patients. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we collected data on laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, who died or were discharged between February 1, 2020, and February 20, 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations on admission, complications, treatment, and outcome were collected. A total of 482 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 142 (29.5%) patients showed abnormal liver biochemistries on admission, and patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TBIL) accounted for 67.6%, 69.0%, and 16.2%, respectively. Those with abnormal liver biochemistries showed higher percentages of severe cases and comorbidities and were more likely to have dyspnea, chest distress or pain, and increased hemoglobin (Hb) on admission. Higher rates of complications and mortality and worse recovery when discharged were observed in patients with abnormal AST or TBIL. Multivariable regression analysis showed that chest distress or pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.765; P = 0.018), dyspnea (OR, 2.495; P = 0.001), elevated C-reactive protein level (OR, 1.007; P = 0.008), elevated white blood count (OR, 1.139; P = 0.013), and elevated Hb concentration (OR, 1.024; P = 0.001) were independent factors associated with elevated liver biochemistries in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated liver biochemistries were common in patients with COVID-19. Patients with hypoxia or severe inflammation are more likely to experience increased liver biochemistries on admission. Those with abnormal AST or TBIL on admission are more likely to suffer from severe complications and death.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 960, 2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is high among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hence, risk evaluation tools are required to immediately identify high-risk patients upon admission for early intervention. METHODS: A cohort of 220 consecutive patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. To analyze the risk factors of ARDS, data obtained from approximately 70% of the participants were randomly selected and used as training dataset to establish a logistic regression model. Meanwhile, data obtained from the remaining 30% of the participants were used as test dataset to validate the effect of the model. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, D-dimer, procalcitonin, and ferritin levels were included in the risk score system and were assigned a score of 25, 15, 34, 20, and 24, respectively. The cutoff value for the total score was > 35, with a sensitivity of 100.00% and specificity of 81.20%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test were 0.967 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.925-0.989) and 0.437(P Value = 0.437). The model had excellent discrimination and calibration during internal validation. CONCLUSIONS: The novel risk score may be a valuable risk evaluation tool for screening patients with COVID-19 who are at high risk of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 584342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914432

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Liver test abnormalities are common in COVID-19 patients. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors for different liver injury patterns and to evaluate the relationship between liver injury patterns and prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted between January 1st to March 10th, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and followed them up to April 20th, 2020. Information of clinical features of patients was collected for analysis. Results: As a result, a total of 838 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, including 48.8% (409/838) patients with normal liver function and 51.2% (429/838) patients with liver injury were analyzed. Abnormal liver function tests are associated with organ injuries, hypoxia, inflammation, and the use of antiviral drugs. Hepatocellular injury pattern was associated with hypoxia. The mortality of the hepatocellular injury pattern, cholestatic pattern and mixed pattern were 25, 28.2, and 22.3%, respectively, while the death rate was only 6.1% in the patients without liver injury. Multivariate analyses showed that liver injury with cholestatic pattern and mixed pattern were associated with increased mortality risk. Conclusions: Our study confirmed that hepatocellular injury pattern that may be induced by hypoxia was not risk factor for mortality in SARS-COV-2 infection, while liver injury with mixed pattern and cholestatic pattern that might be induced by SARS-CoV-2 directly might be potential risk factors for increased mortality in COVID-19 patients.

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